1 Pak. J. Statist Vol. 30(6), DETERMINING THE IN-SERVICE TRAINING NEEDS OF GUIDANCE TEACHERS Coşkun Küçüktepe Faculty of Education, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey. ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to determine the in-service training need of the guidance teachers. The research was designed as a qualitative case study. The participants were 27 guidance teachers working in 11 district state schools in Istanbul during school year. The data were obtained using a semi structured interview form. The interviews with the guidance teachers were recorded in the audio format and then transcribed and coded into themes, which were tabled with percentage and frequencies. As a result of the study, it was understood that guidance teachers felt themselves inadequate mostly in terms of guiding students in need of special education and inclusion, and in terms of counselling techniques and vocational guidance. It was also found that the participating guidance teachers would like to have in-service training about intervention to the traumatic cases, special education, solution-focused therapy with drama and counselling techniques. It was also understood that guidance teachers believe their colleagues need to have in-service training mostly about counselling techniques, solutionfocused therapy, family counselling and communication skills. 1. INTRODUCTION According to the provisions of Article 4/i of the Guidance and Counselling Services Regulation issued by Ministry of National Education in 2001, guidance teacher is defined as the staff who give guidance and counselling service to students in guidance and counselling units at education-instruction institutions and guidance and research centres, and who received undergraduate education in the fields of guidance and counselling and psychological services in education (Ministry of National Education [MoNE], 2001). In the above-cited regulation, it is specified that guidance teachers are assigned to prepare, apply and report school guidance services program, to help the classroom guidance teachers to apply the program, to plan activities considering the students educational, individual-social and vocational development, to conduct the individual recognition techniques, to hold individual and group counselling sessions, and to offer consultancy services to school managers, other teachers, parents and other staff possibly taking part in guidance and counselling services (Altun & Camadan, 2013). There is considerable literature aiming at determining the views and suggestions of teachers, administers, and students about the duties and responsibilities of guidance teachers. Some of these research suggest that guidance teachers duties and responsibilities include ensuring or taking precautions to ensure personal, vocational, educational and social development of the students, and taking actions in this respect (Aluede & Egbochuku, 2007; Başaran, 2008; Ekstrom, Elmore, Schafe, Trotter & Webster, 2004; Gibson, 1989; Güven, 2005; 2014 Pakistan Journal of Statistics 1389
2 1390 Determining the In-service Training Needs of Guidance Teachers Hardesty & Dillard, 1994; Miller, 1986; Morse & Russell, 1988; Tatlılıoğlu, 1999;). Some other researches define the guidance teachers duties and responsibilities as resolving or taking actions towards resolving students social, personal, vocational and educational problems (Aydın, 1987; Hohenshil & Brown, 1991; Tatlılıoğlu, 1999; Zalaquett, 2005). Still other researches specify that guidance teachers have such roles and responsibilities as to conduct individual and group counselling to resolve the students problems (Ametea & Clark, 2005; Bonebrake & Gorgers, 1984; Carroll, 1993; Coll & Freeman, 1997; Ginter, Scealise & Presse, 1990; Wilgus & Shelley, 1988), to perform counselling services (Ametea & Clark, 2005; Erkan, 2006; Gökçakan, 2008; Hatunoğlu & Hatunoğlu, 2006; Karagüven, 2001; Poyraz, 2007; Remley & Albright, 1988), taking actions towards student recognition and performing some tests, writing reports, doing the red tape, and helping the administrative works (Aydın, 1987; Burnham & Jakson, 2000; Ekstrom, Elmore, Schafe, Trotter & Webster, 2004; Humes & Hohenshil, 1987; Kepçeoğlu, 1999; Kutlu, 2002; Saylan & Gürkan, 2002; Yüksel-Şahin, 2008).As it is seen, the guidance and counselling services performed by guidance teachers at schools aim at supporting the self-actualization and development of individuals as a whole (Gökçakan, 2008). Considering the services falling into the scope of guidance, it is important for the students to benefit from the guidance services in accordance with the characteristics of the developmental period of relevant educational stage (Akgün, 2010). In order to ensure that guidance services offered at schools are efficient and productive, guidance teachers should perform their above-cited duties in accordance with the objectives and principles of guidance services. In order to perform their duties successfully, the guidance teachers should have a qualified pre-service education; and renew and improve themselves in service. In-service training is of great importance for guidance teachers, as for all professions, in terms of constantly improving themselves and performing their profession productively In-service Training As one of