Alternative fumigation and cold disinfestation methods

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1 Alternative fumigation and cold disinfestation methods Andrew Jessup A and Francis De Lima B A NSW Department of Primary Industries, North Loop Road, Ourimbah, NSW B Department of Agriculture and Food, South Perth, WA 6151 A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November 2014

2 Contents Technology options for proof of quarantine security Current options for table grape exports The disinfestation R&D process Alternative fumigation and cold disinfestation methods being tested A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

3 Technology options for proof of quarantine security Cold storage Fumigation Irradiation Heat treatments Low pressure Combination treatments Field based systems A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

4 Current options for table grape exports Non-phyto Pest freedom (including east-west protocol ) Banned (or not submitted) Cold storage Fumigation International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs) A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

5 CHINA COLD on-shore or in-transit - 1 C 16d; 2.1 C 21d [Medfly or Qff] INDONESIA FF Free (Tasmania, Riverland) COLD - 1 C 16d; 2 C 16d; 3 C 16d [Qff]; 1.1 C 14d; 2.2 C 18d; 3 C 20d [Medfly] FUMIGATION - Methyl bromide 32g.m-3 21 C 2h; 40g.m C 2h; 48g.m C 2h HEAT Vapour heat treatment 44.4 C 8h45min VIETNAM (currently) Certification of freedom from pests, soil, weed seeds, extraneous material A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

6 MARKET COLD TREATMENT SCHEDULES FOR TABLES GRAPES AGAINST QUEENSLAND FRUIT FLY CHINA 1 C 16d 2.1 C 21d JAPAN 1 C 16d 2 C 18d 3 C 20d INDIA 0 C 13d 0.55 C 14d 1.1 C 18d KOREA (Sth) 1 C 16d 2 C 18d 3 C 20d NZ 0 C 13d 1 C 16d PHILIPPINES 1 C 12d 3 C 14d TAIWAN 0.0 C 13d 0.56 C 14d 1.11 C 18d 1.67 C 20d 2.22 C 22d THAILAND 0.0 C 13d 0.56 C 14d 1.11 C 18d 1.67 C 20d 2.22 C 22d A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

7 MARKET INDONESIA 32g.m C for 2h INDIA 40g.m C for 2h FUMIGATION (METHYL BROMIDE) TREATMENT SCHEDULES FOR TABLES GRAPES AGAINST QUEENSLAND FRUIT FLY AND MEDFLY 40g.m C for 2h 48g.m C for 2h A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

8 The disinfestation R&D process 3 MAIN STEPS (and a lot of smaller, but significant, steps, too) LARVAL DEVELOPMENT - the maturation span of each immature life stage is determined so each can be tested separately. MOST TREATMENT TOLERANT LIFE STAGE each immature stage is tested against sub-lethal doses and the most tolerant is determined as well as the optimum lethal dose. LARGE SCALE CONFIRMATORY TESTS - replicated three times on the most treatment tolerant life stage at the optimal lethal dose is carried out 0 survivors from 30,000 treated. Export submission is compiled. A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

9 Fruit are infested with fruit fly eggs A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

10 Insects are allowed to develop in fruit from eggs to mature larvae A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

11 After treatment (e.g. cold storage or fumigation) fruit infested with fruit fly eggs and larvae are stored and assessed for survival A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

12 During treatment conditions (e.g. temperature or fumigant concentration) are monitored constantly A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

13 Surviving insects (pupae) from the Controls and Treated fruit are sieved from their pupation medium and counted. A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

14 Alternative fumigation and cold disinfestation methods being tested A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

15 Cold storage QFF -1 C 12d; 2 C 14d; 3 C 14d (also covers Lesser Qld fruit fly (B. neohumeralis) Medfly: 1 C 16d; 2 C 18d; 3 C 20d Complete Fumigation Vapormate (Ethyl formate + CO 2 ) LBAM, red back spider: 240g.m C for 2h Mealybugs, thrips: 120g.m C for 2h Also worked at 10 C and 15 C at higher doses Continuing A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

16 Irradiation Fruit flies: 150Gray All other arthropods (except Lepidopteran pupae and adults): 400Gy Insecticidal efficacy international approval achieved. But we need FSANZ approval for use in Australia and New Zealand currently under review A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

17 Low concentration methyl bromide experiments are currently being tested by researchers in Qld DAFF in stone fruit. Lower doses but longer fumigation times reduce residues and volume of fumigant released into the atmosphere Qld DAFF researchers are also evaluating comparative cold storage responses for a range of other pest fruit fly species present in Australia. Some countries have queried whether or not our treatments against Qff and Medfly will also kill other native species. A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

18 B halfordiae B neohumeralis B tryoni B. musae B cucumis B frauenfeldi Dirioxa pornia A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November 2014 B jarvisii

19 NSWDPI researchers are looking at rapid, accurate sampling and testing procedures in combination with field sanitation that prove harvested fruit are free from quarantine insects. This follows similar techniques used to export Canadian cherries to China. A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

20 Researchers in NSW DPI are commencing new work on testing low pressure (hypobaric) as multibenefit treatments (disinfestation, retardation of storage rots, improvement of shelf life) for fresh vegetables, fruit, cut flowers, meat, cheese. A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

21 EFFECTS OF SULPHUR PADS ON QLD FRUIT FLY EGGS AND LARVAE NSWDPI researchers conducted a preliminary trial: 200 fruit fly eggs in larval diet were sealed in plastic bag with one SO2 pad (commercial type). SO2 killed fruit flies over time. TREATMENT No. of survivors (Qld fruit fly) Control Control SO2, 24h 80 SO2, 48h 8 SO2, 72h 3 A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

22 USDA researchers have just completed studies on fumigating cherries with high purity phosphine using the Horn Diluphos System with considerable success (no data received yet). This system counters previous problems with corrosion, explosivity and product damage. Accessed 11 November 2014 A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

23 CSIRO is assessing microwave treatment of small fruit against quarantine pests. CSIRO. Microwave heating of whole fruit for enhanced insect disinfestation A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

24 Stayed tuned for results of current and future R&D as well as new export approvals for completed export submissions. A Jessup 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, Mildura, Australia 14 November /24

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