# Tensor Methods for Machine Learning, Computer Vision, and Computer Graphics

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1 Tensor Methods for Machine Learning, Computer Vision, and Computer Graphics Part I: Factorizations and Statistical Modeling/Inference Amnon Shashua School of Computer Science & Eng. The Hebrew University ICML07 Tutorial

2 Factorizations of Multi-Dimensional Arrays Normally: factorize the data into a lower dimensional space in order to describe the original data in a concise manner. Focus of Lecture: Factorization of empirical joint distribution Factorization of symmetric forms Latent Class Model Probabilistic clustering. Factorization of partially-symmetric forms Latent clustering ICML07 Tutorial

3 N-way array decompositions A rank=1 matrix G is represented by an outer-product of two vectors: A rank=1 tensor (n-way array) of n vectors is represented by an outer-product ICML07 Tutorial

4 N-way array decompositions A matrix G is of (at most) rank=k if it can be represented by a sum of k rank-1 matrices: A tensor G is (at most) rank=k if it can be represented by a sum of k rank-1 tensors: Example: ICML07 Tutorial

5 N-way array Symmetric Decompositions A symmetric rank=1 matrix G: A symmetric rank=k matrix G: A super-symmetric rank=1 tensor (n-way array), is represented by an outer-product of n copies of a single vector A super-symmetric tensor described as sum of k super-symmetric rank=1 tensors: is (at most) rank=k. ICML07 Tutorial

6 General Tensors Latent Class Models ICML07 Tutorial 6

7 Reduced Rank in Statistics Let and be two random variables taking values in the sets The statement is independent of, denoted by means: is a 2D array (a matrix) is a 1D array (a vector) is a 1D array (a vector) means that is a rank=1 matrix Hebrew University

8 Reduced Rank in Statistics Let be random variables taking values in the sets The statement means: is a n-way array (a tensor) is a 1D array (a vector) whose entries means that is a rank=1 tensor Hebrew University

9 Reduced Rank in Statistics Let be three random variables taking values in the sets The conditional independence statement means: Slice is a rank=1 matrix Hebrew University

10 Reduced Rank in Statistics: Latent Class Model Let Let be random variables taking values in the sets be a hidden random variable taking values in the set The observed joint probability n-way array is: A statement of the form About the n-way array translates to the algebraic statement having tensor-rank equal to Hebrew University

11 Reduced Rank in Statistics: Latent Class Model is a n-way array is a 1D array (a vector) is a rank-1 n-way array is a 1D array (a vector) Hebrew University

12 Reduced Rank in Statistics: Latent Class Model for n=2: Hebrew University

13 Reduced Rank in Statistics: Latent Class Model Hebrew University

14 Reduced Rank in Statistics: Latent Class Model when loss() is the relative-entropy: then the factorization above is called plsa (Hofmann 1999) Typical Algorithm: Expectation Maximization (EM) Hebrew University

15 Reduced Rank in Statistics: Latent Class Model The Expectation-Maximization algorithm introduces auxiliary tensors and alternates among the three sets of variables: Hadamard product. reduces to repeated application of projection onto probability simplex Hebrew University 15

16 Reduced Rank in Statistics: Latent Class Model An L2 version can be realized by replacing RE in the projection operation: Hebrew University

17 Reduced Rank in Statistics: Latent Class Model Let and we wish to find which minimizes: Hebrew University

18 Reduced Rank in Statistics: Latent Class Model To find given, we need to solve a convex program: Hebrew University

19 Reduced Rank in Statistics: Latent Class Model An equivalent representation: Non-negative Matrix Factorization (normalize columns of G) Hebrew University

20 (non-negative) Low Rank Decompositions Measurements (non-negative) Low Rank Decompositions The rank-1 blocks tend to represent local parts of the image class Hierarchical buildup of important parts 4 factors 8 factors 12 factors 16 factors 20 factors ICML07 Tutorial

21 (non-negative) Low Rank Decompositions Example: The swimmer Sample set (256) Non-negative Tensor Factorization NMF ICML07 Tutorial

22 Super-symmetric Decompositions Clustering over Hypergraphs Matrices ICML07 Tutorial 22

23 Clustering data into k groups: Pairwise Affinity input points input (pairwise) affinity value interpret as the probability that and are clustered together unknown class labels ICML07 Tutorial 23