the most important activities of human resources management, in-service training is the process of having the desired changes in workers behaviours in a planned way. It refers to the efforts planned by the institution in order to facilitate the acquisition of the job-related competencies by the workers. These competencies include the critical knowledge, skills and practices necessary for successful processional performance (Noe, 1999). Defined as training activities held in order to ensure that employees do their jobs better, improve, reflect, be happy and more productive, get ready for a new or highergrade duties (Harris, 1989), in-service training involves the improvement of the people in the work place in terms all professional aspects (Küçüktepe, 2013). It is extremely important that the teachers, as the most important education worker, to have in-service training in order to gain all the competencies required for the teaching profession comprehensively. In-service training is acknowledged by most experts to be one of the methods to make sure that teachers acquire the knowledge and skills required by their profession through informal interactions with other teachers and acquiring direct experience (Hamilton & Richardson, 1995; Wight & Buston, 2003). According to Garuba (2004), in-service training for teachers has two aspects. Firstly, it must be gap-filler in teacher training. This aspect emphasized that in-service training is a means filling the gaps between preservice training teachers had and the new requirements of the
3 Coşkun Küçüktepe 1391 profession. The second aspect of in-service training, on the other hand, involves updating teachers knowledge to enhance their performance and effectiveness (Garuba, 2004). Thus, teachers need for in-service trainings terms either from the inadequacies of their preservice training or from the effort to get updated removing the outdated professional knowledge and practices (Küçüktepe, 2013). Today, it is argued by many researchers that teachers should get in-service training, which is also true for many other professionals (Aytaç, 2000; Bedük, 1997; Borko, 2004; Budak, 1998; Cho, 2002; Erişen, 1998; Fung, 2000; Gültekin & Çubukçu, 2008; Jeanpierre, Oberhauser, & Freeman, 2005; Kaçan, 2004; Karaküçük, 1987; Küçükahmet, 1992; Küçüktepe, 2013; Marker, 1999; O Sullivan, 2000; Retallick & Mithani, 2003; Saban, 2000; Sarıgöz, 2011; Üstüner, Ersoy & Sancar, 2000). Conducting a qualified in-service training depends firstly on the quality of in-service training programs. Bagwadeen and Louw (1993) suggest that inservice training should be done with effective programs which would enable the professional improvement and sustainable education of the teachers (Gültekin & Çubukçu, 2008). If the teachers are to participate into in-service training programs actively and transfer whatever they learn during the program in to their actual education settings, the content of the in-service training should be closely related with the teachers needs and their in-class activities (Lanier & Little, 1989). For an effective in-service training, teachers education needs must be determined accurately. Otherwise, the sources and energy invested in the in-service training programs would be wasted (Küçüktepe, 2013) The Needs for in-service Training The education needs in pre-service and in-service training programs towards vocational education are the fundamental needs leading the entire process. Training need in vocational education is defined as the discrepancy between the workers current level of performance and the expected level of performance. The discrepancy between the actual performance the employee displays and the expected performance required for the task to be accomplished under best circumstances, e.g. the discrepancy stemming from employee s personal competence, produces the education needs (Sinha & Sinha, 2010). The institutions should analyse these education needs of their employees carefully to increase productivity and prepare in-service training programs based on the results of the analysis. Thanks to the education needs analysis, institutions can have the opportunity to determine the education needs to a great extent in order to enhance the levels of attitudes, knowledge, skills and practice both in terms of working groups and teams and individual workers in the institution (Barbezetta, 2005; Drummond, 2008). At the educational needs analysis stage, which is the fundamental stage of designing and developing the in-service training programs, critical information is obtained about where and why an in-service training is needed, who need training in the institution, and what content the in-service training program will cover. Therefore, systematically arranged and programmed needs analysis should be regarded as the most critical factor affecting the overall quality and effectiveness of in-service training programs (Dierdorff & Surface, 2008). Workers in an institution may have needs of different kinds. De Ketele et al. (1989) define three kinds of training needs to be satisfied with in-service training programs: Perceived Education Needs: Employees are aware of their education needs and demand for it. In such cases, the data collection and analysis attempts towards determining training needs do not require much effort.
