Extended-Horizon Analysis of Pressure Sensitivities for Leak Detection in Water Distribution Networks: Application to the Barcelona Network

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1 2013 European Control Conference (ECC) July 17-19, 2013, Zürich, Switzerland. Extended-Horizon Analysis of Pressure Sensitivities for Leak Detection in Water Distribution Networks: Application to the Barcelona Network Myrna V. Casillas, Luis E. Garza-Castañón, Vicenç Puig Abstract In this paper, a odel-based leak detection and isolation approach for water distribution networks (WDN), which considers an extended tie horizon analysis of pressure sensitivities is proposed. It differs fro previous works based on pressure sensitivities analysis since the existing approaches were considering tie instant evaluation. This fact akes those approaches very sensitive to deand changes and noise in easureents. A fault isolation approach based on new criterion, known as the angle ethod, is introduced. This criterion is based on evaluating the angle between the residual vector and the coluns of the leak sensitivity atrix. The perforance of the proposed approach is copared with two well established ethods in the literature (the least square optiization and the correlation ethods) when they are applied to the Barcelona WDN. I. INTRODUCTION WATER leaks in networks can cause significant econoic losses in the fluid transportation and an increase on reparation costs, giving as a consequence an extra cost translated to the final consuer. In any water distribution systes (WDS) losses due to leaks are estiated to account up to 30 % of the total aount of extracted water. Such burden cannot be tolerated in a world struggling with satisfying water deands of a growing population. Several works have been published on leak detection for WDN. In the paper fro Colobo et al. [1], a review of transient-based leak detection ethods is offered as a suary of current and past work. A ethod has been proposed in [2], to identify leaks using blind spots based on previous works that uses the analysis of acoustic and vibrations signals [3] and odels of buried pipelines to predict wave velocities [4], aong others. In addition, the detection of pipeline leaks can also be possible using the inverse proble [5] which uses pressure and flow easureents. An LPV odel-based leak detection approach that This work has been partially grant-funded by CICYT SHERECS DPI and CICYT WATMAN DPI of the Spanish Ministry of Education and by i-sense grant FP7-ICT of the European Coission. This work is supported by the Research Chair in Supervision and Advanced Control of Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey and by a CONACYT studentship. Myrna V. Casillas and Luis E. Garza-Castañón are with Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Monterrey, México (e-ail: Vicenç Puig is with Advanced Control Systes (SAC), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Pau Gargallo 5, Barcelona, Spain. considers uncertainty using zonotopes is introduced and tested in a sall water network [6]. In this paper, the leak sensitivity based approach proposed by [7] is iproved by aking an extended-horizon analysis of pressure sensitivities and residuals, and introducing the angle ethod [8] as criteria to locate the leaks. In [8], this ethod was suggested for the first tie and tested in siulation using an acadeic network and assuing that the pressures in all the nodes are easured. In this paper, angle ethod is tested considering only a few sensors as in practice is the case for a real network, which iplies a ore difficult isolation of the leakage area. Moreover, the proposed approach ethod is applied to the Barcelona WDN and copared with two other well established strategies of the literature: the least-square optiization [5] and the correlation ethods [7]. This paper is organized as follows: Section II describes the proposed ethodology. Section III presents the Barcelona WDN considered in the experients. In Section IV, we detail the experiental scenarios while in Section V we copare the results obtained with the different ethodologies. Finally, Section VI concludes this work. A. Introduction II. METHODOLOGY The ain objective of the proposed ethodology is to detect and isolate leaks in a water distribution network using pressure easureents and their estiation using the hydraulic network odel. A leak will be considered as a water flow loss through a defect of