Adaptive Modulation and Coding for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Radio Channel


 Eric Phillips
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1 Recent Advances in Counications Adaptive odulation and Coding for Unanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Radio Channel Airhossein Fereidountabar,Gian Carlo Cardarilli, Rocco Fazzolari,Luca Di Nunzio Abstract In wireless radio channels, a signal fro the transitter ay arrive at the receiver antenna through several different paths. The transitted electroagnetic wave ay be reflected, diffracted, and scattered by surrounding buildings and the objects in the way of radio counications, or by troposphere and ionosphere in the case of longdistance radio counications. As a result, the signal picked up by the receiver antenna is a coposite signal consisting of these ultipath signals. Soeties a lineofsight (LOS) signal ay exist. The ultipath signals arrive at the receiver at slightly different delays and have different aplitudes. The different delays translate to different phases. Transission of the signals can done by different odulations related to the application also coding for correcting errors during the transission, applying soe coding techniques are coon. The goal of this paper is designing an adaptive radio link for Unanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) when transitter uses PSK faily odulation with different Space Tie Block Code (STBC) soehow the transitted signal has the best quality for detection in the receiver. Keywords Coding, odulation, PSK, STBC I.INTRODUCTION Variations in the property of the propagation ediu, such as the occurrence of rain or snow, also can cause fading. However, this type of fading is longter fading, which we will not consider here. ultipath also causes inter sybol interference for digital signals. For vehicular radio channels, there is also the Doppler frequency shift. Doppler shift causes carrier frequency drift and signal bandwidth spread. All these atters cause degradation in perforance of odulation schees in coparison with that in AWGN channels. In this paper we study perforances of odulation schees in fading channels. After that we first study flatfadingchannel perforances of PSK, odulation schee. Now an introduction to fading is described. Slow fading: In a slow fading channel, the channel ipulse response changes at a uch slower rate than the sybol rate. The channel coherence tie is uch greater than the sybol duration, or equivalently, the Doppler spreading is uch saller than the signal bandwidth. Fast fading: If the channel ipulse response changes rapidly within a signal sybol duration, the channel is classified as a fast fading channel, otherwise it is classified as a slow fading channel. The fast change of the channel ipulse response is caused by the otion, or equivalently, the Doppler spreading. Quantitatively when the channel coherence tie is saller than the sybol duration, or equivalent, the Doppler spreading is greater than the signal bandwidth, a signal undergoes fast fading. Flat fading: Flat fading is also called Frequency nonselective fading. If a wireless channel has a constant gain and linear phase response over a bandwidth which is greater than the signal bandwidth, then the signal will undergo flat or frequency nonselective fading [][]. This type of fading is historically the ost coon fading odel used in the literature. In flat fading, the ultipath structure is such that the spectral characteristics of the transitted signal is preserved at the receiver. However, the strength of the signal changes with tie, due to the variation of the gain of the channel caused by ultipath [3] [4][5]. Frequency selective fading: If the channel has a constant gain and a linear phase response over a bandwidth which is saller than the signal bandwidth, then the signal undergoes frequency selective fading. This is caused by such a ultipath structure that the received signal contains ultiple versions of the transitted signal with different attenuations and tie delays. Thus the received signal is unclear. Viewed in the frequency doain, soe frequency coponents have greater gains than others. Frequency selective fading channels are uch ore difficult to odel than flat fading channels. Each ultipath signal ust be odeled and the channel is considered as a linear filter. odels are usually developed based on wideband easureent. ost coon coding technique for error correction in flat fading channels is Alaouti Coding [5].This paper purpose is showing that in soe situations(depend to SNR) Orthogonal and Quasi Orthogonal Space Tie Block Codes(OSTBC and QOSTBC) have better