1 SOME IMPORTANT NOTES ON QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Prof. Dr. Andreas Budihardjo August, 2013
2 CHECKLIST ( LOFLAND & LOFLAND, 1995) Basic organization How well is the article written or presented? Data & Methods o What is the quality of data collection, analysis and presentation? Analysis o What is the quality of the analytic effort? Overall evaluation o What is the value of the research?
3 QUICK SCANNING I II III Article Title (-) very long and not clear Ethical issues (i) Rationale (i) Research Design(i) Literature review / Synthesized Theories Abstract (-) not reflecting what is studied Data (i) (-) not valid; not well described Data Analysis (i) (-) very shallow Conclusion (-) poorly described Language (-) poor, not reflecting as what is going to be expressed. Format (-) Not standard
4 A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH REPORT (BOEIJE, 2010) Title, Authors, and Affiliations Abstract Introduction - Literature review - Research Questions & Purpose Research Methods - Choice for certain approach - Sample composition - Data Collection - Data Analysis - Quality Procedures Results Discussion - Answering research questions - Reflection on methodology of the study - Theoretical & Practical Implications Conclusion References Figures & Appendices
5 PROBLEMS Inappropriately used of method Data collection? The low quality of data Weak back ground & research question Unclear Objectives Weak data analysis and interpretations Poorly Language used
6 What is a Qualitative Research?
7 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH (CRESWELL, 1998) An inquiry process of understanding based on distinct methodological traditions of inquiry that explore a social or human problem. The researcher builds a complex, holistic picture, analyzes words, reports detailed views of informants, and conducts the study in a natural setting.
8 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH (DENZIN & LINCOLN,1994) Involves a study which uses collection of a variety of empirical materials. For instance : case study, personal experience, introspective, life story, interview, observational, interactional and visual texts, that describe routine & problematic moments and meaning in individual s lives(p.2).
9 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH (ROSSMAN & RALLIS, 2003, PP.8-10) Takes place in the natural world Uses multiple methods that are interactive & humanistic Focuses on context Is emergent rather than tightly refigured Is fundamentally interpretative
10 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Is not a substitute for a quantitative research. Must not be used just to avoid statistical analysis.
11 The researchers must QUALITATIVE RESEARCH (CRESWELL, 1998) be committed to work extensive time in the field. be engaged in the complex time-consuming process of data analysis. write long passages; the evidence must substantiate claims & the researcher needs to show multiple perspectives.
12 ARTICLE SURVEYS IN INDONESIAN JOURNALS (BUDIHARDJO, 2013) Language Content Others Poor Indonesian or English Theories used are not relevant References are not well presented Inappropriate use of semantic Not well synthesized theories Use of model is weak Inappropriate style and tone Weak and unclear research back ground Tables & figures are not well presented Poor Translation Poor abstract Punctuation marks are well placed Unclear paragraph Unclear conclusion Quotations are not well written The relation/links between sentences and paragraphs are not coherence. Research method is not well applied Data is not well presented Unclear sentences ( dangling, clauses) Research design is poor Citations are not well presented Sentences are not logical Objectives are not clear Title is too long and not relevant Redundancy and consistency Data Analysis is weak (interpreting skill of the researcher is weak) The use of research method is not well described
13 COMMON MISTAKES Abstract is badly organized and written. Research background is broad and not focus. Research objectives are not clear. Theoretical review is not properly organized. Theories used are not well synthesized. Data Analysis is weak. Conclusion is not relevant.
14 MISTAKES IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Data = Findings Superficial analysis and interpretation Lack of thick description Forcing a framework or concepts Wrong sampling Over generalization
15 The Qualitative Research Process
16 THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS Choosing a subject & approach ---- problem statement Reviewing literature Formulating research question, purpose of the study Sampling / Collecting data Considering Ethical issues Analyzing data qualitatively Findings Ensuring the quality of the findings : verification/ triangulating. Writing the article for a journal
17 Starting a Qualitative Research
18 PROBLEM STATEMENT In the introduction: a researcher should state what the problem is as it will guide him/her to what is going to be studied. Problem statement : known as the need of the study must be clearly formulated.