a network eleent that is being onitored. The proposed approach assues the existence of a single and continuous leak fro the appearance tie. The leak detection is based on coputing the difference (residual) between the pressure easureents pi ( k ) against their estiation pˆ i ( k ) by eans of the siulation of the hydraulic odel: ( ) ( ) ˆ ( ) 1,, r k = p k p k i = n (1) i i i where n is the nuber of pressure sensors available in the network. These residuals are evaluated against a threshold τ i that is selected to take into account the easureent noise and odel uncertainty. If soe residual violates its threshold (i.e, r > τ ) for a given tie window then, the isolation i i / 2013 EUCA 404

2 process is initiated. The leak isolation is based on coparing the residual vector against the leak sensitivity atrix that contains the effect of each possible leak in each residual. The candidate leaks are those whose effect atches the best in a tie window when copared using soe etric with the observer residual vector. Once the candidate leak has been isolated, an estiation of the leak could even be provided by eans of the residual leak sensitivity. Fig. 1 suarizes graphically the proposed ethodology including the leak detection, isolation and estiation processes. Fig. 1. Diagra of detection, isolation and estiation processes B. Leak sensitivity atrix As discussed above, leak isolation is based on the evaluation of the effect of all possible leaks in the available pressure easureent sensors using a sensitivity analysis. As a result of this analysis the sensitivity atrix [9] is obtained as follows: p1 p1 f = pn pn f S (2) where each eleent s ij of the sensitivity atrix S easures the effect of leak f j in the pressure of sensor pi taking into account that the network has n sensors and deand nodes, therefore, there are possible leaks. It is extreely coplex to calculate S analytically in a real network because the odel is based on a huge set of iplicit non-linear equations. This work proposes instead generating the sensitivity atrix by siulation using increents of pressure and aintaining constant the leakage flow. First, the coputation of the sensitivity atrix needs the construction of the noinal (nonfaulty) operation scenario of the network in a 24-hours horizon, which allows us to obtain the vector p( k ) for the noinal pressure of each node of the network p ( ) 1 k = p ( ) n k p (3) where pi represents the pressure of node i at tie k without the presence of leak and n is the nuber of sensors in the network. Then, leak scenarios are considered in siulation by introducing a leak at a tie in each node of the network. The pressures of the sensors in case of each considered leak scenario are stored in the atrix: f i j where p ( ) f p1 p1 P f = (4) f pn pn k is the pressure of sensor i at tie instant k when a leak is present at node j, is the nuber of nodes in the network (possible leaks) and n is the nuber of sensors in the network. Finally, using vector (3) and atrix (4), the sensitivity atrix (2) for each tie instant of the horizon selected is coputed as follows f ( ) ( ) p1 k p1 p1 k p1 f S ( k ) = (5) f pn ( k ) pn pn ( k ) pn f C. Leak isolation Leak isolation is based on analyzing the residuals (1) along the proposed tie horizon trying to find soe inconsistency between the pressure easureents and their estiated value in order to establish what node is the ost affected and has the highest probability of presenting leakage. In this paper, the angle ethod is proposed. The angle ethod is based on evaluating the angle between the actual residual vector and each colun of the leak sensitivity atrix as follows ( k ) s, j ( k ) ( k ) s ( k ) T r α j = arccos j = 1, r, j Then, according to the selected tie horizon L, we copute the angle ean and locate the leak index using: L 1 α j = α j L k = 1 ( α ) j { } with The node that presents the sallest leak index is the one that is proposed as the leak location. In a previous work [8], it is shown that this ethod outperfors the other ethods existing in the literature. In this paper, this ethod will be tested in a real network with a reduced nuber of sensors (as (6) (7) 405

