CFD and wave and current induced loads on offshore wind turbines


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1 CFD and wave and current induced loads on offshore wind turbines O. M. Faltinsen and M. Greco, CeSOS, NTNU SPH predictions by CNRInsean
2 Relevant offshore wind turbines Relevant hydrodynamic problems are similar as for other offshore structures
3 Problems of Practical Interest Slowlyvarying (Slowdrift) motions: Moored offshore platforms Resonance caused by secondorder wavebody interaction effects Wavedrift and viscous damping
4 Transient ringing response of monotowers and TLPs Springing of TLP Resonance caused by secondorder wavebody interaction effects in operating conditions Viscous damping Caused by 3rd and 4thorder wavebody interaction effects in survival conditions in deep water Ringing in shallow water due to plunging breaking waves Damping is secondary
5 Wetdeck slamming Wave run up and slamming Global and local effects
6 Accidental load: Breaking wave impact on platform column Experiments The resulting shear forces can cause structural failure of a concrete structure Steep and breaking deepwater waves. Scale 1:40 & 1:125 Correspond to extreme events in severe storms (H s =18m, T p =17s)
7 Breaking wave forces in shallow water Truss support structure for wind turbines on the ThorntonBank, Belgian Coast. Design by Reinertsen A/S. Truss structure in shallow water A. Chella
8 Mathieutype instability Damping is important Timedependent change of waterplane area shape and position Haslum Model test with scaled 202.5m draft Spar in 8.5m wave amplitude and 22.5s wave period Maximum response: Heave amplitude=20m Pitch amplitude=20 o Timedependent difference between centers of gravity and buoyancy
9 Vortex Induced Motions (VIM) and Vibrations (VIV)
10 Marine installation operations using a floating vessel/jackup Resonance and viscous damping Lin Li, T. Moan
11 Access to offshore wind turbines Minimize relative motion between ship and wind turbine support structure by automatic control Wave run up at the structure matters Use of highspeed Surface Effect Ship
12 Tools Experiments Analytical Solutions CFD Methods Approximate Computational Tools
13 Tools Complex models Complex geometries Visualization Global & local estimates Peric, CFD Workshop, Trondheim (2007) CFD Methods (NavierStokes solvers)  Reliability Costs
14 Survey by International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC) (2011) What are the difficulties and limitations of CFD to achieve wider use and acceptance to marine hydrodynamic problems? The accuracy of CFD is a main problem (Industries and universities) Grid generation is a major problem (Model basins) CFD Methods (NavierStokes solvers)
15 Main Features of a CFD Solver 1. Modelling 2. Discretization 3. Reliability analysis
16 1) Modelling Define the problem
17 Define the Problem Air Body Water Space: P Time : t Computational Domain,
18 1) Modelling Define the problem Define the fluid/flow properties
19 Define Fluid/Flow Properties Examples: Compressible or incompressible fluid? Air? Water
20 Compressibility is secondary for water, but may be important for air
21 Define Fluid/Flow Properties Examples: Viscous or inviscid fluid? Water?
22 Define Fluid/Flow Properties Examples: Laminar or turbulent flow? t 0 t 1 t 2 t 3? t 0 t 1 t 2 t 3 Path of a fluid particle in laminar flow Mean path of a fluid particle in turbulent flow
23 Turbulence Turbulence involves low spacetime scales. Proper modelling is still an open question. t 0 t 1 t 2 t 3 Mean path of a fluid particle
24 Viscous effects must be considered when flow separation occurs Occurs for structures with small crosssectional area Water
25 Turbulent flow is secondary with flow separation from sharp corners Water
26 1) Modelling Define the problem Define the fluid/flow properties Identify the variables of the problem
27 Identify the variables of the Problem  Assume no air pockets  Air irrelevant for water evolution  Incompressible fluid Pressures Integrated hydrodynamic loads Motions Body Water u, p Surrounding fluid Fluid point
28 1) Modelling Define the problem Define the fluid/flow properties Identify the variables of the problem Find the equations
29 Governing Equations They are given by fluid conservation properties: 1) Conservation of fluid mass 2) Conservation of fluid momentum NavierStokes equations
30 Governing Equations Conservation of fluid mass: (Incompressible Fluid) Volume = constant Zero net flux B
31 Initial Conditions  Unsteady problem Body (u, p) at t = 0 Water
32 Boundary Conditions Body Wetted hull Free surface Water Control surface
33 1) Modelling Remark Modelling implies assumptions and they may be wrong.