perforance[6] []. In telecounications technical differentiation relates to a ethod for iproving the reliable transission of a signal using two or ore counication channels with different characteristics. The segregation plays an iportant role in cobating interference thus avoiding errors. The strong fluctuation of signal strength in adverse environents can reach 3 db and has even lead to the interruption of counication when is copared to received signal levels fall too low. The diversity technique is based on the fact that individual channels are characterized by different levels of interference. ultiple copy of the sae signal can be transitted fro the transitter and then be taken and attached to the receiver. Alternatively error detection code (forward error corrector) can be added so that different parts of the essage to be transferred to different channels. It is iportant to ensure that different copies of the original signal are independent, i.e. are affected differently by the channel. The advantage of this concept is easily understood if you consider the siple case of having two versions of the signal arriving at the receiver. This idea, although very siple in understanding has been highly effective. For this reason, any different approaches have been developed differentiation. Indicatively [4][7]: spatial diversity frequency diversity tie diversity ISBN:
2 Recent Advances in Counications polarization diversity ultiuser diversity The spatial diversity, also called Antenna Diversity is a siple, efficient and widely used technique applied to reduce the negative effects of ultipath fading environents fro any scatterers. The diversification of space is to use ultiple antennas transitting and / or receiving stations, which are located soe distance fro each other that the different versions of the signal arriving at each of the receive antennas to be subject to different fading. The distance between the antennas ust be such as to ensure that the different versions of the signal are uncorrelated, i.e. affected by uncorrelated anner of their arrival fro the channel. Typically, this distance should be soeties greater than the signal wavelength [6].Originally developed diversity reception techniques using ultiple antennas at the receiver at distances sufficient to obtain uncorrelated signals. Systes operating with a transitting antenna and ultiple receive antennas as entioned previously called SIO (Single Input ultiple Output) systes. The ain disadvantage of diversity reception is that it akes the receivers ore coplex and ore expensive. For this reason, aking the diversity ainly applied to the base stations to iprove the perforance of the systes. The receiving stations serving hundreds or thousands of terinals, and so it is econoical to add equipent to base stations to achieve diversity. Another reason why aking diversity was not extended to the terinals is the lack of space [8].With these data, the technical diversity transission eerges as an interesting alternative. The technical diversity eission developed ore recently and consists in having ultiple antennas transitting at distances sufficient to transit signals to undergo uncorrelated fading on the channel. The diversification of transission has the advantage that by siply adding soe transitting antennas at the base station ensures diversity gain for all users. Furtherore, it has been shown that the sae antenna can be used for differentiation of transission at the downlink, i.e. the counication base station to the terinals, and for diversity reception in the uplink, naely the counication terinal to the base station. With the differentiation tie the sae data is transitted ultiple ties resulting errors resulting diffuse in tie [9][]. Finally, techniques have been developed space diversity transitterreceiver, using ultiple transitting antennas and ultiple receiving antennas siultaneously. These are the socalled IO (ultiple Input  ultiple Output) systes have the advantage of providing even greater diversity gain using the appropriate echanis aking. Various techniques have been proposed for these transission systes, the technical spacetie coding and spatial ultiplexing techniques are essential [5][]. A typical exaple of the latter case is the diversification of polarization (polarization diversity). It is known that soe of the characteristics transitted in wireless counications are different for waves with horizontal and vertical polarization waves. ultiple reflections between the transitter and the receiver lead to a change in polarization of radio waves, while conveying soe of the energy of the transitted signal in orthogonal polarized wave. Because of