DESIGNING AN INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR SUPPORTING INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT (ICZM) A CASE STUDY

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1 DESIGNING AN INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR SUPPORTING INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT (ICZM) A CASE STUDY Reha Metin Alkan, Dursun Z. Seker, Hande Demirel, Yunus Kalkan and Sedat Kabdasli Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Geodesy and Photogrammetry Engineering Department, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey Presented at the 13 th International Symposium on Environmental Pollution and its Impact on Life in the Mediterranean Region (MESAEP), Thessaloniki, Greece, Oct SUMMARY In this study, a GIS-based Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) system which was designed and established for all stakeholders in the newly rehabilitated area, Halic (also known as Golden Horn) in the oldest part of Istanbul is introduced. The study also proposes enhancement methods in order to ensure the sustainability. Halic has experienced severe pollution until the recent years. This pollution of the Golden Horn and various proposals for amelioration had been the subject of much research and national policies ever since the 1960 s. However, Halic cleaned up completely after a rehabilitation project was instigated by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and Istanbul Water and Sewage Administration (İSKİ). During the project and several others carried out later, enormous amounts of spatial and non-spatial data involving land and water were produced and used. The full efficiency of the produced data was not achieved, since data and systems were isolated. Hence, the main objective of this study is to establish a computer based information system for the area of Haliç and its surroundings to integrate collected data in a spatial database for ICZM. The system includes several different kinds of data and information involving land and water environments such as census, topography, water quality, hydrology, bathymetry, infrastructure, documentation of cultural and historical values. The developed system is designed for managing these enormous amounts of data as well as sharing by the different level of users. KEYWORDS: Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), Spatial, Geographical Information System (GIS), Sustainable development, Haliç. INTRODUCTION Coastal zone can be narrowly thought to be the dividing boundary between sea and the coastline, or broadly thought to be the zone, in which the three spheres, namely air (atmosphere), water (hydrosphere) and land (lithosphere). Coastal regions are intensely dynamic areas, and of critical importance to humans. Coastal zones contain unique, irreplaceable ecosystems. At the same time, coastal zones are subject to intense use by humans-for transportation activities, resources and energy procurement, industrial uses, and recreation. Furthermore, coastal zones are the first lines of defense against inland disasters. They are buffer zones against the ravages of tsunamis, rough waves, flooding, and erosion. In short, there are three functional aspects -provisions of ecological services, disaster prevention, and human utilization - which are part of the human relationship to coastal zones. Each of these aspects is intricately linked. Consequently, humans must monitor and manage these three facets of the coastal zone in an integrated manner to ensure that human relationship to coastal zones remains harmoniously. The move towards the implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) processes, dynamic, continuous and iterative ones designed to promote sustainable management of coastal zones [1], began in Europe with several demonstration programs. From all these and related initiatives, it became clear than sustainable development and integrated management of the coastal zones should propose alternatives within current legislation using a global and integrated approach to solve coastal area problems [2]. Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) involves planning, organizing, controlling activities and effectively managing the coastal zones. Therefore, enormous amount of data collected from various sources are necessary. Most large cities are located either in coastal areas or beside a large river, because these waterways offer con- 829