3 discussed in the introduction) and copared with two other ethods (least square optiization and correlation) that according to [8] perfor quite well. C.1 Least square optiization ethod This ethod works in an opposite way than the angle ethod, i.e. it coputes an inverse optiization proble in order to find an appropriate leak size that explains the pressure easureents present in every node. Then, it perfors an analysis of the iniu error finding in this way the node affected by a leak. This ethod also uses the leak sensitivity atrix, and solves the following optiization proble for each leak candidate L 2 r ( ) s, ( ) (8) J = in k k f j = 1,, f j j j f j k = 1 where f j is the variable that is optiized in order to iniize the error and corresponds to the agnitude of the present leak. Then, the leaky node is found as the one that produces the sallest index (8), i.e., ( J j ) f (9) algoriths proposed in the paper. All the leaks are assued to be located in the nodes of the network. This is a standard assuption in odel based leak detection and isolation literature (see for exaple, [5]). In siulation with Epanet, leaks are introduced by finding the corresponding eitter coefficient that provides the desired leak agnitude in the network, according to the equation: P EC = Q / F exp p where EC is the eitter coefficient, Q is the flow rate, F p is the fluid pressure and P exp is the pressure exponent. Data of node pressures are obtained fro extensive siulations of noral and leak scenarios. The leak sensitivity atrix (2) is coputed for a leak agnitude of lps, that corresponds with the iddle of the range of leak sizes (between 0.7 and 3 liters per second) that are wanted to be located according to the copany. In all the experients perfored, the proposed angle ethod is copared first with the least square optiization ethod and then with the correlation ethod. In all the cases, the efficiency achieved by each ethod is evaluated and copared with the one achieved when all the network pressures are fully accessible. As one can see, this ethod allows obtaining ore inforation about the leak since it provides the leak size that best fit the observed pressure data. C.2 Correlation ethod The correlation ethod is based on correlating the current residual vector with each colun of the leak sensitivity atrix n ( r 1 i ri )( sij sij i= ) n n 1( ri ri ) 1( sij sij i= i= ) (10) c = j = 1 jk 2 2 Then, looking at the axiu correlation along the tie horizon, we can find the leaky node. We include the correlation ethod in this work because it was already applied to the Barcelona DWN in [9]. This will allow a coparison against the ethod proposed in this paper. III. CASE STUDY The case study considered in this paper is based on a District Metering Area (DMA) of the Barcelona WDN. This network is located in Nova Icaria area in Barcelona, Spain. It is coposed of 3320 nodes, where 1900 are deand nodes and the rest is used to siulate street or junction nodes. In our case, leaks for the total of 3320 nodes are considered. Using the ethod presented in [11] an optial sensor placeent of 6 sensors, taking budget restrictions of the Barcelona water copany, were installed (see Fig. 2). Matlab and Epanet were cobined to siulate the leaks and to obtain and analyze the network data using the Fig. 2 Optial sensor placeent of 6 sensors as validated by the water copany for the Nova Icaria network. IV. RESULTS In order to test the perforance of the considered ethods, several scenarios have been proposed in this paper. Due to space liitations, this section shows the results obtained when considering only one of the leaky nodes, subject to different conditions corresponding to the scenarios described below and for the ethods considered in this paper. In the figures showing leak isolation results, the noenclature presented in Fig. 3 will be used. Fig. 3 Noenclature For The Leak Isolation Results 406

4 A. Scenarios The first scenario involves the presence of a leak of lps that corresponds to the size used for coputing the leak sensitivity atrix (2). In that case, the three ethods find exactly the node in which the leak is present. Fig. 4 presents the location of this leak without noise applying the angle ethod. It can be noticed that the exact location of the leaky node is obtained. The second scenario involves the presence of a leak of the sae size by taking also into account noise in the easureents and in the deands with a agnitude between 1 and 5%. In this case, the ethod efficiency is reduced as it can be seen in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. The third scenario corresponds to the case the leak size is different fro the one (i.e. lps) used to copute the leak sensitivity atrix and noise is added. Fig. 7, Fig. 8 and Fig. 