this characteristic of ultichannel radio vertical / horizontal polarized transitted signals are also horizontal / vertical coponents. A very iportant paraeter that describes the polarization diversity syste is the correlation coefficient between the obtained spectra of the signals. Since the diversity bias requires use of a dualpolarized antenna only the final state necessarily leads to certain correlation signals. But studies show that the systes of ultiple antennas can achieve a significant diversity gain [9][][3].There are various diversity reception techniques used in these systes and will be presented below. A. ethod of axial ratio (axiu Ratio Cobining  RC) We consider a syste which takes copies of the transitted signal through different routes. Assuing that r is the th received signal which is deterined as r = a s + n where follows: n is the saple of AWGN. A axiu Likelihood (L) decoder cobines the signals are transitted in order to find the signal that is ost likely to have been transitted. Consider a phase detection where the receiver knows the channel gain a.once the noise saples are independent Gaussian rando variables, the received signal is also independent Gaussian rando variable for a given channel gain and transitted signal. For this reason, the conditional probability density function of the received signal is [4] [7][4]: å r sa = (,,...,,,,..., ) = exp{ } N ( pn ) f r r r s a a a where N / is the square of the standard deviation of the real and iaginary part of the coplex variable Gaussian noise. To axiize this show the receiver ust find the ost suitable transitted signal which iniizes the average å r  sa.we note that no diversity, =, = the function that iniizes the above condition is r  s a or r  s a. This is equivalent to calculate the closest aong all the possible transitted signals. For a constellation with equal energy sybols we have, for exaple PSK, resulting: æ sˆ = a r g i n ç å r  s a è = æ = a r g i n ç  s å a r  å a r è = = æ = a r g i n a r  s ç å è = For this reason, the L decoding is siilar to the syste with no differentiation if instead of the quantity ra use an average of the received signals å a r.suarizing the RC using a filter, which is = the optial receiver for each of the received signals and () () ISBN:
3 Recent Advances in Counications using the quantityw = a cobines the outputs of the filters. This process is known as RC, is effective but coplicated as it requires inforation of all aspects of fading channels. B. Select of better signal (Selection cobining) The receiver selects the best received signal for deodulation and sensed, in accordance with certain criteria. These criteria relate to the total received signal power, the relationship is: ( ) r = ð r, r,..., r (3) Whereðrepresents the selection of the signal. In practice, however, these figures are difficult to control because its control iplies the existence of a echanis of assessing these paraeters in each antenna. A variation of this ethod is the existence of a switch, which connects one of the antennas to the receiving syste. Where the received signal falls below a certain threshold, the switch selects another antenna for continuing the reception. C. Cuulative Shooting with Weight Coefficients (Gain cobining) With this ethod, the signal is used by the receiver is derived as a linear cobination of the received signals. r = å a r (4) = D. ethod of Equal Weight Coefficients (Equal Gain Cobining) In the ethod of equal weight coefficients or siple aggregate aking (equal gain cobining) the coefficients are chosen so that the signals fro the antennas are in phase and added. Although it is less suitable, this ethod with inphase detection is often an attractive solution as it does not require an estiate of the aplitude and therefore gives results less coplex than the optiu RC. However, this ethod liited in practice when we refer to PSK signals. Indeed, for signals with unequal energy sybols such as QA necessarily to estiate the width of the channel and therefore in such configurations ust be used RC for best perforance [][3]. II. SYSTE ARCHITECTURES Depending on the nuber of antennas that are on the show but also in aking a data transission syste, the syste is characterized as a syste of SISO, SIO, ISO and IO.SISO systes are less coplex than a IO in these systes there is a transitting antenna and one receiving antenna. This akes it easier to predict the behavior of systes as the paraeters to be taken into account is less than in IO in which interactions are nuerous and cannot be deterined without detailed studies. Therefore the next section will be described in the siplest case IO syste with Tx = Rx =. A. Space