4 The following copyright notice protects this book under Copyright laws which prohibit such actions as, but not limited to, copying, distributing, modifying, and making derivative works. Copyright Bull SAS 2011 Printed in France Suggestions and criticisms concerning the form, content, and presentation of this book are invited. A form is provided at the end of this book for this purpose. To order additional copies of this book or other Bull Technical Publications, you are invited to use the Ordering Form also provided at the end of this book. Trademarks and Acknowledgements We acknowledge the right of proprietors of trademarks mentioned in this book. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Bull will not be liable for errors contained herein, or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the use of this material.
5 Contents Safety notices vii SAS RAID controllers for AIX What's new in SAS RAID controllers for AIX SAS RAID controllers for AIX overview Feature comparison of SAS RAID cards PCI-X SAS RAID card comparison PCIe SAS RAID card comparison PCIe2 SAS RAID card comparison SAS architecture Disk arrays Supported RAID levels RAID RAID RAID RAID Disk array capacities RAID level summary Stripe-unit size Valid states for hdisks and pdisks States for disk arrays (hdisks) States for physical disks (pdisks) pdisk descriptions Auxiliary write cache Auxiliary write cache adapter Installing the auxiliary write cache Viewing link status information Controller software Controller software verification Common controller and disk array management tasks Using the Disk Array Manager Preparing disks for use in SAS disk arrays Creating a disk array Migrating an existing disk array to a new RAID level Viewing the disk array configuration Deleting a disk array Adding disks to an existing disk array Using hot spare disks Creating hot spare disks Deleting hot spare disks Viewing IBM SAS disk array settings Viewing IBM SAS pdisk settings Viewing pdisk vital product data Viewing controller SAS addresses Controller SAS address attributes System software allocations for SAS controllers Viewing system software allocations for SAS controllers Changing system software allocations for SAS controllers Drive queue depth Changing the drive queue depth Copyright IBM Corp. 2010, 2011 iii
6 AIX command-line interface Considerations for solid-state drives (SSDs) Multi-initiator and high availability Possible HA configurations Controller functions Controller function attributes Viewing HA controller attributes HA cabling considerations HA performance considerations HA access optimization HA access characteristics within List SAS Disk Array Configuration Configuration and serviceability considerations for HA RAID configurations Installing high availability Installing an HA single-system RAID configuration Installing an HA two-system RAID configuration Functions requiring special attention in an HA two-system RAID configuration Installing an HA two-system JBOD configuration SAS RAID controller maintenance Updating the SAS RAID controller microcode Changing pdisks to hdisks Maintaining the rechargeable battery on the 57B7, 57CF, 574E, and 572F/575C SAS adapters Displaying rechargeable battery information Error state Forcing a rechargeable battery error Replacing a battery pack Replacing a 572B nonconcurrent maintainable battery pack Replacing a 572F/575C card set concurrent maintainable battery pack Replacing a 574E concurrent maintainable battery pack Replacing a 57B7 concurrent maintainable battery pack Replacing a 57CF cache battery pack Removing and replacing a cache battery pack Separating the 572F/575C card set and moving the cache directory card Replacing the cache directory card Replacing pdisks Replacing an SSD module on the PCIe RAID and SSD SAS adapter Viewing SAS fabric path information Example: Using SAS fabric path information Problem determination and recovery SAS resource locations Showing physical resource attributes Disk array problem identification Service request numbers Controller maintenance analysis procedures Examining the hardware error log MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP iv
7 MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP MAP Finding a service request number from an existing AIX error log Notices Trademarks Electronic emission notices Class A Notices Class B Notices Terms and conditions Contents v
