Objectives. Pair Up Ice Breaker. When words are data: Qualitative Research in Nursing Judith W. Herrman, PhD, RN, ANEF, FAAN

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1 When words are data: Qualitative Research in Nursing Judith W. Herrman, PhD, RN, ANEF, FAAN Objectives Define qualitative research. Describe types of qualitative research. Discuss how qualitative research may answer selected research questions. List methods to analyze qualitative data. Discuss the benefits of mixed methods in nursing research. Pair Up Ice Breaker Introduce yourself to each other. Ask each other when they decided to become a nurse. Ask each other if they are still happy with that decision. Qualitative data collection! 1

2 Nursing Research: How do you pick your shampoo? What criteria do you use to select shampoo? What information do you need to make a purchase? How do you know a product meets that criteria? How does this apply to qualitative nursing research? Words versus numbers. Qualitative research Words Observations Perceptions Narratives Authentic Indications for qualitative research Stories Realities Fact finding Determining the question Exploring theory Before or after quantitative research 2

3 Qualitative Research Basics Words as data Interview guide Planned research Human Subjects and protections Collection and analysis of narrative materials Use mechanisms to minimize research bias bracketing Saturation Types of qualitative research Interviews Non-structured Semi-structured Structured Creative methods Focus groups Participant-observation Others Focus Groups What are focus groups? Why focus groups? Build off the ideas of others Get a sense of the significance of issues Clarify the meaning of issues Allows discussion which grows the issue Several perspectives at one time Greater level of investment May be more comfortable then individual interviews more cost effective More personal than surveys, but more costly 3

4 Skills needed Nurses! Use yourself! Equipment Interview Guide Main items and probing questions Order of topics Order of topic exercise Conducting Focus Groups Main question: How do you feel about the recognition given to nurses in America today? Develop probing questions Think pair share: How would you put these questions in order? 1. What nursing/patient errors have you made in the past that could have been prevented through education? 2. What educational topics would help you do your job better? 3. What areas of nursing care in your past have you felt inadequate in providing? 4. What learning needs do you feel your peers have now? 5. What types of nursing/patient errors in the past could have been prevented through education? 6. What learning needs do you have at this time? 7. Name three topics you would like to learn about this year. Conducting Focus Groups (cont.) Setting up focus groups Physical set-up Comfort Refreshments Incentives Starting focus groups Ice breaker Community of sharing 4

5 Group Leader Qualities Directive Sensitive Interested Good listener Eager to learn Patient Caring Eager to have fun! Capturing non-verbal data Facial expressions Gestures Interactions Group responses Dynamics Tone Conducting Focus Groups (cont.) Collecting the data Notes verbatim? Audiorecordings tapes, handheld recorders Marginal/observational notes Transcription software 5

6 Participant Observer Methods Newer methods Video and PhotoVoice Sentence Completion/Invented dialogs Written or Text journaling/diaries Nut and Bolts Word association Creative expression: drama, art, drawing, mapping, role-play, and puppetry Stories/Narratives Videos, Games, or Music PhotoVoice Definition: Using photos, videos, and other media to depict meanings or share perspectives Pros Teen friendly Rich data Technology based Cons New and less trusted Difficult to analyze and maintain rigor 6

7 What s going on here????? PhotoVoice Captioning Software data analysis Exercise: In pairs, come up with a caption for this picture! Example: Video Journaling Project How has Wise Guys changed your perceptions of women, sexual responsibility, and your goals? Each participant gets an ipod Touch Prompts and directions Instant Upload to Dropbox Merging files Analysis via NVivo 7

8 Young Men s Perceptions of the Value of Wise Guys Part of a mixed-methods study Findings current under analysis Richer findings than survey More appropriate for teens? More valid and reliable findings? Sentence completion When all my friends are around me smoking weed, I. My partner let s me know how they feel about things by. I feel safe when I am. I feel unsafe when I am. I feel strongly about. Invented dialogs Provide teens with a prompt. Allow teens to develop a response. Use this to assess teen thoughts. May also be a means to teach negotiate or provide with responses that are in their pocket. 8

9 Let s try some I don t want to use a condom.it feels better without one They are making marijuana legal in most states why won t you smoke with me? I only had 4 beers I can drive why won t you go home with me? All of my friends are going to the party Friday night, why can t I go? I don t need to get tested for HIV I know I am clean I have only had sex with clean partners. Nut and Bolts There once was a young man who sought services for. He shared that his problems included and. In order to alleviate his problems, he was given and taught about. As result of this, he. He later and reported that his problems were less than they were prior to seeking services. He stated he would share his with friends. Word Association Teen parent Young woman carrying condoms Young man who is a father Young woman who is a mother Young man carrying condoms Young woman who has unprotected sex Young man who has unprotected sex 9

10 Journaling Online journal management systems Text journaling Written journaling Pros: Private For some teens, this is a preferred way to convey thoughts Cons: Transcription Analysis Requires literacy and effort Journaling Example Young Mothers Perceptions of Violence Violence as not serious or playing violent versus real violent: They just playing around and then they grab your harder. Just a little choke, not as serious as being beaten. not as serious until someone gets hurt. Journaling Exercise I need to access authentic teen voices in order to I will use the following methods to access teen voices. 10

11 Theories Phenomenological-lived experience Grounded theory-collect data to build a framework or model Ethnographic-imbedded in culture, shared meanings Many others Data analysis Thematic analysis emerging themes Template analysis based on a pre-set template (interview guide) Content analysis let the content drive the analysis Using software Ethnograph, NU*dist, NVivo Iterative analysis each interview guides the analysis--recursive Sticky note exercise Sticky note exercise Write down 3 things your partner shared during the initial exercise Write one on each sticky note Thematic analysis 11

12 Validity--Rigor Credibility-do you believe it? Trustworthiness-do you trust the methods and results? Accountability-do they describe the methods they used to provide rigor in the study? Dependability-do the researchers provide evidence that they are reputable? Confirmability-can the results be confirmed in future studies? Transferability can the results be transferred to other settings/sites? Listening exerciseauthenticity Remember the telephone game! Advantages Rich data Personal insights Deep meanings Shared meanings Authenticity Building point for quantitative/ mixed methods research 12

13 Disadvantages Small n in SOME circles it is less credible Less generalizable Difficult to analyze when are you done? Lots of data Conclusion: Key issues Mixed methods: Triangulation Gaining esteem in health arenas Bracketing bias Learned skill Your purpose drives your methods what do you want to know? 13

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