4 1392 Determining the In-service Training Needs of Guidance Teachers Existing but not Felt Education Needs: There are problems concerning the employees performance stemming from education needs, yet they are not aware of this. They do not demand for any kind of training, or might not confess that they need it. Education Needs as a Result of Change and Improvement: There are always improvements in the fields of technology, production, consumption, society, economy, science etc. Those individuals who are unaware of these developments cannot possibly know about their education needs. In such cases, it is a priority to raise awareness among individuals. Long-lasting and sustainable actions should be taken to determine such education needs (Budak, 2009). In the present study, it was aimed to determine Perceived education needs of the guidance teachers since data were collected using self-report approach. The previous researches on in-service training in Turkey have been generally about the evaluation of in-service training activities and programs (Türkay, 2000; Yalın, 2001), teachers views about the implementation and content of in-service training programs (Arslan & Şahin, 2013; Baştürk, 2012; Gültekin & Çubukçu, 2008; Sarıgöz, 2011; Uçar & İpek, 2006), and needs analysis for in-service training programs (Ekşi, 2000; Küçüktepe, 2013). There is a limited literature on the determination of teachers in-service training needs. Moreover, no previous qualitative research has been found about determining the guidance teachers in-service training needs. Based on this gap in the literature, the present study aimed at determining the guidance teachers training needs. In this respect, the main research problem was What are the education needs of the guidance teachers? Based on this research problem, answers to following questions were sought: 1. About what aspects of guidance and counselling do teachers feel themselves inadequate the most? 2. What do the guidance teachers prefer to learn in an in-service training program? 3. In which aspects do guidance teachers feel their colleagues need to be trained? 2. METHOD 2.1. Design The study is based on a qualitative design since it aims to describe in-service training needs of the guidance teachers based on their views obtained through interviews. In a qualitative research, qualitative data collection methods such as interviews and document analysis are used and perceptions and events are tried to be understood in a realistic and holistic way in their natural settings (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2013). Since it was aimed to determine the training needs of a group of teachers, the study was designed as multiple case study Participants The participants of the study comprised 27 voluntary guidance teachers (19 female and 8 male) who attended the seminaries held by the District Directorate of National Education at the beginning of school year. Therefore the sampling was done according to typical sampling, one of the purposive sampling methods. Of those teachers 21 worked in secondary schools, while 6 worked in primary schools. None of the participating teachers had attended an in-service training before. In terms of professional
5 Coşkun Küçüktepe 1393 seniority, 18 teachers were experienced for 1-5 years, 7 were experienced for 6-10 years, and 2 were experienced for years Data collection The data were collected using semi-structured interview technique in order to reveal the views of the guidance teachers in depth. The interview form contained the following questions: 1. In which aspects do you feel yourself inadequate the most while you are guiding or counselling your students? 2. If you were to have an in-service training, what would you prefer to learn during that in-service training? 3. In which aspects of guidance and counselling do you think your colleagues need to be educated? The interview form was evaluated by a measurement and evaluation expert, a scholar expertized in guidance and counselling department, a curriculum development expert, and a Turkish language expert. Based on their views necessary modifications were done on the form. After the questions were checked for clarity on a pilot study with four guidance teachers, the final form was obtained. The actual interviews were recorded in audio format. Next the records were transcribed and the data were analysed Data Analysis The data were analysed using descriptive technique. In the descriptive analysis they obtained data are summarized and interpreted according to the themes specified in advance (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2013).The data were analysed using NVIVO 8 qualitative data analysis software program. 3. RESULTS The findings about the training needs of guidance teachers as a result of the analysis of the structured interviews are presented below. The main themes regarding the answers to the first research question About what aspects of guidance and counselling do teachers feel themselves inadequate the most? are presented in table 1.