2 venient transportation. About 60% of the world s human population lives in the coastal areas. Pressure on the coastal environment arising from all kinds of human activities is generally high because of this high population density [3]. There exist several action programs and efforts to protect and manage the coastal areas. After the V. Environmental Action Programme of the European Union, the sustainable development of the coastal zones is one of the main priorities. In order to achieve this priority, long-term economic, environmental and social considerations have to be considered for designing planning decisions, and an exhaustive amount of environmental information has to be developed and translated into convenient units of information, to be useful in the decision-making processes. In Turkey, coastal and related surrounding area s populations constitute about 51% of 65 million, on the average. Furthermore, 30% of the total land is representing coastal zones in Turkey [4]. Although several projects were conducted on environmental issues and water treatment, an integrated coastal zone management system is still not available. In this study, an information system was established to prepare a Coastal Information System in Haliç, which was one of the important components of a Coastal Zone Management is introduced. The system designed serves as the initial step of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, where integration was performed on spatial bases. Integration on spatial bases via Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is capable of gathering, storing, manipulating, displaying, querying and analyzing the information. INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT AND SPATIAL INFORMATION SCIENCES Integrated coastal zone management is defined as a dynamic process, in which a coordinated strategy is developed and implemented for the allocation of environmental, socio-cultural and sustainable uses of the coastal zones [5, 6]. Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) involves planning and organizing, controlling activities, and protecting, to develop and preserve these coastal areas for current and future generations, and decision making [7, 8]. Additionally, to promote public awareness on environmental issues is another task of policy makers. In order to fulfill these various tasks, enormous amounts of data were collected from various sources and used in various projects. However, these projects and disperse data sources can not be efficiently used by the decision-makers, since the problem is complex and data integration is required. An integrated coastal zone management process involves monitoring, assessment and dissemination of data. Monitoring is carried out as short-term, medium and longterm site measurement with new technologies. Three functions of assessment can be encountered, namely disaster prevention, human utilization and ecology. Dissemination of data is generally done via maps. It is a continuous and dynamic process that unites government and the community, science and management, sector and public interests in preparing and implementing an integrated plan for the protection and development of the coastal ecosystem and resources. ICZM is thus defined to be an iterative and collective process, which must be coordinated using a multidisciplinary, multi-tool approach, according to a nonlinear time scale. Measuring effectively the status of any ICZM program or project is, therefore, a complicated task which requires the need for new development paradigms built from tested and innovated approaches, and also a performance monitoring system designed specifically to measure the impacts of these approaches. Possible applications of spatial information sciences for ICZM: 1. Comprehensive documentation and preservation of indigenous information on coastal resources use and management. 2. Monitoring and mapping coastal resources and hazards in a participatory manner. 3. Proper limitation and evaluation of extent of coastal environmental problems. 4. Multivariable modeling of coastal environmental processes. 5. Spatio-temporal trend analysis of coastal changes. 6. Planning and deployment of mitigation measures to appropriate targets. 7. Coastal emergency management. 8. Public participation in addressing coastal problems and their effects. 9. Promotion of a more active and healthy participatory public debate and intervention on coastal zone degradation. 10. Preserving the ecological integrity of coastal zone ecosystems. 11. Aiding in appropriate human utilization of coastal areas. 12. Comprehensive integration of separate efforts undertaken. CASE STUDY: THE HALIC AREA OF ISTANBUL Study Area Halic, located on the historical peninsula of Istanbul, is also known as Golden Horn in the international geogra- 830

3 FIGURE 1 - Study Area. phy, is selected as the study area (Figure 1). It is one of the oldest settlements in Istanbul as a worldwide popular geographic location, and has preserved its importance in trade and culture during hundreds of years. The Golden Horn is a sea inlet about 7.5 km in length and m in width located on the European side of Istanbul at the south end of the Straight of Istanbul starting from Sarayburnu, it extends as far as the Kağıthane and Alibeyköy creeks, curving in a southeast-northwest direction. Halic is about 250 hectares, and the coastal line of the study area is about 16 km long. This region has always been played an important role in the history as the city center, where commerce, military and cultural activities took place for centuries. Until the 1960 s the Golden Horn was a place where one could spend an enjoyable time, even swim or catch fish. However, from that time onwards with unregulated industrial and residential development without proper infrastructure and due to the uncontrolled domestic and industrial wastewater discharges, Halic has experienced severe pollution until the recent years. Although many projects to be undertaken with relation to the Golden Horn, it was rehabilitated with the project conducted collaboration of Metropolitan Municipality of the city of Istanbul and Istanbul Water and Sewage Administration (ISKI). The total costs of this project were more than 500 million US dollars. In order to aid the sustainability of the area, a management system (decision support system) is required for the decision makers. However, it was complex task, since data were coming from various sources and systems for data acquisition, storage, analyze and presentation was isolated. The main goal of the constituted GIS was to establish a part of a Coastal Information System in Haliç, which is one of the important components of a Coastal Zone Management (CZM). The system integrates various data and systems on spatial bases and provides a framework of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Data Data relating to the coastal area, such as census, topography, water quality, hydrology, bathymetry, infrastructure, cultural and historical values, were collected. All these data have spatial and non-spatial characteristics in the sense of GIS. Hence, relevant data might be also classified being spatial and non-spatial. Within the framework of the study, an information system has been constituted. The system covers various types of data including spatial, non-spatial and time-series data. Some of them were collected by in-situ measurement, whereas the others were provided by different national organizations. Spatial data are related to the surface of the earth. Usually, information is related to a location with x,y-coordinates. Other spatial identifiers, like postal codes or regions, can also be used. However, even if postal codes or regions are used, coordinates are always needed to make a representation map of the spatial data. Region boundaries, for example, consist of coordinates that are connected by lines. Ortho-photo maps were chosen as base maps to display the spatial information. For this purpose, 1:5000- scaled scanned ortho-photos were obtained from Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and merged. An example of ortho-photo map and photogrammetric city plans with depths are given in Figure 2. For preparing a base map of the sea as a part of the system, bathymetric measurements were performed on the study area. Automatic Data Acquisition System was used in all bathymetric surveys. The main components of this system are Positioning, Sounding, Hydrographic Software, and Vessel. By means of the Hydrographic Software, Profimap, the position from GPS and the depth from the echo sounder were obtained simultaneously, and logged into a PC located in the vessel. The collected data were processed and a Digital Terrain Model of sea bottom relief was created [9]. The 3D view of the study area, which also integrated into the system, is given in Figure 3. Using this information, a virtual tour is also possible using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). Non-spatial data are the attributes related to objects. These include Name, Usage Aim and Type, Address, Neighborhood Name, and also District for the buildings. Most of the attributes were retrieved from the database of 1:1000-scaled city plans. Also census of the townships, which shares the coastal area of Halic, was integrated. The 831