34 2) Discretization h : discretization size 1 h Body i Water N
35 CFD Scenarios Basic Assumptions Potential Flow Methods BEM, HPC Field Equations NavierStokes Methods Field Methods Interfaces Grid Methods (FVM/FDM/FEM) Forms of the Governing Eqs BoundaryFitted Grids Not Boundary Fitted Grids Lagrangian Gridless Methods Moving particles (SPH, MPS) Fixed Nodes (RKPM) Immersed in the Comput. Domain body modeled numerically Grid methods: inside body problem, body capturing.. Gridless methods: body force/particles, ghost particles.. Interface capturing (VOF, LS, MAC, CIP) Body Gasliquid Interface Domain Boundary body naturally tracked Interface tracking Eulerian Solution view point Eulerian Lagrangian
36 Potential Flow Methods Incompressible inviscid water with irrotational motion Equations with unknowns on the boundary Equations with unknowns in the domain Computational Domain Computational Domain Boundary Element Methods Field Methods
37 Potential Flow Methods Harmonic Polynomial Cell (HPC) method wave maker water surface Features: 2D sketch of the wave tank Water divided by cells Within each cell, the physical variables are expressed by harmonic polynomials; Benefits: Efficient (sparse matrix) Accurate (higher order) Easy to implement 3D wavebody interaction Yanlin Shao
38 Solution Point of View Lagrangian : The solution is found through moving grid/particles. u
39 Solution Point of View Eulerian : The solution is found at fixed locations.
40 Solution Point of View Eulerian : The solution is found at fixed locations. When Eulerian strategy is used for the field equations an additional technique is required to predict freesurface evolution
41 Strategies for FreeSurface Evolution Lagrangian strategy t 1 t 0 Eulerian strategy f j f i f j f i t 0 t 1
42 Freesurface Evolution VoF Method Hp: The quantity f is the fraction of water volume < 1 < 1 Free surface 1 1
43 Freesurface capturing methods (Level Set, VOF, Colour functions) Initial artificial change between water and air must remain small
44
45 CFD Scenarios Potential Flow Methods Hybrid Methods BEM, HPC Field Equations NavierStokes Methods Field Methods Interfaces Grid Methods (FVM/FDM/FEM) Fixed Grids BoundaryFitted Grids Eulerian Lagrangian Gridless Methods Meshless FEM Particle Methods (SPH, MPS) Time evolution Higherorder methods Immersed in the Comput. Domain body modeled numerically Grid methods: inside body problem, body capturing.. Gridless methods: body force/particles, ghost particles.. Eulerian: interface capturing (VOF, LS, MAC, CIP) Body AirWater Interface Explicit SemiImplicit Implicit Domain Boundary body naturally tracked Lagrangian : interface tracking
46 Hybrid method Vortex shedding causes damping of resonant motions Coupled potential flow (linear) and local viscous solutions with flow separation with significant reduction of computational speed
47 Hybrid method Linear or weakly nonlinear potentialflow solver Efficiency Accuracy NavierStokes solver Breaking Fragmentation Air entrainment Viscosity
48 CFD and CeSOS BEM (Boundary Element Method) HPC (Harmonic Polynomial Cell) SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) FDM (Finite Difference Method)+Level Set CIP(Constrained Interpolation Profile): FDM with CIP used during advection step. Combined with colour functions OpenFoam (FVM+VOF) MaxwellBoltzmann method and use of GPU Hybrid methods for locally separated flow (HPC,FVM) Hybrid methods for green water on deck
49 Reliability Analysis 1) Verification: Solving the equations right? The check of 1) means comparing with other benchmark numerical tests and analytical solutions using the same model. 2) Validation: Solving the right equations? The check of 2) means comparing with model tests. Experiments have also errors Error analysis is needed in both experiments and computations