6 1394 Determining the In-service Training Needs of Guidance Teachers Table 1 Guidance Teachers Views about the Issues they Feel Inadequate While Doing Their Job Themes f % Guiding students in need of special education and inclusion 12 22,64 Psychological guidance techniques 7 13,21 Vocational Guidance 6 11,32 Regulations 5 9,43 Failure to transform theoretical knowledge into practice 5 9,43 Crisis Management 3 5,66 Administering Psychological tests 3 5,66 Guidance services for children suffering violence 3 5,66 Wetting clothes 2 3,77 Sibling Jealousy 2 3,77 Values education 1 1,89 Failure to empathize 1 1,89 Anger Control Problems 1 1,89 Counselling 1 1,89 Curriculum and Its Characteristics 1 1,89 Total ,00 It is seen that the guidance teachers feel themselves inadequate the most in terms of Guiding students in need of Special education and inclusion (22.64%). During the research guidance teachers views about their inadequacy in terms of special education was mentioned within the context of preparing Unified Education Programs (UEP), which is very important for defining and meeting the special education students needs. Second category that guidance teachers feel themselves professionally inadequate the most was psychological counselling techniques (13.31%). Concerning this category, it was found out that guidance teachers felt themselves insufficient in terms of counselling techniques and practices both with individuals and groups. The third category of inadequacy was vocational guidance (11.32%). Guidance teachers were found to feel themselves incapable of helping students decide about the occupation that bests suits to their characteristics and guiding students to these occupations. The fourth categories of professional inadequacy were about knowledge of regulations (9.43%) and failure to transform theoretical knowledge into practice (9.43%). Guidance teachers feel they have limited knowledge about the regulations particularly about guidance regulations i.e. the procedures for forwarding the students to Guidance Research Center, legal rights of students abused or behaved violently, the regulations to be applied for the students displaying extremely problematic behaviours in class or at school. Similarly, guidance teachers felt themselves inadequate in terms of putting into practice whatever they have learned theoretically. When asked for the possible reasons of this situation, the participating teachers referred to the ineffectiveness of the undergraduate school practice courses and practice teachers in teaching them how to use their theoretical knowledge into practice. Other minor categories that guidance teachers felt themselves inadequate
7 Coşkun Küçüktepe 1395 while doing their jobs include, in the order of importance, psychological tests and their use (5.66%), guidance services for children suffering violence (5.66%), crisis management (5.66%), problems specific developmental problems like wetting clothes (3.77%) and sibling jealousy (3.77%), values education (1.89%), failure to empathize (1.89%), counselling services (1.89%) and curriculum and its characteristics (1.89%). The main themes regarding the answers to the second research question What do the guidance teachers prefer to learn in an in-service training program? are presented in table 2. Table 2 Guidance Teachers Views about the Issues They Would Like to have In-Service Training about Themes f % Intervention to traumatic cases 10 12,5 Drama 8 10 Special education 8 10 Solution-focused counselling 7 8,75 Family counselling 6 7,5 Intelligence-Skill-Psychological Tests 6 7,5 Crises management 4 5 Adaptation problems 4 5 Communication with parents 3 3,75 Project preparation process 3 3,75 Projective tests 3 3,75 Peer negotiation 2 2,5 Substance addiction 2 2,5 Clinic cases 2 2,5 Curriculum and basic characteristics 2 2,5 Measurement and evaluation system 2 2,5 Internet addiction 1 1,25 Empathy 1 1,25 Vocational guidance 1 1,25 Developmental characteristics of pre-school period 1 1,25 Violence and bullying at school 1 1,25 Neurophysiological basis of learning 1 1,25 Curriculum development in guidance 1 1,25 Social skills education 1 1,25 Total The analysis about the topics about which guidance teachers would like to have in-service training revealed that intervention to traumatic cases (12.5%) was at the top of the list. Participants stated that they especially need in-service training about guiding children who were and have been exposed to incest encounters, sexual, emotional or physical abuse. Next two categories that guidance teachers felt education need about
8 1396 Determining the In-service Training Needs of Guidance Teachers were special education (10%) and drama (10%). Considering that participants felt themselves inadequate the most about guiding students in need of special education and inclusion as discussed in the first research question, it is understandable that guidance teachers stated that they needed training about how to communicate with students who need special education, guide their families and prepare individualized education programs for these students. Their education needs regarding the drama was mainly about how to perform socio-drama, psycho-drama and creative drama. The third most recited education needs of the guidance teachers was about conducting solution-focused therapy (8.75%). Participants stated that they need solution-focused therapy technique particularly because they have problems in actively guiding the students with adaptation problems and problematic behaviours in the classroom and at school. The fourth most mentioned categories of education need were about family consultation (7.5%) and intelligence and skill tests (7.5%). The need for education about family consultation was mainly about how to communicate with parents more effectively and guide the parents about the family-related negative situations adversely affecting the students academic achievement. Moreover, they believed they need to know more about family consultancy because it has become popular. The education need about intelligence and skill tests, and other psychological tests was specifically about using tests like Gesel, Good enough, Metropolitan, Frostig, and Bender Gestalt (3.75%). Considering their education needs about projective tests together, it seem participants have a considerable education need on tests (11.25%). In addition to these needs, participants stated they needed to be trained about crises management (5%), adaptation problems (5%). In terms of crises management, guidance teachers education needs especially concentrated on managing such crises as bullying and problematic student behaviours. In terms of adaptation problems, they needed to learn about effective solution of social problems and difficulty to adapt to school. Other education needs of the guidance teachers included communication with parents (3.75%), project preparation process (3.75%), curriculum and its characteristics (2.5%), measurement and evaluation system (2.5%), clinic cases (2.5%), peer negotiation (2.5%), substance addiction (2.5%), internet addiction (1.25%), empathy (1.25%), school violence and bullying (1.25%), developing social/interpersonal skills (1.25%), curriculum development in guidance (1.25%), characteristics of preschool period (1.25%), and neurophysiological basis of learning (1.25%). The main themes regarding the answers to the third research question In which aspects of guidance and counselling do you think your colleagues need to be educated? are presented in table 3.