9 Safety notices Safety notices may be printed throughout this guide: v DANGER notices call attention to a situation that is potentially lethal or extremely hazardous to people. v CAUTION notices call attention to a situation that is potentially hazardous to people because of some existing condition. v Attention notices call attention to the possibility of damage to a program, device, system, or data. World Trade safety information Several countries require the safety information contained in product publications to be presented in their national languages. If this requirement applies to your country, a safety information booklet is included in the publications package shipped with the product. The booklet contains the safety information in your national language with references to the U.S. English source. Before using a U.S. English publication to install, operate, or service this product, you must first become familiar with the related safety information in the booklet. You should also refer to the booklet any time you do not clearly understand any safety information in the U.S. English publications. German safety information Das Produkt ist nicht für den Einsatz an Bildschirmarbeitsplätzen im Sinne 2 der Bildschirmarbeitsverordnung geeignet. Laser safety information IBM servers can use I/O cards or features that are fiber-optic based and that utilize lasers or LEDs. Laser compliance IBM servers may be installed inside or outside of an IT equipment rack. Copyright IBM Corp. 2010, 2011 vii
10 DANGER When working on or around the system, observe the following precautions: Electrical voltage and current from power, telephone, and communication cables are hazardous. To avoid a shock hazard: v Connect power to this unit only with the IBM provided power cord. Do not use the IBM provided power cord for any other product. v Do not open or service any power supply assembly. v Do not connect or disconnect any cables or perform installation, maintenance, or reconfiguration of this product during an electrical storm. v The product might be equipped with multiple power cords. To remove all hazardous voltages, disconnect all power cords. v Connect all power cords to a properly wired and grounded electrical outlet. Ensure that the outlet supplies proper voltage and phase rotation according to the system rating plate. v Connect any equipment that will be attached to this product to properly wired outlets. v When possible, use one hand only to connect or disconnect signal cables. v Never turn on any equipment when there is evidence of fire, water, or structural damage. v Disconnect the attached power cords, telecommunications systems, networks, and modems before you open the device covers, unless instructed otherwise in the installation and configuration procedures. v Connect and disconnect cables as described in the following procedures when installing, moving, or opening covers on this product or attached devices. To Disconnect: 1. Turn off everything (unless instructed otherwise). 2. Remove the power cords from the outlets. 3. Remove the signal cables from the connectors. 4. Remove all cables from the devices To Connect: 1. Turn off everything (unless instructed otherwise). 2. Attach all cables to the devices. 3. Attach the signal cables to the connectors. 4. Attach the power cords to the outlets. 5. Turn on the devices. (D005) DANGER viii
11 Observe the following precautions when working on or around your IT rack system: v Heavy equipment personal injury or equipment damage might result if mishandled. v Always lower the leveling pads on the rack cabinet. v Always install stabilizer brackets on the rack cabinet. v To avoid hazardous conditions due to uneven mechanical loading, always install the heaviest devices in the bottom of the rack cabinet. Always install servers and optional devices starting from the bottom of the rack cabinet. v Rack-mounted devices are not to be used as shelves or work spaces. Do not place objects on top of rack-mounted devices. v Each rack cabinet might have more than one power cord. Be sure to disconnect all power cords in the rack cabinet when directed to disconnect power during servicing. v Connect all devices installed in a rack cabinet to power devices installed in the same rack cabinet. Do not plug a power cord from a device installed in one rack cabinet into a power device installed in a different rack cabinet. v An electrical outlet that is not correctly wired could place hazardous voltage on the metal parts of the system or the devices that attach to the system. It is the responsibility of the customer to ensure that the outlet is correctly wired and grounded to prevent an electrical shock. CAUTION v Do not install a unit in a rack