Tie Coding (STBC) i i The spacetie coding is widely used technique in wireless counications for transitting different copies of inforation fro ultiple antennas and the use of different versions of the sae inforation to the receiver in such a way as to iprove the syste perforance. The fact that the transitted signal propagates in fading environents and theral noise has the effect of altering the original inforation and any copies of this inforation, they arrive at the receiver, to be ore accurate than others. The abundance of such signal coponents arriving at the receiver enables to exploit one or ore copies of the original signal for accurate decoding of the signal. The spacetie coding basically cobines (cobining) all copies of the original signal, obtained in the ost appropriate anner in order to recover fro the the best possible inforation. The spacetie coding is usually denoted by a sybol table. Each series represents a tie (tieslot), in which the transitted sybol, and each colun the nuber of transitting antennas which send sybols for tie [, T]. The block of sybols is the set of sybols that are transitted fro all the antennas the period T. Each odulated sybol sij denotes the sybol sent at tie i fro antenna j. For exaple, the eleent of the second row and third colun of the atrix, s 3,is the sybol transitted fro the third antenna to the second tie duration of the block[]. tie slots transit antennas æ s K sn T ç ç O ç st s è L TnT The sybol transission rate depends on the specific spacetie coding. We consider that a configuration is used with data and transitted constellation different sybols during a block. This eans that during a block entering the encoder K bits, which are assigned into sybols. Rate of the code, i.e. the average nuber of sybols transitted in the duration of a block is defined as transission. Consider a IO transission syste transitting antennas and receiving antennas. The transitter antennas siultaneously transitting sybols S ij (5) fro the atrix below (transission atrix), where each colun corresponds to the transitted sybols fro all the transitting antennas [7][9]. æ s K s n ç s = O for i =,, ¼ ç s s è L n and j =,, ¼n With assuption that the sybols in the atrix are independent and are selected fro a constellation in data transission, depending on the configuration selected. (6) ISBN:
4 Recent Advances in Counications Y æ y K y N = ç O ç y y è L n (9) Fig.IO transission These sybols are passed through a ultipath fading channel, which is quasistationary i.e. varied, but slowly enough to be regarded constant during at least T oents required for transission of all the coluns of the atrix unit. The following table gives the factors for each signal ultiplied table transission, when crossing the channel. æ h K h N ç H = O ç h h è L n The point is the interittency factor (fading coefficient) between the transitting antenna and the receiving antenna j is given by the relationship: hij = hij e j where hij and j the aplitude and phase of the coplex gain of the channel, respectively. The data in the atrix h should are independent. This ij independence is ensured by placing the antenna at sufficient distance between the. Statistical odels for fading channels entioned above can be applied to profits h the IO channel. For exaple, ij in a channel with uncorrelated Rayleigh fading each eleent of a channel will be an independent and identical distributed (independent and identical distributed  iid) coplex Gaussian variable, while the width of h ij distribution will follow Rayleigh. The counication syste is called openloop (openloop systes), when the receiver has full inforation of the channel (Channel State Inforation( CSI), while the transitter has no inforation on his condition. The receiver that knows the coefficients h panel of the channel at any tie and ay use the in ij decoding and deodulation and sensed. By contrast, in closed loop systes (closedloop systes), the receiver sends back soe inforation at the transitter for channel through a feedback channel (feedback channel). This inforation is used by the transitter to iprove syste perforance. By doing this, of course, increases the coplexity of the telecounications syste. The systes studied in this work are open loop[3][]. Based on the above, the equation describing the transission in IO syste are: (7) Y = H S + N (8) Where the atrix includes the baseband coplex signal received by the receiving antennas in tie: The axiu value that can get the transission rate of the code is the unit (full rate). Generally the higher the transission rate, the saller the gain diversity, so chosen depending on the application, the appropriate code. The