9 Coşkun Küçüktepe 1397 Table 3 Guidance Teachers Views about their Colleagues Education Needs Themes f % Solution-focused therapy 9 13,85 Family consultancy 7 10,77 Communication skills 6 9,23 Characteristics of adolescence period 4 6,15 Special education 4 6,15 Vocational ethics 3 4,62 Coping with stress and exam anxiety 3 4,62 Values education 2 3,08 Controlling feelings 2 3,08 Substance use - Addiction 2 3,08 Vocational guidance 2 3,08 Task definition of the profession 2 3,08 Classroom management 2 3,08 Children exposed to violence 2 3,08 Techniques to develop creative thinking skills 2 3,08 Information technologies literacy 1 1,54 Drama 1 1,54 Empathy 1 1,54 Active listening 1 1,54 Entrepreneurship 1 1,54 Guidance at elementary school 1 1,54 Regulations 1 1,54 Motivation 1 1,54 Problem solving 1 1,54 Social services 1 1,54 Test developing techniques 1 1,54 Adaptation problems 1 1,54 Constructivist curricula and their characteristics 1 1,54 Total Guidance teachers believed that the issue about which their colleagues need to be educated the most was solution-focused therapy (13.85%), one of the counselling techniques. Solution-focused therapy was also found to be one of the topics that guidance teachers felt the highest education need them. Family consultancy (10.77%) was second subject that guidance teachers believed their colleagues need to be educated the most. The third issue that guidance teachers thought their colleagues feel a need for training was communication skills (9.23%). Guidance teachers explained the reason for this need with their colleagues failure to effectively communicate with students, parents, school administrators and other teaches. Special education (6.15%) and characteristics of adolescence period (6.15%) were the next topics that guidance teachers thought their colleagues need training about. Other categories of education needs guidance teachers attribute to their colleagues included, in order of importance, vocational ethics (4.62%),
10 1398 Determining the In-service Training Needs of Guidance Teachers coping with stress and exam anxiety (4.62%), controlling feelings (3.08%), values education (3.08%), substance use-addiction (3.08%), vocational guidance (3.08%), task definition of the profession (3.08%), classroom management (3.08%), children exposed to violence (3.08%), techniques to develop creative thinking skills (3.08%), information technology literacy (1.54%), drama (1.54%), empathy (1.54%), active listening (1.54%), entrepreneurship (1.54%), guidance at elementary school (1.54%), regulations (1.54%), motivation (1.54%), problem solving (1.54%), social services (1.54%), test development (1.54%), adaptation problems (1.54%), and constructivist curricula and their characteristics (1.54%). 4. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION In the present study, it was found out that the aspects that guidance teachers felt themselves inadequate the most while performing their jobs were how to guide the students in need of special education and inclusion, counselling techniques and vocational guidance. Providing students who need special education and inclusion with an effective psychological counselling service certainly requires the guidance teachers to know about the characteristics of students of this kind. It is critical for the guidance teachers to be specialized on special education and inclusion both in terms of performing their jobs better and also for advising other teachers more effectively. In their study about the benefits of consultation services provided to teachers, Bozic and Carter (2002) reported that as a result of consultation services 56% of the teachers experienced an increase in their self-confidence to help special education students and felt they help these children more. Thus, it can be said that, consultation services should also be utilized in order to meet the education needs of guidance teachers in terms of special education and inclusion. In a study about the ministry supervisors views about school guidance services Güven (2009) found out that supervisors believed that school guidance services provided about the education of special education students were inadequate and negative. Considering that guidance teachers cannot possibly provide sufficient level of education about a topic on which they feel themselves inadequate, it can be said that Güven s (2009) findings support the results of the present study. The guidance teachers perceived inadequacy in terms of psychological counselling techniques obviously indicates their lack of certain skills about counselling techniques. Aladağ (2013) argues that for a competent psychological counsellor to be effective at every phase of this process, i.e. to be able to provide an effective counselling service to cause a