9. show the behavior of each ethod in the case of a 6.3 lps leak and when rando noise is added. Fig. 6. Isolation of a noinal leak of lps in presence of rando noise, when applying optiization ethod. The leakage node was located eters farther than the real leak. Fig. 4. Location of a noinal leak of lps without noise applying the angle ethod. In that case the exact correct location of the leak node is guaranteed. Fig. 7. Leak isolation of a no noinal leak of 6.3 lps agnitude in case of rando noise using the angle ethod, the leakage node was located eters fro the real leak. Fig. 8. Leak isolation of a no noinal leak of 6.3 lps agnitude using the optiization ethod. The presence of noise causes that the leakage node is found at a of eters fro the real leak node. Fig. 5. Location of a noinal leak of lps in presence of noise and when applying the angle ethod. The leak node is found eters farther than the real leakage node. 407

5 Fig. 9. Leak isolation of a no noinal leak of a 6.3 lps agnitude in case of rando noise using the correlation ethod, the leakage node was located eters fro the real leak. Another iportant case is when a leak begins during the process of siulation in a given point of the tie horizon. Such a situation is shown in Fig. 10 where the pressure and the deand change when a leak appears at the hour 8. As one can see, the difficulty is that when the leak appears at a given instant of the tie horizon, it ay be difficult to discriinate between easureent noise and a significant variation, i.e. the very sall pressure change can lead to soe confusion in the detection process. We have noticed that in all the cases the angle ethod is ore precise perforing the leak detection. leak was tested, we found that the angle ethod is able to find the exact leakage node with an efficiency of 80.06% of the cases, while alost 88% of possible leaks are located within a lower than to 2 eters fro the real leak. According to the results of this test, we can say that 266 of the 3220 nodes are non-isolable in the network. The results show that the angle ethod is able to detect and isolate single leaks in a real network even in the worst case with a axiu of approxiately 700 eters fro the exact leak location (see Table I). However, it is rearkable to note that the ean for each experient is close to 100 eters in presence of rando noise. This is an iportant result since it eans that there is an iproveent in the leak location precision with respect to the previous results [9]. Another iportant result is that even when the nuber of sensors affects the behavior of the ethod, the efficiency when the network has only 6 sensors was not too uch affected. This eans that we ay reduce significantly the instruentation of the network without affecting severally the efficiency of the leak location. Table I EFFICIENCY IN THE RANDOM LEAK LOCATION WITH THE ANGLE METHOD Leak size (lps) Maxiu Mean Distance between ranges* (%) (Noinal) Rando Noise No No No (Noinal) No Yes Yes Yes Yes *Ranges are: 3 for noinal leak without noise, 50 for non-noinal leak without noise, 100 for leak with noise. Fig. 10. Behavior of the deand and the pressure in case of a single leak appearing at the 8th hour in the tie horizon. It shows that the pressure varies only slightly and that the noise ay affects the detection. V. COMPARATIVE RESULTS In the previous section, we have seen exaples of results for different types of scenarios. Here, we show a brief suary of the results obtained in each experient perfored and a result discussion is provided. In the following, we find the tables that su up the efficiency for each ethod in the considered experients. A. Angle ethod By coputing an isolability test in which every possible B. Optiization ethod Siilarly to the angle ethod, an isolability test was perfored for the optiization ethod. Fro this analysis, the efficiency of finding the exact node with optiization ethod is 74.25%, while the efficiency of finding a node within a lower than 2 eters is 84.78%. In Table II, we can see the efficiency of the optiization ethod for different leak sizes and with or without noise. We have to highlight that even when the optiization ethod behavior is not as good as the angle ethod, it has the advantage that it provides an approxiate leak agnitude and a degree fitting of the candidate leak with easured data that can be exploited as an extra inforation in order to iprove the leak detection and isolation process. 408