50 Is this correct?
51 Frame Jan 2013 contour lines Numerical wave tank wave maker water surface Wave beach Numerical damping can cause too quick decay of waves on a coarse grid Numerical dispersion can cause too large error in the dispersion relation between wave length and wave speed
52 Wave focusing due to uneven seafloor Frame May d contour Water surface Y Z X Sea floor HPC results agree well with experiments
53 Verification and validation of ringing loads Comparisons with numerical (Ferrant) and experimental (Huseby&Grue) results Linear Force Analytical Experiment Present Ferrant Wave slope ka Sum Frequency Force Analytical Experiment Present Ferrant Wave slope ka Triple Frequency Force Analytical Experiment Present Ferrant Wave slope ka Quadruple Frequency Force Experiment Ferrant Present Wave 0.25 ka slope Timedomain nonlinear wave forces on a cylinder with exact freesurface conditions by the HPC method Yanlin Shao
54 Ringing of monotower in survival condition Steep local waves propagating on the two sides of the cylinder The waves start on the upstream hull side when there is a wave trough
55 Ringing of monotower in survival condition The two steep propagating waves will later collide Big splash
56 Water entry of circular cylinders Relevant for impact loads on vertical cylinders due to steep waves Wienke&Oumeraci
57 Nonviscous flow separation on a curved surface by BEM t = 0.315s t = 0.390s t = 0.500s t = 0.410s
58 Convergence studies for water entry of circular cylinder with commercial CFD code based on FVM and VOF The effect of the time step size dt on the slamming force coefficient C F / Experiments: C = 5.15 / ( Vt / R) V t / R S S 3 RV 2 C S Neither the force nor the force impulse converge CIP code developments at CeSOS: X. Zhu : Converged force impulse T. Vestbøstad: Satisfactory force Vt R
59 Verification and validation of numerical predictions of local slamming Temarel (2009) Viscous effects can be neglected and potential flow assumed Simple case Difficult benchmark tests: Small local deadrise angles Ventilation Experimental errors (bias and precision errors) Bias examples: 3D flow, oscillatory rig motions, elastic rope forces
60 p p 0.5 V 0 2 Difficult benchmark test Water entry of wedge with deadrise angle 7.5 degrees and constant velocity V Slamming predictions by commercial code (FVM+VOF) Commercial code Human errors? Similarity solution BEM Composite Wagner solution Polynomial fit of average commercial code results z Vt
61 Summary There exists a broad variety of CFD methods Computational time is of concern for wave and current induced loads Physical simplifications by potential flow and hybrid methods reduce computational time Reliability of CFD results All physical problems such as turbulence is not fully understood Convergence Verification and validation
62 Some Useful CFD References Brebbia C. A. many books on Boundary Elements, WIT Press. Ferziger J.H., Peric M. Computational methods for fluid dynamics, Springer. Faltinsen, O. M., Timokha, A. (2009) Sloshing, Chapter 10, Cambridge University Press. Hirt C.W., Nichols B.D. (1988)"VolumeofFluid(VOF)MethodfortheDynamicsof Free Boundaries," J. of Comput. Phys., 39, 201, Johnson C. Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations by the Finite Element Method, Cambridge. Monaghan J.J. (1994) "Simulating free surface flows with SPH", J. Comp. Physics, 110, Sussman M., Smereka P., Osher S. (1994) A level set method for computing solutions to imcompressible twophase flow, J. Comput. Phys, 119, Unverdi S.O., Tryggvason G. (1992) "A Front Tracking Method for Viscous Incompressible Flows, J. of Comput.Phys., 100, Yabe T., Ogata Y., Takizawa K., Kawai T., Segawa A., Sakurai K. (2002) The next generation CIP as a conservative semilagrangian solver for solid, liquid, and gas, J. Comput. Appl. Math., 149,
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