4 FIGURE 2 - Ortho-photo Maps and Photogrammetric City Plans with Depths. spatial part of the census data are the regional codes. Hence, these data can spatially reference, as given in Figure 4. Data related to historical monuments of Halic (e.g. mosques, churches etc.) and other important places, (e.g. schools, hospitals, museums etc.) were also collected. Water quality parameters, such as salinity, temperature, hydro-chemical parameters and biological parameters (about 40 parameters) have been measured at selected stations since These water quality parameters were collected monthly in the scope of Water Quality Monitoring Project realized by Istanbul University, at the selected sampling points [10]. FIGURE 3-3D View of Sea Bottom Relief of Halic and its Surrounding Area. FIGURE 4 - Spatially Referenced Census Data of the Study Area. 832

5 FIGURE 5 The System Architecture. ESTABLISHMENT OF A SPATIAL INFORMATION SYSTEM Spatial data and GIS play an important role in supporting the policy analysis steps of ICZM. It involves formulating the problem (what issues should be taken into account, varying user profiles, what are the user requirements), identification, designing and screening of alternatives (what are the feasible management strategies), building and using models for prediction (what are expected impacts of these strategies), comparing and ranking of alternatives (are these impacts significant), review results (does the plan contain what it should), implementation (who is responsible for what, and how to implement the activities), monitoring and feedback (what is the situation after the plan is implemented). Maps can be very useful to select appropriate monitoring sites. The monitoring data can easily be processed with GIS. Overlays and other analyses make comparisons possible between the current and the past situation. As the data appended to become truly significant when related to a geographical area, GIS environment allows designers to develop applications, where it is possible to manage geo-related information in more comprehensive manner [2]. Hence, The Halic Information System was established [11]. The Halic Information System is a spatial database where relevant data sources were integrated using a spatial reference. All various data were stored in the database as separate layers, which can also be integrated according to the required queries. In this study, ArcView GIS software was used. ArcView is a full-featured GIS software developed by ESRI and it allows to visualize, explore, query, analyze and manage data geographically. Users may query the system, and data input is also available via the designed user interfaces. Query results can display information of maps, reports, action plans etc. The system architecture is given in Figure 5. Data sources, such as digital ortho-photos produced from aerial photographs, are used to improve the quality of the digital data and the maps. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The objectives of this paper were to demonstrate the use of spatial data/information in coastal management and to show that geo-information technology can be very useful to support integrated coastal zone management. This was illustrated with a case study in the historical peninsula of Istanbul, in the view of integrated coastal zone management. For a successful ICZM, spatial data are very useful in various phases mainly during the selection and implementation of management strategies and the monitoring of their environmental effects. The integration and combination of data through overlay and other analytical capabilities of GIS can support these ICZM steps. The physical, social, cultural, economic, historical, aesthetic and recreational dimensions of coastal zones make it quite imperative that such zones should be managed in an integrated manner. The main contribution of this research is to develop a multi-purpose spatial decision support system for integrated coastal zone management, where stake-holders are provided with 3D-structured information and assessment tools. As a result of the study, the presentation of the environmental, historical and cultural information to any user is achieved. The system allows users to perform simple spatial operations, such as searching for specific site locations, submitting spatial queries, and identifying attributes on the Internet. The interactive bathymetric chart is also accessible. The spatial sciences aid to the sustainable developments. The following aspects should be considered in order to increase the efficiency of the system: 1. System should be monitored using remotely sensed data. Remotely sensed data produced area-based in- 833