where the internal rack ambient temperatures will exceed the manufacturer's recommended ambient temperature for all your rack-mounted devices. v Do not install a unit in a rack where the air flow is compromised. Ensure that air flow is not blocked or reduced on any side, front, or back of a unit used for air flow through the unit. v Consideration should be given to the connection of the equipment to the supply circuit so that overloading of the circuits does not compromise the supply wiring or overcurrent protection. To provide the correct power connection to a rack, refer to the rating labels located on the equipment in the rack to determine the total power requirement of the supply circuit. v (For sliding drawers.) Do not pull out or install any drawer or feature if the rack stabilizer brackets are not attached to the rack. Do not pull out more than one drawer at a time. The rack might become unstable if you pull out more than one drawer at a time. v (For fixed drawers.) This drawer is a fixed drawer and must not be moved for servicing unless specified by the manufacturer. Attempting to move the drawer partially or completely out of the rack might cause the rack to become unstable or cause the drawer to fall out of the rack. (R001) Safety notices ix
12 CAUTION: Removing components from the upper positions in the rack cabinet improves rack stability during relocation. Follow these general guidelines whenever you relocate a populated rack cabinet within a room or building: v Reduce the weight of the rack cabinet by removing equipment starting at the top of the rack cabinet. When possible, restore the rack cabinet to the configuration of the rack cabinet as you received it. If this configuration is not known, you must observe the following precautions: Remove all devices in the 32U position and above. Ensure that the heaviest devices are installed in the bottom of the rack cabinet. Ensure that there are no empty U-levels between devices installed in the rack cabinet below the 32U level. v If the rack cabinet you are relocating is part of a suite of rack cabinets, detach the rack cabinet from the suite. v Inspect the route that you plan to take to eliminate potential hazards. v Verify that the route that you choose can support the weight of the loaded rack cabinet. Refer to the documentation that comes with your rack cabinet for the weight of a loaded rack cabinet. v Verify that all door openings are at least 760 x 230 mm (30 x 80 in.). v Ensure that all devices, shelves, drawers, doors, and cables are secure. v Ensure that the four leveling pads are raised to their highest position. v Ensure that there is no stabilizer bracket installed on the rack cabinet during movement. v Do not use a ramp inclined at more than 10 degrees. v When the rack cabinet is in the new location, complete the following steps: Lower the four leveling pads. Install stabilizer brackets on the rack cabinet. If you removed any devices from the rack cabinet, repopulate the rack cabinet from the lowest position to the highest position. v If a long-distance relocation is required, restore the rack cabinet to the configuration of the rack cabinet as you received it. Pack the rack cabinet in the original packaging material, or equivalent. Also lower the leveling pads to raise the casters off of the pallet and bolt the rack cabinet to the pallet. (R002) (L001) (L002) x
13 (L003) or All lasers are certified in the U.S. to conform to the requirements of DHHS 21 CFR Subchapter J for class 1 laser products. Outside the U.S., they are certified to be in compliance with IEC as a class 1 laser product. Consult the label on each part for laser certification numbers and approval information. CAUTION: This product might contain one or more of the following devices: CD-ROM drive, DVD-ROM drive, DVD-RAM drive, or laser module, which are Class 1 laser products. Note the following information: v Do not remove the covers. Removing the covers of the laser product could result in exposure to hazardous laser radiation. There are no serviceable parts inside the device. v Use of the controls or adjustments or performance of procedures other than those specified herein might result in hazardous radiation exposure. (C026) Safety notices xi