only code that achieves axiu diversity gain with siultaneous rate equal to the unit belongs to the class of orthogonal codes and presented extensively then. The spacetie codes are divided into two ajor categories: (Orthogonal Space Tie Block Codes  OSTBCs) (QuasiOrthogonal Space Tie Block Codes  QOSTBCs) In this section, OSTBCs is described. B. Orthogonal SpaceTie Codes A rectangular spacetie code is a linear code that has the following property: N H n n= S S = å s I () Where the identity atrix and the index denote the Heritian coplex inverse. The basic property of OSTBCs is that any two coluns of the atrix between the transceiver is rectangular. This eans that the sequences of signals transitted fro any two antennas are orthogonal. The orthogonality property of the coluns is one that gives the great advantage of orthogonal spacetie codes, which is the ability of siple linear decoding at the receiver with the axiu likelihood criterion (axiu Likelihood criterionl). Thus, each sybol is decoded separately at the receiver using only linear processes. To achieve linear decoding, the receiver is necessary to have full knowledge of the channel, which reains constant for the duration of a block. Another advantage is that the OSTBCs achieve axiu diversity gain, which for transitting antennas and receiving antennas in Rayleigh fading environents has proven to be equal to N.However, OSTBCs cannot get axiu diversity gain and axiu transission rate together with the sole exception of the code of Alaouti (Alaouti code). With entries ± s. Real OSTBCs that provide axiu i j diversity gain, axiu code rate and L decoding are siple for n =, 4 and 8 antennas. Generalized real OSTBCs: The transission atrix is a table x with real inputs, ± s. Generalized real OSTBCs that provide i j axiu diversity gain, axiu code rate and L decoding are siple for any nuber of transitting antennas. The Alaouti code for two antennas and ISBN:
5 Recent Advances in Counications presented in detail in the next section. Generalized Coplex OSTBCs: It orthogonal codes whose transission atrix is an orthogonal atrix with coplexvalued inputs ±, ± s j,, i j i j si j ±s i j ± s j. Generalized Coplex OSTBCs that provide axiu diversity gain, axiu code rate and siple L decoding does not exist. C. Alaouti SpaceTie Block Code Assue a telecounications syste with two transitting and one receiving antenna. Two signals are eitted siultaneously fro both antennas at a given tie and encoded in spacetie, as shown below: Table.Transission of sybols in Alaouti STBC antenna Tie t s s Tiing (t + T)  s s The block sybols take two oents. The first tie eitted the odulated sybols s and s and second sybols  and s conjugate of a coplex nuber. s, Where the "" denotes the It is considered that the channel at tie t is defined fading with h ( t ) for the first antenna and h ( ) t for the second antenna. Assue the fading is constant during two consecutive sybols, and the duration of a sybol is obtained: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) h t = h t + T = h = a e h t = h t + T = h = a e jq The signals received at the tie points t and (t+t) are: ( ) ( ) r = r t = h s + h s + n jq r = r t + T =  h s + h s + n () () With n and n sybolized the noise at the receiver as coplex rando variable. Then create the following signals to the linear receiver (cobiner) and sent to the axiu likelihood detector (axiu likelihood detector): s% = h r + h r s% = h r  h r Substituting the relations for r and r finally obtained: (3) Fig the transission syste with coding Alaouti spacetie codes with two transitting antennas and one receiving antenna. D. The Alaouti Codes Schee for x In soe applications, it is desirable greater diversity gain is possible application of the Alaouti code for two transitting antennas and receive antennas, thus ensuring diversity gain x. Below is the case of the x syste, which generalizes easily to x. Define tables H and R: H R æ h h = ç h h 3 è æ r r = ç r r3 è (5) The eleent of the first row and the second colun is the interittency factor of the channel between the first transitting antenna and the second receiving antenna. The table represents the received by the two antennas signals during the two oents which is the period of the block sybols. The lines concerning the ties and the coluns receiving antennas. Thus, the sybol of the second row and first colun is the received sybol fro the first antenna to the second tie. The atrix of transission is sae as the case x, i.e.: æ s s S = ç è s s Finally, apply the received signals: ro = h s + h s + n r =  h s + h s + n o r = h s + h s + n 3 r3 =  h s + h s + n 3 3 (6) (7) s% = ( a + a ) s + h n + h n s% = ( a + a ) s  h n + h n (4) n,,, o n n n is coplexvalued rando variables Where 3 representing receiver noise and interference. The linear ISBN:
6 Recent Advances in Counications receiver generates the following signals, which are then sent to the axiu likelihood detector: sˆ = h r + h r + h r + h r o o o 3 3 sˆ = h r  h r + h r  h r 3 3 Substituting r and r in the above relations follows: sˆ = ( a + a + a + a ) s + h n + h n + h n + h n o sˆ = ( a + a + a + a ) s  h n + h n  h n + h n (8) (9) These signals are easily detected by the receiver axiu likelihood, and the syste perforance x. This is shown below where given in detail the results of siulations. III. RECEIVERS IN IO SYSTES In ost systes the coplexity IO transitter in ters of signal processing is low, and the bulk of the signal processing is perfored at the receiver. The receptors are classified into the following two ain categories: A. Receivers axiu Likelihood (axiu Likelihood Detector  L) The axiu likelihood receivers provide better syste perforance (axiu diversity gain and better error probability curve), but using the ost sophisticated detection algorith (detection). The receiver calculates the axiu likelihood received signal for each of the eleents of the odulation constellation that ay be transitted, knowing the channel and without taking into account the effect of noise. Then copare each received signal with each of the easured signals and calculate their distances. Then, deciding that the eleent of the constellation leading to the shortest distance is the signal that has been transitted. The ain disadvantage of axiu likelihood receiver is the coputational coplexity, which grows prohibitively for configurations with large constellation sybols. B. ultiple Receive Antennas Alaouti STBC can be used in IO counications. It benefits fro additional diversity and array gain due to the presence of ultiple receive antennas. However, it does not use IO ultiplexing capabilities. Hence it is suboptial as it does not achieve the highest possible throughput. The treatent with ultiple receive antennas is very siilar to the treatent with a single receive antenna except that we now anipulate vectors. The Alaouti STBC has full rate and full diversity. Only for two transit antenna can a space tie block code achieve both properties (except for real valued constellations). STBC designs for ore than two transit antennas can achieve (a) full rate but not full diversity or (b) full diversity but not full rate. Alaouti STBC transission is equivalent to a SISO channel with SNR equal to: P SN R = ( h ) + h () s n Where p total energy is transitted fro all antennas and s is noise power. n The transission rate is equal to four bits per transission. Fro the slopes of the curves at high SNR, the diversity gain of the Alaouti STBC for a ISO is equal to two while the diversity gain of the Alaouti STBC for a IO syste is equal to four and outage probability is lower for the IO. C. STBC for ore than Two Transit Antennas The code rate of an STBC is the nuber of sybols transitted on average over a block. If the rate is equal to, then the STBC has full rate. The data to be transitted is encoded, using the sae encoder, into ultiple codewords, or blocks, of sae duration. ultiple copies of the sae block are transitted in space and in tie. The STBC spreads over a nuber of T block transissions and over all transit antennas. Hence, decoding is based jointly on T blocks at the receiver. The ain assuptions associated with STBC transission are as follows. Slow fading channel Channel is constant over the duration of the STBC (transission of sybol block). Unlike Alaouti STBC, the power is not always equally distributed across the transit antennas (unequal power allocation ight be necessary to guarantee orthogonality of the STBC). D. Orthogonal and Quasiorthogonal Designs For ore than two transit antennas, two classes of STBC codes can be distinguished: The class of orthogonal STBC and the class of quasiorthogonal STBC. Orthogonal STBC: The lines of the STBC atrix are orthogonal. The advantage of orthogonal STBC are: (a) they have full diversity and (b) the optial receiver is very siple as it is a siple atched filtering. The disadvantage is that those codes do not achieve full rate, with noticeable exception of the Alaouti STBC for two transit antennas (as well as real valued constellations). Quasiorthogonal STBC: The lines of the STBC atrix are not orthogonal. The orthogonality is sacrificed for rates that are higher than the orthogonal counterpart. However, the optial receiver is ore coplex (L receiver in general). E. Coparison between Orthogonal STBC and Quasiorthogonal STBC The sybol error rate (SER) at the output of the receiver as a function of the SNR for the orthogonal STBC and that of the quasiorthogonal STBC, assuing that a QPSK constellation is transitted over an i.i.d. coplex Gaussian (Rayleigh) fading channels. The SER for a SISO channel is ISBN:
7 Recent Advances in Counications shown as a reference. QOSTBC has a worse SER than OSTBC. For a fixed input constellation, the SER of QOSTBC is degraded due to the interstrea interference (or nonorthogonality of the QOSTBC). However, the OSTBC shown has half the rate of the QOSTBC. IV. SIULATION RESULTS In this part, the siulation results are shown. The site (ground station) consist of soe fixed objects like buildings and scaterrers around the receiver antenna. The nuber and location of the scaterrers are selected randoly soehow the site be siilar to the reality. The siulation has done by ATLAB. The odulation is ary PSK. It is clear for soe aounts of SNR, QOSTBC and OSTBC have better perforance than Alaouti. Therefore with attention to the fig.3, depends on average SNR it is possible to change the coding ethod also factor () of the odulation for better Outage probability. For this purpose just needs that receiver with easureent of the SNR, sends a essage to the UAV for changing odulation and coding schee. a d Fig 3. Outage probability of OSTBC, QOSTBC Alaouti and without coding (SISO) for a(r=),b(r=3),c(r=4) and d(r=5) Rayleigh slow fading channel. V.CONCLUSION The ost popular STBC is the Alaouti STBC. It is designed for a twotransit antenna syste. It is the only STBC code that achieves both full rate and full diversity (except for real constellation based STBC). Alaouti STBC iniizes the outage probability for an i.i.d. transission. For coplex constellations and ore than two transit antennas, no STBC can be designed that achieve both full diversity and full rate. This coding ethod is suggested for error correction in any counication links with ultipath fading [5].In this paper is showed that for soe aounts of SNR,OSTBC and QOSTBC have lower outage probability and with cobination with PSK as an adaptive ethod, a radio link for flat fading has better perforance. REFERENCES b c [] J.. Torrence, L. Hanzo, Upper bound perforance of adaptive odulation in a slow Rayleigh fading channel, IEEE Electronics Letters, Vol. 3, April 996. [] J. Pons, J. Dunlop, Bit Error Rate Link Adaptation for GS, The Ninth IEEE International Syposiu on Personal, Indoor and obile Radio Counications, 998, Volue: 3, Sep 998, Page(s): vol.3. [3] P. Bender, et al, CDA/HDR: A Bandwidth Efficient High Speed Wireless Data Service for Noadic Users, Counications agazine, IEEE, Vol. 38, No. 7, July, pgs [4] Andrea J. Goldsith, Capacity of Downlink Fading Channels with Variable Rate and Power IEEE transactions on vehicular technology, vol,4 no.3 Aug 997. [5] Chee Wei Tan; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ, USA; ultiuser detection of Alaouti signals, Counications, IEEE Transactions on (Volue:57, Issue: 7 ), Page(s):8 89, July 9. ISBN:
8 Recent Advances in Counications [6] C Evic and et.al strategic and technology challenge for wireless counications beyond 3G journal of counications and networks vol,4 no.4 Dec. 3 pp:333. [7] K. J. Hole, H. Hol, and G. E. Øien, Adaptive ultidiensional coded odulation over flatfading channels, IEEE J. Select. Areas in Co., vol. 8, pp: 53 58, July. [8] S. T. Chung and A. J. Goldsith, Degrees of freedo in adaptive odulation: a unified view, IEEE Trans. Co., vol. 49, pp , Sept.. [9] S. Hu and A. DuelHallen, Cobined adaptive odulation and transitter diversity using longrange prediction for flatfading obile radio channels, in Proc. Global Telecounications Conf., vol., San Antonio, TX, Nov. 5 9,, pp: [] G. E. Øien, H. Hol, and K. J. Hole, Channel prediction for adaptive coded odulation in Rayleigh fading, in Proc. Eur. Signal Processing Conf., Tolouse, France, Sept. 3 6,. [] S. Ekan,. Sternad, and A. Ahlen, Unbiased power prediction on broadband channel, in Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf., vol., Vancouver, BC, Canada, Sept., pp: [] J. Ki I,. Ki, S. Ro, D. Hong effercts of ultipath diversity on adaptive QA in frequency selective Rayleigh fading channels IEEE trans co.. Letters vol. 6,no.9, pp:899, Sep.. [3] S. Falahati, A. Svenson, T. Ekan,.Sternad adaptive odulation systes for predicted wireless channels: IEEE trans.on counications,vol.5,no. pp :3736 Feb 4. [4] Andrea Goldsith An adaptive odulation schee for siultaneous voice and data transission over fading channel. IEEE journal on selected areas in counications, vol. 7, no. 5, ay 999. ISBN:
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