24 Clustering data into k groups: Pairwise Affinity input points k=3 clusters, this point does not belong to any cluster in a hard sense. input (pairwise) affinity value interpret as the probability that and are clustered together unknown class labels A probabilistic view: probability that belongs to the j th cluster note: What is the (algebraic) relationship between the input matrix K and the desired G? ICML07 Tutorial 24

25 Clustering data into k groups: Pairwise Affinity Assume the following conditional independence statements: ICML07 Tutorial 25

26 Probabilistic Min-Cut A hard assignment requires that: where are the cardinalities of the clusters Proposition: the feasible set of matrices G that satisfy are of the form: equivalent to: Min-cut formulation ICML07 Tutorial 26

27 Relation to Spectral Clustering Add a balancing constraint: put together means that also, and means that n/k can be dropped. Relax the balancing constraint by replacing K with the closest doubly stochastic matrix K and ignore the non-negativity constraint: ICML07 Tutorial 27

28 Relation to Spectral Clustering Let Then: is the closest D.S. in L1 error norm. Normalized-Cuts Ratio-cuts Proposition: iterating with is converges to the closest D.S. in KL-div error measure. ICML07 Tutorial 28

29 New Normalization for Spectral Clustering where we are looking for the closest doubly-stochastic matrix in least-squares sense. ICML07 Tutorial 29

30 New Normalization for Spectral Clustering to find K as above, we break this into two subproblems: use the Von-Neumann successive projection lemma: ICML07 Tutorial 30

31 New Normalization for Spectral Clustering successive-projection vs. QP solver running time for the three normalizations ICML07 Tutorial 31

32 New Normalization for Spectral Clustering UCI Data-sets Cancer Data-sets ICML07 Tutorial 32

33 Super-symmetric Decompositions Clustering over Hypergraphs Tensors ICML07 Tutorial 33

34 Clustering data into k groups: Beyond Pairwise Affinity A model selection problem that is determined by n-1 points can be described by a factorization problem of n-way array (tensor). Example: clustering m points into k lines Input: Output: the probability that same model (line). belong to the the probability that the point belongs to the r th model (line) Under the independence assumption: is a 3-dimensional super-symmetric tensor of rank=4 ICML07 Tutorial

35 Clustering data into k groups: Beyond Pairwise Affinity General setting: clusters are defined by n-1 dim subspaces, then for each n- tuple of points we define an affinity value where is the volume defined by the n-tuple. Input: the probability that belong to the same cluster Output: the probability that the point belongs to the r th cluster Assume the conditional independence: is a n-dimensional super-symmetric tensor of rank=k ICML07 Tutorial

36 Clustering data into k groups: Beyond Pairwise Affinity Hyper-stochastic constraint: under balancing requirement K is (scaled) hyper-stochastic: Theorem: for any non-negative super-symmetric tensor, iterating converges to a hyper-stochastic tensor. ICML07 Tutorial

37 Example: multi-body segmentation Model Selection 9-way array, each entry contains The probability that a choice of 9-tuple of points arise from the same model. Probability: ICML07 Tutorial

38 Example: visual recognition under changing illumination 4-way array, each entry contains The probability that a choice of 4 images Live in a 3D subspace. Model Selection ICML07 Tutorial

39 Partially-symmetric Decompositions Latent Clustering ICML07 Tutorial 39

40 Latent Clustering Model collection of data points context states probability that are clustered together given that small high i.e., the vector has a low entropy meaning that the contribution of the context variable to the pairwise affinity is far from uniform. pairwise affinities do not convey sufficient information. input triple-wise affinities

41 Latent Clustering Model Hypergraph representation G(V,E,w) Hyper-edge defined over triplets representing two data points and one context state (any order) undetermined means we have no information, i.e, we do not have access to the probability that three data points are clustered together...

42 Latent Clustering Model Cluster 1 Cluster k Hyper-edge.. Probability that the context state is Associated with the cluster Super-symmetric NTF Hypergraph clustering would provide means to cluster together points whose pairwise affinities are low, but there exists a subset of context states for which is high. Multiple copies of this block All the remaining entries are undefined In that case, a cluster would be formed containing the data points and the subset of context states.