14 CAUTION: Data processing environments can contain equipment transmitting on system links with laser modules that operate at greater than Class 1 power levels. For this reason, never look into the end of an optical fiber cable or open receptacle. (C027) CAUTION: This product contains a Class 1M laser. Do not view directly with optical instruments. (C028) CAUTION: Some laser products contain an embedded Class 3A or Class 3B laser diode. Note the following information: laser radiation when open. Do not stare into the beam, do not view directly with optical instruments, and avoid direct exposure to the beam. (C030) CAUTION: The battery contains lithium. To avoid possible explosion, do not burn or charge the battery. Do Not: v Throw or immerse into water v Heat to more than 100 C (212 F) v Repair or disassemble Exchange only with the IBM-approved part. Recycle or discard the battery as instructed by local regulations. In the United States, IBM has a process for the collection of this battery. For information, call Have the IBM part number for the battery unit available when you call. (C003) Power and cabling information for NEBS (Network Equipment-Building System) GR-1089-CORE The following comments apply to the IBM servers that have been designated as conforming to NEBS (Network Equipment-Building System) GR-1089-CORE: The equipment is suitable for installation in the following: v Network telecommunications facilities v Locations where the NEC (National Electrical Code) applies The intrabuilding ports of this equipment are suitable for connection to intrabuilding or unexposed wiring or cabling only. The intrabuilding ports of this equipment must not be metallically connected to the interfaces that connect to the OSP (outside plant) or its wiring. These interfaces are designed for use as intrabuilding interfaces only (Type 2 or Type 4 ports as described in GR-1089-CORE) and require isolation from the exposed OSP cabling. The addition of primary protectors is not sufficient protection to connect these interfaces metallically to OSP wiring. Note: All Ethernet cables must be shielded and grounded at both ends. The ac-powered system does not require the use of an external surge protection device (SPD). The dc-powered system employs an isolated DC return (DC-I) design. The DC battery return terminal shall not be connected to the chassis or frame ground. xii
15 SAS RAID controllers for AIX This topic provides usage and maintenance information regarding the SAS RAID controllers for the AIX operating system. Copyright IBM Corp. 2010,
17 What's new in SAS RAID controllers for AIX Read about new or significantly changed information for the SAS RAID controllers for AIX topic collection since the previous update of this topic collection. October 2011 v Added the PCIe2 SAS RAID card comparison on page 17 table to include information about PCI Express 2.0 (PCIe2) SAS RAID card. v Added information about system software allocations for SAS controllers. See System software allocations for SAS controllers on page 46. v Added a procedure for viewing system software allocations for SAS controllers. See Viewing system software allocations for SAS controllers on page 46. v Added a procedure for changing system software allocations for SAS controllers. See Changing system software allocations for SAS controllers on page 46. v Added information about the drive queue depth. See Drive queue depth on page 49. v Added a procedure for changing the drive queue depth. See Changing the drive queue depth on page 49. v Added new maps to resolve the errors pertaining to the PCIe2 controller. See MAP 3210 on page 162 to MAP 3295 on page 203 under Controller maintenance analysis procedures on page 116. Copyright IBM Corp. 2010,
19 SAS RAID controllers for AIX overview Find usage and maintenance information regarding controllers for the serial-attached SCSI (SAS) Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) for the AIX operating system. Use this information in conjunction with your specific system unit and operating system documentation. General information is intended for all users of this product. Service information is intended for a service representative specifically trained on the system unit and subsystem being serviced. The SAS RAID controllers for AIX have the following features: v PCI-X 266 system interface or PCI Express (PCIe) system interface. v Physical link (phy) speed of 3 Gbps SAS supporting transfer rates of 300 MB per second. v Supports SAS devices and non-disk Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) devices. v Optimized for SAS disk configurations that use dual paths through dual expanders for redundancy and reliability. v Controller managed path redundancy and path switching for multiported SAS devices. v Embedded PowerPC RISC Processor, hardware XOR DMA Engine, and hardware Finite Field Multiplier (FFM) DMA