6 Table II EFFICIENCY IN THE RANDOM LEAK LOCATION WITH THE OPTIMIZATION METHOD Leak size (lps) Maxiu Mean Distance between ranges* (%) (Noinal) Rando Noise No No No (Noinal) No Yes Yes Yes Yes *Ranges are: 3 for noinal leak without noise, 50 for non-noinal leak without noise, 100 for leak with noise. C. Correlation ethod Finally, the results obtained with the angle and least square optiization ethods are copared against the behavior with the correlation ethod already applied to this network in [9]. We perfored the sae experients with and without noise using the correlation ethod. Using the isolability test, we found that the correlation ethod locates with an efficiency of alost 80% in finding the exact leak and an efficiency of 87% within a lower than 2 eters fro the real leak, although with this approach there are 408 nonisolable leaks. Results obtained with the exhaustive tests are shown in Table III. As it can be seen, both the ean and the between expected ranges reach higher values when using the correlation ethod than with the two other leakage isolation strategies. VI. CONCLUSION This paper presents the application of angle ethod for leak isolation and the coparison with two other well established ethodologies to the case of a real water network where the nuber of pressure easureents is very sall in coparison with the nuber of nodes in the network. The results obtained deonstrate that it is possible to iprove the leak detection and isolation in the Nova Icaria network by applying the angle ethod that we proposed instead of the correlation ethod already applied in [11]. Results show that the angle ethod increases the capability of detecting leaks in a great nuber of cases. Moreover achieved s between the estiation of the leak position and its real location are reduced by 200 eters in the presence of noise. As future work, we would like to perfor an iproved deand calibration and a better sensor placeent based on the sae principle as our leak isolation ethod in order to investigate if there exist a relation between sensor location and leak isolation approaches. Table III EFFICIENCY IN THE RANDOM LEAK LOCATION WITH THE CORRELATION METHOD Leak size (lps) (Noinal) Maxiu Mean Distance between ranges* (%) Rando noise No No No No (Noinal) Yes Yes Yes Yes *Ranges are: 3 for noinal leak without noise, 50 for non-noinal leak without noise, 100 for leak with noise. REFERENCES [1] A. Colobo, P. Lee and B. Karney, A selective literature review of transient-based leak detection ethod, Journal of Hydro-environent Research 2 (2009), p [2] J. Yang, Y. Wen, P. Li. Leak location using blind syste identification in water distribution pipeline, Journal of Sound and Vibration 310 (2008), p [3] H.V. Fuchs, R. Riehle. Ten years of experience with leak detection by acoustic signal analysis, Applied Acoustics, 33 (1991), p [4] J.M. Muggleton, M.J. Brennan, R.J. Pinnington. Wavenuber prediction of waves in buried pipes for water leak detection, Journal of Sound and Vibration 249 (5) (2002), p [5] S. Pudar and J. Ligget. Leaks in Pipe Networks, Journal of Hydraulics Engineering, 118 (7), (1992), p [6] J. Blesa, V. Puig, J. Saludes, J. Vento. Leak Detection, Isolation and Estiation in Pressurized Water Pipe Networks Using LPV Models and Zonotopes, IFAC Syposiu in Nonlinear Control Systes, Volue # 1, (2010), p [7] Ra. Pérez, V. Puig, J. Pascual, J. Quevedo, E. Landeros, A. Peralta. Leakage Isolation using Pressure Sensitivity Analysis in Water Distribution Networks: Application to the Barcelona case study, 12th IFAC Syposiu on Large-Scale Systes: Theory and Applications (2010), p [8] M. V. Casillas, L. E. Garza and V. Puig, Extended-Horizon Analysis of Pressure Sensitivities for Leak Detection in Water Distribution Networks, 8 th IFAC Syposiu on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety of Technical Precesses, Safeprocess 2012, Mexico, p [9] R. Pérez, J. Quevedo, V. Puig, F. Nejjari, M.A. Cugueró, G. Sanz and J.M. Mirats, Leakage Isolation in Water Distribution Networks: a Coparative Study of Two Methodologies on a Real Case Study, 19 th Mediterranean Conference on Control Autoation 2011, Greece, p [10] EPANET Prograer's Toolkit user s anual. [11] Pérez, R., Puig, V., Pascual, J., Peralta, A., Landeros, E. and Jordanas, Ll. (2009b) Pressure sensor distribution for leak detection in Barcelona water distribution network. Water Science & Technology, Vol 9 No 6 p

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