19 PURPOSE STATEMENT It indicates the main objective of the study. It provides an important roadmap for readers to know the intent or purpose of the study. It must be written clearly but briefly.
20 RESEARCH QUESTION ( BOEIJE, 2010) The central question which a researcher wants to answer by doing the research. The research problem must be sufficiently focused & defined; it is a foundation to formulate clear research questions.
21 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Descriptive question What experiences do the teenagers in Jakarta have with criminal and risky behavior during the night life? [This deals with the what of the social phenomena] Explanatory Question How do criminal experiences of the teenagers in Jakarta relate to their use of alcoholic drink? [This deals with the why of the phenomena]
22 RESEARCH QUESTIONS How can we explain the extent and nature of football hooliganism at different football clubs and in different countries, and variations therein over time? ( Spaaij, 2006). What are undergraduate medical students perceptions and experiences of teaching in relation to gender and ethnicity? ( Lee & Kim, 2007). Do psychiatric/mental health nurses provide meaningful caring response to suicidal people, and if so, how? ( Cutcliffe, Stevenson, Jackson & Smith, 2006).
23 ETHICS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Researchers must consider ethical issues in their activities in relation with the respondents/informants funders Other parties who might have a negative implications of the research Etc.
24 ETHICAL ISSUES ( ADJUSTED FROM BOEIJE, 2010) Ethical Principles, such as informed consent, Privacy, Confidentiality). Professional standards, such as good research proposal, the benefits, costs and risk for participants, qualified researcher). o Sensitive Topics o Reporting results
25 ETHICAL ISSUES IN DATA ANALYSIS Related to the competence boundaries ( Miles & Huberman, 1994). The quality of qualitative data analysis depends on the interpretative skills of the researchers. Unanalyzed data or incorrect interpretations lead to erroneous findings and be very dangerous.
26 QUALITATIVE DATA COLLECTION Participant observation Observation Qualitative interviewing ( in-depth, ethnographic, phenomenological, elite, FGI) Focus group discussion Narratives Life Histories Historical analysis Visual data Documents others
27 Paradigm Assumptions
28 QUANTITATIVE & QUALITATIVE PARADIGM ASSUMPTIONS ( FIRESTONE, 1987; GUBA & LINCOLN (1988) & MCCRACKEN, 1988) 1. Ontological Assumption ( What is the nature of reality?) Quantitative Reality is objective and singular apart from the researcher. Qualitative Reality is subjective and multiple as seen by participants in a study.
29 2. Epistemological Assumption ( What is the relationship of the researcher to that researched?) Quantitative Researcher is independent from that being researched. Qualitative Researcher interacts with that being researched.
30 3. Axiological Assumption ( What is the role of values?) Quantitative Value-free and unbiased. Qualitative Value-laden and biased.
31 4. Rhetorical Assumption ( What is the language of research?) Quantitative Formal and based on set definitions Impersonal voice Used of accepted quantitative words Qualitative Informal Evolving decisions Personal voice Accepted qualitative words
32 5. Methodological Assumption ( What is the process of research?) Quantitative Qualitative Deductive process Cause and effect Inductive process Mutual simultaneous shaping of factors Static design categories isolated before study Context-free Generalizations leading to prediction, explanation, and understanding Accurate and reliable through validity & reliability. Emerging design-categories identified during research process Context-bound Patterns, theories developed for understanding Accurate and reliable through verification / triangulation
33 VALIDATING THE ACCURACY OF FINDINGS -- QUALITATIVE Validity is used to suggest determining whether the findings are accurate from the standpoint of the researcher, participant or reader (Creswell & Miller, 2000). trustworthiness, Authenticity & credibility. How? Triangulation Member validation Use Rich, thick description Clarify the bias Present negative or discrepant information Spend prolonged time Use peer debriefing Use an external auditor
34 Writing an article for a journal
35 ARTICLES SURVEYS IN INDONESIAN JOURNALS (BUDIHARDJO, 2013) Language Content Others Poor Indonesian or English Theories used are not relevant References are not well presented Inappropriate use of semantic Not well synthesized theories Use of model is weak Inappropriate style and tone Weak and unclear research back ground Tables & figures are not well presented Poor Translation Poor abstract Punctuation marks are well placed Unclear paragraph Unclear conclusion Quotations are not well written The relation/links between sentences and paragraphs are not coherence. Research method is not well applied Data is not well presented Unclear sentences ( dangling, clauses) Research design is poor Citations are not well presented Sentences are not logical Objectives are not clear Title is too long and not relevant Redundancy and consistency Data Analysis is weak interpreting skill is weak The use of research method is not well described
36 COMMON MISTAKES Abstract is badly organized and written. Research background is too broad and not focus. Research objectives are not clear. Theoretical review is not properly organized. Theories used are not well synthesized. Data Analysis is weak. Conclusion is not well written.