significant improvement in the client, requires certain professional skills. Cormier and Hackney (2008) state that psychological counsellor should have a variety of professional skills including affinity, help/psychological counselling, conceptualization, diagnosis, strategy and intervention skills (as cited in Aladağ, 2013). Considering that these skills are inevitable to be successful in the psychological counselling process, guidance teachers perceived inadequacy in terms of counselling techniques might mean that they cannot offer counselling services in an effective and sufficient manner. In their study about the evaluation of the performances of school counsellors based on teacher perceptions, Wilgus and Shelley (1988) emphasized that school counsellors are primarily responsible for individual and group counselling. Thus, it is extremely significant that psychological counselling task, which was found to be one of the categories participants felt themselves inadequate the most, is actually one of their primary responsibilities. The finding
11 Coşkun Küçüktepe 1399 regarding the guidance teachers perceived inadequacy about vocational guidance is also supported by the previous researches. In their research about the comparison of European countries and Turkey in terms of orientation towards compulsory education, Arslan and Kılıç (2000) stressed that teachers were inadequate in terms of guidance and teachers should be informed in this respect. In a study about students evaluation of guidance and counselling services provided at secondary schools, Yüksel Şahin (2008) found out that guidance and counselling services are provided at schools mostly about consultation and guidance. Several researches on vocational guidance (Aluede & Egbochuku, 2009; Ginter, Scealise & Presse, 1990; Poyraz, 2007) emphasized that teachers should help in providing students with educational and vocational guidance. Thus, the perceived inadequacy of teachers in terms of vocational guidance, which is one of the guidance and counselling services most commonly provided at schools, can indicate that this service is not provided effectively and productively. The study revealed that participating guidance teachers would like to have in-service training mostly about intervention to traumatic cases, special education, drama and counselling techniques like solution-focused therapy. Among these categories especially participants perceived inadequacy on special education and counselling techniques were mentioned above. In this respect, participants demand for in-service training about these two categories can be regarded as an attempt to fix their inadequacies. The most remarkable category of education needs on the part of guidance teachers seems to be about intervention to traumatic cases. This education need was stated by a good number of participants, who stated that most commonly encountered traumas included sexual abuse, incest abuses, and excessive exposure to violence in family and suicide attempts/thought. Considering these findings, it is obvious that what guidance teachers are expected to intervene are extremely sensitive and multi-dimensional traumas, requiring them to have considerable amount of knowledge and experience to handle effectively. Lastly, it was found that guidance teachers believed their colleagues need to have inservice training mostly about counselling techniques like solution-focused therapy, family consultancy, and communication skills. Considering the findings about the perceived inadequacy of guidance teachers (both their own and their colleagues) about counselling techniques and solution-focused therapy, it can be said that guidance services provided at participating schools are poor in quality. Participating guidance teachers also believed that their colleagues need in-service training especially to improve their communication skills. In their metaphorical study about the concept of guidance teachers Altun and Camadan (2013) emphasized that guidance teachers should have communication skills enabling them help people in and around the institution they work to communicate and cooperate with each other. Moreover, in their study about primary school principals views on school guidance services Camadan and Sezgin (2012) found that guidance teachers give seminaries and training to students and parents about communication skills. Thus, is can be said that if guidance teachers are to give effective seminaries and training to other stakeholders about communication skills, first they should have favourable communication skills. Ginter, Scalise, and Presse (1990) found out that teachers expected the school counsellors to display helping, facilitating and counselling roles during family counselling first. That is, family consultancy is regarded