Engine (for Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) 6). v Support nonvolatile write cache for RAID disk arrays on some adapters. v Support for RAID 0, 5, 6, and 10 disk arrays. v Supports attachment of other devices such as non-raid disks, tape, and optical devices. v RAID disk arrays and non-raid devices supported as a bootable device. v Advanced RAID features: Hot spares for RAID 5, 6, and 10 disk arrays Ability to increase the capacity of an existing RAID 5 or 6 disk array by adding disks Background parity checking Background data scrubbing Disks formatted to 528 bytes per sector, providing cyclical redundancy checking (CRC) and logically bad block checking Optimized hardware for RAID 5 and 6 sequential write workloads Optimized skip read/write disk support for transaction workloads v Supports a maximum of 64 advanced function disks with a total device support maximum of 255 (the number of all physical SAS and SATA devices plus number of logical RAID disk arrays must be less than 255 per controller). Feature comparison of SAS RAID cards Compare the main features of PCI-X and PCI Express (PCIe) SAS RAID cards. These tables provides a breakdown of the main features of the SAS RAID PCI-X and PCIe controller cards. Copyright IBM Corp. 2010,
20 PCI-X SAS RAID card comparison This table compares the main features of PCI-X SAS RAID cards. Table 1. PCI-X SAS RAID controller cards CCIN (custom card identification number) 572A 572B 572C 572F / 575C 57B8 2BD9 2BE0 2BE1 Description PCI-X 266 Ext Dual-x4 3 Gb SAS Adapter Form factor Adapter failing function code LED value Physical links RAID levels supported Write cache size Read cache size Cache battery pack technology Cache battery pack FFC Cache battery concurrent maintenance Cache data present LED Removable cache card Low profile 64-bit PCI-X PCI-X 266 Ext Dual-x4 3 Gb SAS RAID Adapter Long 64-bit PCI-X PCI-X 266 Planar 3 Gb SAS Adapter Planar integrated PCI-X 266 Ext Tri-x4 3 Gb SAS RAID Adapter Long 64-bit PCI-X, double-wide card set PCI-X 266 Planar 3 Gb SAS RAID Adapter Planar RAID enablement PCI-X266 Planar 3 Gb SAS RAID Adapter (RAID/ Cache Storage Controller) Planar unique 64-bit PCI-X PCI-X266 Planar 3 Gb SAS Adapter (RAID-10 Storage Controller) Planar unique 64-bit PCI-X / 251D D18 2D16 2D17 8 (two mini SAS 4x connectors) RAID 0, 5 4, 6 4,10 8 (two mini SAS 4x connectors) RAID 0, 5, 6, (bottom 3 mini SAS 4x connectors) and 2 (top mini SAS 4x connector for HA only) RAID 0 RAID 0, 5, 6, MB Up to 1.5 Gb (compressed) Up to 1.6 Gb (compressed) (two 2x wide ports to shared SAS Drives and one 2x wide port to 2BE1 adapter) RAID 0, 5, 6, 10 RAID 0, 5, 6, 10 3 (Direct attach SAS Drives) RAID 0, 5 4, 10 PCI-X266 Planar 3 Gb SAS RAID Adapter (RAID/ Cache Enablement) Planar RAID enablement 8 (two 2x wide ports to shared SAS Drives, one 2x wide port to 2BD9 adapter, one phy to DVD, and optionally one physical link to Tape Drive) RAID 0, 5, 6, MB 175 MB 175 MB LiIon LiIon Not applicable 2 Lilon Lilon 2D03 2D06 5 Not applicable 2 2D1B 2D1B No No No Yes Not applicable 2 No No No No No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No No 6
21 Table 1. PCI-X SAS RAID controller cards (continued) CCIN (custom card identification number) 572A 572B 572C 572F / 575C 57B8 2BD9 2BE0 2BE1 Auxiliary write cache (AWC) support No No No Yes Yes No No No High availability (HA) two system RAID HA two system JBOD HA single system RAID Requires HA RAID configuration Yes 3 Yes No No No Yes No Yes Yes 3 No No No No No No No Yes 3 Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No No No Yes No Yes 1 Some systems provide an external mini SAS 4x connector from the integrated backplane controller. 2 The controller contains battery-backed cache, but the battery power is supplied by the 57B8 controller through the backplane connections. 3 Multi-initiator and high availability is supported on the CCIN 572A adapter except for part numbers of either 44V4266 or 44V4404 (feature code 5900). 4 The write performance of RAID 5 and RAID 6 might be poor on adapters that do not provide write cache. Consider using an adapter that provides write cache when using RAID 5 or RAID 6, or use solid-state drives (SSDs) where supported to improve write performance. 5 The cache battery pack for both adapters is contained in a single battery field-replaceable unit (FRU), which is physically located on the 575C auxiliary cache card. 6 Nonvolatile write cache is supported for RAID disk arrays only. SAS RAID controllers for AIX overview 7
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