6 formation, whereas the other techniques provide pointbased information. Spatially distributed adverse impacts can be rapidly monitored. Past, present and future situations can be simulated in order to enhance the understanding of environmental problems, and, therefore, actions to be taken. 2. Disaster prevention should also be considered because this area is along the North Anatolian fault zone, which is highly active. 3. Due to frequent marine transport, there exists the risk of leakage at the Boshporus which is at the entrance of the Halic estuary. Hence this risk should be considered and minimized. 4. Participation of citizens to the ICZM should be achieved. The European Commission has launched recently a proposal for the European Parliament and Council Recommendation concerning the implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Europe (COM/00/545). The recommendation, adopted by Council and Parliament in May 2002, explains how the Commission will be working to promote ICZM through the use of community instruments and programs. The recommendation finally indicates the steps, which the member states should conduct to develop national strategies of ICZM. This study aids to the preparation of a national ICZM system, since the developed concepts were implemented in the most complex area of Istanbul, and the results are highly efficient. The results of this study and the implemented concepts will help to establish more sophisticated systems for larger areas in Turkey. [4] Burak, S., Doğan, E. and Gazioğlu, C. (2004) Impact of Urbanization and Tourism on Coastal Environment, Ocean & Coastal Management, 47, pp [5] CAMPNET (1989) The Status Of Integrated Coastal Zone Management; A Global Assessment, Summary Report of Convened at Charleston, South Carolina, July 4-9, Coastal Area Management and Planning Network, Rosensitiel School of Marine Science, University of Miami. [6] Kuijper, M.W.M. (2003) Marine and Coastal Environmental Awareness Building Within the Context Of UNESCO s Activities in Asia and the Pacific, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 47(1), [7] Li, R., Keong, C.W., Ramcharan, E., Kjerfve, B. and Willis, D. (1997) A Coastal GIS for Shoreline Monitoring and Management-Case Study in Malaysia, Surveying and Land Information Systems, 58(3), pp [8] Maktav, D., Belchansky, G.I., Sunar, F. and Petrosyan, V.G. (2001). A Coastal Information System in Turkey: A Case Study in Koycegiz-Dalyan Specially Protected Area, Earth Observation and Remote Sensing, Vol:16, pp [9] Kalkan, Y. and Alkan, R.M. (2001) Islah Öncesi ve Sonrası Haliç Dip Topoğrafyasındaki Değişim, Haliç 2001 Sempozyumu, Mayıs, , İstanbul. [10] İSKİ (2001) Gerçekleşen Bir Düş: HALİÇ, İSKİ Genel Müdürlülüğü, Yayın No: 36 (in Turkish). [11] Alkan, R.M., Kalkan, Y., Baykal, O., İpbüker, C., Yanalak, M., Erden, T. and Erdoğan, C. (2003) Internet-Based GIS Implementations: A Case Study in an Ancient Settlement of Istanbul, Proc. of the ISPRS WG VII/4 Symposium Remote Sensing of Urban Areas, Vol: XXXIV-7/W9, 11-17, Regensburg, Germany. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Authors would like to thank ITU Commission of the Scientific Researches, the project supporter and Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality for their assistance. REFERENCES [1] European Commission, General Directorate of Environment, Nuclear Safety, and Civil Protection (1999) European Commission, General Directorate of Environment and Nuclear Safety, and Civil Protection, Towards a European Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Strategy: General Principles and Policy Options, Brussels, 31 pp. [2] Sardá, R., Avila, C. and Mora, J. (2005). A Methodological Approach to be Used in Integrated Coastal Zone Management Processes: the case of the Catalan Coast (Catalonia, Spain), Elsevier, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Volume 62, Issue 3, pp [3] Douven, W.J.A.M., Buurman, J.J.G. and Kiswara, W. (2003) Spatial Information for Coastal Zone Management: the Example of the Banten Bay Sea Grass Ecosystem, Indonesia, Elsevier, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 46, Issues 6-7, pp Received: March 03, 2006 Accepted: May 18, 2006 CORRESPONDING AUTHOR Reha Metin Alkan Istanbul Technical University Faculty of Civil Engineering Geodesy and Photogrammetry Engineering Department Maslak Istanbul Turkey FEB/ Vol 15/ No 8a/ 2006 pages

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