Public Key Infrastructure. A Brief Overview by Tim Sigmon

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1 Public Key Infrastructure A Brief Overview by Tim Sigmon May, 2000

2 Fundamental Security Requirements (all addressed by PKI) X Authentication - verify identity of communicating parties X Access Control - who can access what X Privacy - protect info from indiscriminate viewing X Integrity - guarantees info not altered X Non-Repudiation - inability to disavow a transaction X Management and Audit - ability to manage and ascertain security

3 Public Key Infrastructure - Definitions X Infrastructure for enabling and supporting e-transactions (e-commerce, e-business, etc.) X System that verifies the identity and authority of each party involved in any transaction over the Internet X Includes technologies/functions such as public key encryption, digital certificates, certification authorities, registration authorities, certificate management services, time-stamp services, and directory services

4 Public Key Cryptography X First, secret key or symmetric cryptography same key used for encryption and decryption orders of magnitude faster than public key cryptography X Public key technology solves the key exchange problem X Public key and private key that are mathematically linked X Private key not deducible from public key X Confidentiality: one key encrypts, other decrypts X Digital signature: one key signs, other validates

5 Confidentiality example X Sender generates a symmetric encryption key and encrypts document with it X Sender encrypts symmetric key with recipient s public key X Encrypted symmetric key and encrypted document sent to recipient X Recipient uses private key to decrypt symmetric key X Recipient decrypts document with symmetric key

6 Digital Signatures X Legal concept of signature is very broad any mark made with the intention of authenticating the marked document X Digital signatures are one of many types of electronic signatures X Example electronic signatures loginid/password, PIN, card/pin digitized images of paper signatures digitally captured signatures (UPS, Sears, etc.) typed notations, e.g., /s/ John Smith headers

7 Digital Signatures (cont d) X digital signature means the result of using specific cryptographic processes X Digital signatures operate within a framework of hardware, software, policies, people, and processes called a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) X For more info,

8 Digital Signature example X Sender signs (i.e., encrypts) a hash of the document; sends that and document to recipient X Recipient uses sender s public key to retrieve the sender s hash of the document X Recipient computes hash of the received document X If hashes are the same, the transaction is valid X Note: validates sender and contents of document

9 Digital Signature example

10 Signed example X (show example of sending/receiving digitally signed using Netscape Messenger) X (uses S/MIME)

11 Problem: relying party needs to verify a digital signature X To do this, needs to have an assured copy of the signer s public key signer s identity must be assured integrity of public key must be assured X Potential options for obtaining public keys signer personally gives their public key to relying party relying party obtains the desired public key by other out of band means that they trust, e.g., transitive relationships, signing parties, etc. X But, what about strangers? what about integrity of the public key?

12 Public Key (or Digital) Certificates X Purpose: validate both the integrity of a public key and the identity of the owner X How: bind identifying attributes to a public key (and therefore to the keyholder of the corresponding private key) X Binding is done (i.e., digitally signed) by a trusted third party (Certification Authority) X It is this third party's credibility that provides "trust"

13 X.509 v3 Certificates X Subject s/owner s identifying info (e.g., name) X Subject s/owner s public key X Validity dates (not before, not after) X Serial number X Level of assurance X Certification Authority s name and signature X Extensions

14 X.509v3 Certificate Extensions X subject key identifier X authority key identifier X key usage (digital signature, encryption, etc.) X extended key usage (TLS server auth, code signing, etc.) X private key usage period (rfc2459 against) X certificate policies (e.g., CPS URI) X policy mappings (e.g., policy OID equivalences)

15 X.509v3 Extensions (cont d) X subject alternative name X issuer alternative name X subject directory attributes (rfc2459 against) X basic constraints (denotes CA or not) X path length constraint (CA only) X name constraints (CA only) X policy constraints (CA only) X NOTE: extensions can be marked critical or noncritical

16 Example Certs X (this is where I show and describe the contents of the actual certificates that were used to verify a digitally signed message)

17 Certificate Profiles X RFC2459 defines cert profiles for Internet use X Profiles need to be further refined (constrained/simplified) for the Va DSI pilots X Identity vs. Attribute certs should carry only subject identity info» static, long-lived info X.509 defines attribute certificates» not public key certs» typically short-lived» carry pointer to associated public key cert authorization info should be maintained by relevant application or carried in attribute certs

18 Distribution of Certificates X since certs carry public info and are integrityprotected, they can be distributed and shared by any and all means, e.g., distribute via floppies or other removable media publish on web sites distribute via (e.g., S/MIME) directory lookups (e.g., LDAP, X.500) X distribution via directories is the ultimate solution X however, many important applications and uses of digital signatures can be implemented without the implementation or use of sophisticated directories

19 More about Digital Certificates X Formats: X.509v3, PGP, others X Storage and retrieval public: LDAP, X.500, personal keyrings private: hard disk, smartcard; password or biometric to unlock X Cert should contain minimum necessary identification info X Key escrow for encryption but not signing X Users will need at least two (signing and encryption) but probably will have many more

20 Trust and Certification Paths X User needs an assured copy of the PK of the issuing CA in order to validate a certificate containing a required PK how do you know that a student didn t set up a CA and issue certs? X In general, a chain of multiple certificates may be needed X How to organize the CA s? pure top-down hierarchy (yikes!) web of trust (e.g., CREN, Federal Bridge, CBCA) X Revocation and CRLs (certificate revocation lists)

21 Where are we now? X Technologies are still evolving but are very usable X Policies and legal standing exist but still developing (need case law) Code of Virginia Uniform Electronic Transctions Act X Browsers already contain a lot of capability X Particular uses widely taking place, e.g., SSL X Some universities making more use, e.g., MIT X Federal government taking a leadership role

22 DS efforts in Virginia X Digital Signature Initiative (COTS workgroup) formed to pursue first wave deployments X UVa will lead development of a bridge certification architecture (modeled after federal bridge) X First wave sponsors VIPNet Dept. of Game & Inland Fisheries DMV, DOT, DIT, DGS Counties of Chesterfield, Fairfax, Wise City of Norfolk

23 For More Information X information from the National Institute of Standards and Technology who are taking a leadership role in the development of a Federal PKI X lots of info about the federal PKI efforts X Richard Guida s presentation (both video and slides) X st84.htm Uniform Electronic Transactions Act

24 For More Information (cont d) X Verisign has a number of PKI products/services and their web site contains a lot of documentation X Entrust Technologies has a number of PKI related products and their web site contains a nice demo X html IBM has a number of PKI related products and info at this site

25 For More Information (cont d) X Virginia s Council on Technology Services

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