43 Latent Clustering Model Multiple copies of this block All the remaining entries are undefined

44 Latent Clustering Model Multiple copies of this block All the remaining entries are undefined

45 Latent Clustering Model: Application collection of image fragments from a large collection of images unlabeled images holding k object classes, one object per image Available info: # of obj classes k, each image contains only one instance from one (unknown) object class. Clustering Task: associate (probabilistically) fragments to object classes. Challenges: Clusters and obj classes are not the same thing. Generally, # of clusters is larger than # of obj classes. Also, the same cluster may be shared among a number of different classes. The probability that two fragments should belong to the same cluster may be low only because they appear together in a small subset of images small high

46 Images Examples 3 Classes of images: Cows Faces Cars

47 Fragments Examples

48 Examples of Representative Fragments

49 Leading Fragments Of Clusters Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5 Cluster 6

50 Examples Of The Resulting Matrix G Rows

51 Examples Of The Resulting Matrix G Rows

52 Handling Multiple Object Classes Unlabeled set of segmented images, each containing an instance of some unknown object class from a collection of 10 classes: (1) Bottle, (2) can, (3) do not enter sign,(4) stop sign, (5) one way sign,(6) frontal view car,(7) side view car,(8) face,(9) computer mouse, (10) pedestrian dataset adapted from Torralba,Murphey and Freeman, CVPR04

53 Clustering Fragments

54 From Clusters to Classes

55 Results A location which is associated with fragments voting consistently for the same object class will have high value in the corresponding voting map. Strongest hot-spots (local maximums) in the voting maps show the most probable locations of objects.

56 Results

57 Applications of NTF local features for object class recognition ICML07 Tutorial 57

58 Object Class Recognition using Filters Goal : Find a good and efficient collection of filters that captures the essence of an object class of images. Two main approaches: 1) Use a large pre-defined bank of filters which: Rich in variability. Efficiently convolved with an image. Viola-Jones Hel-Or 2) Use filters as basis vectors spanning a low-dimensional vector space which best fits the training images. PCA, HOSVD holistic NMF sparse The classification algorithm selects a subset of filters which is most discriminatory. Hebrew University 58

59 Object Class Recognition using NTF-Filters The optimization scheme: 1) 2) Construct a bank of filters based on Non-negative Tensor Factorization. Consider the filters as weak learners and use AdaBoost. Bank of Filters: We perform an NTF of k factors to approximate the set of original images. We perform an NTF of k factors to approximate the set of inverse images. There are filters Every filter is a pair of original/inverse factor. We take the difference between the two convolutions (original - inverse). Original/Inverse pair for face recognition Hebrew University 59

60 Object Class Recognition using NTF-Filters The optimization scheme: 1) Construct a bank of filters based on Non-negative Tensor Factorization. 2) Consider the filters as weak learners and use AdaBoost. There are original/inverse pairs of weak learners: We ran AdaBoost to construct a classifier of 50 original/inverse NTF pairs. For comparison we ran AdaBoost on other sets of weak learners: AdaBoost classifier constructed from 50 NMF-weak learners. AdaBoost classifier constructed from 50 PCA-weak learners. AdaBoost classifier constructed from 200 VJ-weak learners. An NTF-Filter contains 40 multiplications. An NMF / PCA filter contains about 400 multiplications, yet we have comparable results using the same number of filters. A Viola-Jones weak learner is simpler therefore we used more weaklearners in the AdaBoost classifier. Hebrew University 60

61 Face Detection using NTF-Filters We recovered 100 original factors and 100 inverse factors by preforming NTF on 500 faces of size 24x24. leading filters: NTF NMF PCA Hebrew University 61

62 Face Detection using NTF-Filters ROC curve: 1) For face recognition all the methods achieve comparable performance. Training: The AdaBoost was trained on 2500 faces and 4000 non-faces 2) Test: The AdaBoost was tested on the MIT Test Set, containing 23 images with 149 faces. Hebrew University 62

63 Face Detection using NTF-Filters Results Hebrew University 63

64 Pedestrian Detection using NTF-Filters Sample of the database: Hebrew University 64

65 Pedestrian Detection using NTF-Filters We recovered 100 original factors and 100 inverse factors by preforming NTF on 500 pedestrians of size 10x30. leading filters: NTF NMF PCA Hebrew University 65

66 Pedestrian Detection using NTF-Filters ROC curve: 1) 2) For pedestrian detection NTF achieves far better performance than the rest. Training: The AdaBoost was trained on 4000 pedestrians and 4000 nonpedestrains. Test: The AdaBoost was tested on 20 images with 103 pedestrians. Hebrew University 66

67 Summary Factorization of empirical joint distribution Factorization of symmetric forms Latent Class Model Probabilistic clustering. Factorization of partially-symmetric forms Latent clustering Further details in Hebrew University 67

68 END ICML07 Tutorial

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