# Data Preparation and Statistical Displays

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1 Reservoir Modeling with GSLIB Data Preparation and Statistical Displays Data Cleaning / Quality Control Statistics as Parameters for Random Function Models Univariate Statistics Histograms and Probability Plots Q-Q and P-P Plots Bivariate Statistics and Distributions Exploratory Data Analysis

2 Statistical Analysis of Data Well Depth X Y Poro Perm Layer Seq LogK Goals of Exploratory Data Analysis understand the data: statistical versus geological populations ensure data quality condense information Only limited functionality in GSLIB (some special geostat tools) a supplement with commercial software

3 Statistics as Parameters of Random Function Models Not interested in sample statistics need to access underlying population parameters A model is required to go beyond the known data Because earth science phenomena involve complex processes they appear as random. Important to keep in mind that actual data are not the result of a random process.

4 Univariate Description Frequency Histogram: A counting of samples in classes Sometimes two scales are needed to show the details (use trimming limits) logarithmic scale can be useful Summary statistics mean is sensitive to outliners median is sensitive to gaps in the middle of a distribution locate distribution by selected quantiles (e.g., quartiles) spread measured by standard deviation (very sensitive to extreme values) GSLIB program histplt

5 Cumulative Probability Plot Cumulative Probability Variable Useful to see all of the data values on one plot Useful for isolating statistical populations May be used to check distribution models: straight line on arithmetic scale a normal distribution straight line on logarithmic scale a lognormal distribution small departures can be important possible to transform data to perfectly reproduce any univariate distribution GSLIB program probplt

6 Cumulative Histograms Frequency Cumulative Frequency 1 0 The cumulative frequency is the total or the cumulative fraction of samples less than a given threshold

7 Cumulative Histograms Cumulative Frequency First Quartile Value Cumulative frequency charts do not depend on the binwidth; they can be created at the resolution of the data A valuable descriptive tool and used for inference A quantile is the variable-value that corresponds to a fixed cumulative frequency first quartile = 0.25 quantile second quartile = median = 0.5 quantile third quartile = 0.75 quantile can read any quantile from the cumulative frequency plot Can also read probability intervals from the cumulative frequency plot (say, the 90% probability interval) Direct link to the frequency

8 Q-Q / P-P Plots 20.0 Q-Q Plot: Equal Weighted 1.0 P-P Plot: Equal Weighted True Value 10.0 True Value Clustered Data Clustered Data 1.0 Compares two univariate distributions Q-Q plot is a plot of matching quantiles a a straight line implies that the two distributions have the same shape. P-P plot is a plot of matching cumulative probabilities a a straight line implies that the two distributions have the same shape. Q-Q plot has units of the data, P-P plots are always scaled between 0 and 1 GSLIB program qpplt

9 Q-Q Plots Data Set One Data Set Two value cdf value cdf Sort the values in each data set Calculate cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each Match according to (CDF) values

10 Let's Build a Q-Q Plot Cumulative Frequency Cumulative Frequency Frequency Frequency Core Porosity Log Porosity Histograms of core porosity and log-derived porosity Preferential sampling explains difference; these are not paired samples so we can not detect bias in samples

11 Let's Build a Q-Q Plot Log porosity Core porosity Read corresponding quantiles from the cumulative frequency plots on the previous page Plot those quantiles on the plot

12 Univariate Transformation Frequency Cumulative Frequency Frequency Cumulative Frequency Transforming values so that they honor a different histogram may be done by matching quantiles Many geostatistical techniques require the data to be transformed to a Gaussian or normal distribution

13 Data Transformation Core Porosity Core Porosity Cumulative Frequency Frequency Cumulative Frequency Log-derived Porosity Log-derived Porosity Frequency Histograms of core porosity and log-derived porosity These are paired samples so we may want to transform the log-derived porosity values to core porosity

14 Data Transformation Use the cumulative frequency plots on the previous page to fill in the following table Log Porosity Core Porosity Could we transform log-derived porosity values according to the 853 paired samples we have? Under what circumstances would we consider doing this? What problems might be encountered? Cumulative Frequency Core Porosity Cumulative Frequency Log-derived Porosity

15 Monte Carlo Simulation Frequency Cumulative Frequency Core Porosity Core Porosity Monte Carlo Simulation / Stochastic Simulation / Random Drawing proceed by reading quantiles from a cumulative distribution The procedure: generate a random number between 0 and 1 (calculator, table, program,... read the quantile associated to that random number For Example: Random Number Simulated Number

16 Scatterplots True versus Estimate 16.0 True Value 0.0 Estimate ρ rank > ρ Bivariate display, estimate-true, two covariates, or the same variable separated by some distance vector Linear correlation coefficient ranges between -1 and +1 and is sensitive to extreme values (points away from the main cloud) ρ rank < ρ Rank correlation coefficient is a useful supplement: if ρ rank > ρ then a few outliers are spoiling an otherwise good correlation if ρ rank < ρ then a few outliers are enhancing an otherwise poor correlation if ρ rank = 1 then a non-linear transform of one covariate can make ρ = 1 GSLIB program scatplt 16.0

17 Look at bivariate summaries Marginal histograms Scatterplots

18 Bivariate Distributions a) Bivariate histogram b) Bivariate cumulative distribution function c) Conditional cumulative distribution function

19 Conditional Distributions Permeability (md) Known primary value Distribution of possible permeability values at a known porosity value Calibration Scattergram z - values Prediction of conditional distributions is at the heart of geostatistical algorithms

20 Class Definition 10,000 Permeability Porosity Choose equal probability intervals rather than equal porosity or permeability intervals Check for bias in histogram - often there are many more low porosity log data than low porosity core data Due to a biased core data set, we may need to set porosity cutoffs based on an even φ spacing rather than equal probability

21 Exploratory Data Analysis Plot the data in different ways; our eyes are good at pattern detection Choose geological/statistical populations for detailed analyses: populations must be identifiable in wells without core must be able to map these populations (categories) can not deal with too many, otherwise there are too few data for reliable statistics often a decision must be made to pool certain types of data stationarity is a property of statistical models and not reality important and very field/data/goals-specific Perform statistical analyses within each population: ensure data quality look for trends understand physics as much as possible Decluster data for geostatistical modeling Statistical tools are used throughout a reservoir characterization study

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