37 OTHERS References are not well written Use of model is weak Tables & figures are not well presented Punctuation marks are well placed Quotations are not well used for instance the use of. ; ; etc. Data presentation is adequate Citations are not well presented Title is too long and not relevant
38 Handbook of Technical Writing Gerald J. Alred Charles T. Brusaw Walter E. Oliu Bedford/St. Martin s Boston New York 2009, Ninth Edition
39 HANDBOOK OF TECHNICAL WRITING PREPARATION Establish your purpose Identify your readers Consider the context Determine your scope of coverage Select the medium RESEARCH Brainstorm to determine what you already know Conduct research Take notes (note-taking) Interview for information Create and use questionnaires Avoid plagiarism Document sources
40 ORGANIZATION Choose the best methods of development Outline your notes and ideas Develop and integrate visuals Consider layout and design Preparation & Writing a Draft Research
41 WRITING A DRAFT Select an appropriate point of view Adopt an appropriate style and tone Use effective sentence construction Construct effective paragraphs Use quotations and paraphrasing Write an introduction Write a conclusion Choose a title
42 RESEARCH METHODS (GOODMAN S) Design Approach(es) used to data collection & Analysis Sample Number of participants, criteria for selection, recruitment, composition of the sample, language spoken. Ethical approval obtained, informed consent, appreciation gift, opportunity to debrief & evaluate. Data Collection Period of interviewing, locations interviews took place, mean duration of interviews. Nature of interview guide, introduction to interviews, tape-recording. Additional data collection : interviews with informants, participant observation including activities. Data analysis Data preparation: verbatim transcription of audio-taped interviews, retranscription, use pseudonyms to protect anonymity. Data analysis : identifying bounded stories in the narratives, delineating structural elements, use descriptive narrative techniques, individual analysis & comparative analysis, contribution of narrative research assistant to check language & interpretation issues, use of additional sources.
43 JURNAL MAKARA Title Name of the writer Organization Affiliation Address Abstract (250 words) Indonesian English Keywords 1. Introduction 1.1 Background 1.2 Aim / Purpose of study 1.3 Benefit of the study 2. Theoretical Review Synthesized theories Hypotheses 3. Research Methodology 3.1 Sampling / Data collection 3.2 Measurement 3.3 Analysis Technique 4. Data Analysis 5. Result, Conclusion (Discussion &Recommendation) References Acknowledgement Title Name of the writer Organization Affiliation Address Abstract (250 words) Indonesian English Keywords 1. Introduction 1.1 Background 1.2 Literature Review 1.3 Hypotheses/ Problem Statement 1.4 Aim / Purpose of study 1.5 Benefit of the study 2. Research Methodology 2.1 Sampling / Data collection 2.2 Measurement 2.3 Analysis Technique 3. Data Analysis 4. Conclusion (Discussion & Recommendation) References Acknowledgement
44 A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH REPORT (BOEIJE, 2010) Title, Authors, and Affiliations Abstract Introduction - Literature review - Research Questions & Purpose Research Methods - Choice for certain approach - Sample composition - Data Collection - Data Analysis - Quality Procedures Results Discussion - Answering research questions - Reflection on methodology of the study - Theoretical & Practical Implications Conclusion References Figures & Appendices
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