1 LEADER'S GUIDE SLIPS, TRIPS AND FALLS 1875-LDG-E Part of the SAFETY MEETING KIT Video Series Quality Safety and Health Products, for Today...and Tomorrow
2 THE SAFETY MEETING KIT VIDEO SERIES This program is part of the Safety Meeting Kit Video Series. The programs in this series have been created to provide employees with good, basic information on everyday safety and health topics. This series includes programs on the following topics: Accident Investigation The ANSI MSDS Back Safety Compressed Gas Cylinders Computer Workstation Safety Crane Safety Driving Safety Dealing with Drug and Alcohol Abuse (Employees and Managers/Supervisors versions) Electrical Safety Eye Safety Ergonomics (Industrial and Office versions) Fall Protection Fire Extinguishers Fire Prevention (Healthcare, Industrial and Office versions) First Aid Hand and Power Tool Safety Hand, Wrist and Finger Safety Hazardous Materials Labels Hazardous Spill Cleanup Heat Stress Ladder Safety Machine Guard Safety Materials Handling Safety Office Safety Rigging Safety Safety Audits Safety Housekeeping and Accident Prevention Safety Orientation Safety Showers and Eye Washes Sexual Harassment (Employees and Managers/Supervisors versions) Sexual Harassment Investigations Slips, Trips and Falls Welding Safety Wellness and Fitness Winter Safety Workplace Stress Workplace Violence Other products in the Safety Meeting Kit line include employee booklets and posters which have been designed specifically to be used with the programs. By combining these three products you have all of the materials you need to promote and conduct a complete safety meeting (for information on booklets and posters contact your local distributor).
3 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROGRAM Structure and organization and background Objectives Reviewing the program 2 PREPARING FOR THE PRESENTATION Structuring the presentation Setting up the class and classroom 3 CONDUCTING THE SESSION The initial steps Showing the program Conducting the discussion Concluding the presentation Wrapping up the paperwork 4 OUTLINE OF MAJOR POINTS IN THE PROGRAM 5 ACCOMPANYING MATERIALS Scheduling and Attendance form Quiz Training Certificate Employee Training Log
4 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROGRAM Structure and Organization Information in this program is presented in a definite order, so that employees will see the relationships between the various groups of information and can retain them more easily. The sections in the program include: The three basic principles involved with slips, trips and falls: Gravity. Friction. Momentum. Common causes of slips, trips and falls. How walking surfaces affect slipping. The role of safety shoes. Ways to minimize the potential for slips, trips and falls. Possible affects of slips, trips and falls. Each of the sections covers important information in one topic area, providing employees with the basis for understanding good safety practices in avoiding slips, trips and falls. Background Slips, trips and falls affect all types of people in all types of jobs. Injuries frequently occur both on and off the job. Over 13 million of us will be injured in one of these ways this year. The cost of these injuries to employers is estimated to be billions of dollars annually.
5 But slips, trips and falls can have an even more dramatic affect on our personal lives. People experience a slip, trip or fall may suffer great pain from a resulting injury. Their lives may be changed forever by disability. And they may not be able to continue in their chosen line of work. Objectives To help address these potential problems this education and training program is designed to present the fundamentals of how to avoid slips, trips and falls to all employees. Upon completion of the program, employees should: - Know how three basic scientific principles (friction, momentum and gravity) are involved with slips, trips and falls. - Have a good knowledge of common causes of slips, trips and falls. - Know what measures to take to minimize the potential for slips, trips and falls. - Understand the role of safety shoes in preventing slips and falls. Reviewing the Program As with any educational program, the presenter should go through the entire program at least once to become familiar with the content and make sure the program is consistent with facility policy and directives. An Outline of Major Program Points is included in this Leader's Guide to help with this task and for general reference. As part of this review process, you should determine how you, as the presenter, will conduct your session. The use of materials such as handouts, charts, etc., that may be available to you needs to be well thought out and integrated into the overall program presentation.
6 PREPARING FOR THE PRESENTATION Structuring the Presentation In conducting this education session, you should proceed with a friendly and helpful attitude. Remember that the trainees are looking to your experience and knowledge to help them relate to the situations shown in the program. It is important to let the trainees interact with you and each other during the training session. Stimulating conversation within the group is one of the best things you, as the presenter of the program, can do to help everyone get as much as possible from the session. Be alert for comments that could help in this area in future sessions and make note of them. As the presenter, you also should: - Keep the session related to the topic of slips, trips and falls. - Relate discussions to facility operation, procedures, and responsibilities. - Prevent any one person or small group of employees in the session from doing all the talking. - Get everyone involved. Ask questions of those who don't participate voluntarily. - Clarify comments by relating them to the key points in the program. Use the Outline of Major Program Points section in this guide, as well as the information included in the quiz, as the basis for answering any questions. If you don't know the answer, say so. Tragic results may occur should you provide incorrect or inaccurate information. Remember, this is a positive program on avoiding slips, trips and falls. Make sure your attitude and words reflect this and that the emphasis is always on providing the information needed by the attendees to work safely in their jobs.
7 Setting Up the Class and Classroom Remember, there are a number of things that must be done to set up the class as well as the classroom. These fall into several groups of activities, and include: Scheduling and Notification Use the enclosed form to schedule employees into the session. Make sure that the session is scheduled so that it fits into your attendees' work day. Send out notification of the session well in advance, to give people enough time to incorporate it into their schedule for that day. If possible, post a notification on bulletin boards in the affected employees' areas. The Classroom Schedule the room well in advance. Make sure the room can accommodate the expected number of attendees. Check it again on the day of the program to make sure there is no conflict. Make sure the room can be darkened, and won't create a glare on the television screen. Locate the light controls and test them. Make sure the power for the videotape or DVD player you are using operates separately from the room light. See if you can control the room temperature. Know where the closest restrooms are. Assure that the room is free from distracting noises. Make sure emergency exits are marked and known to the attendees. Seating Make sure everyone can see the screen from their seat. Make sure everyone can hear both the videotape/dvd and you (when you speak).
8 Check to see that seating is such that writing can be done easily. Make sure the seating arrangement allows eye contact between attendees, and between you and attendees. Equipment and Materials Make sure the videotape or DVD player, monitor, and all appropriate cables and extension cords are available. Make sure a stand or table is available and is of appropriate height for all attendees to easily see the monitor. If you plan on using a chartpad, blackboard, or other writing board, make sure it is available, easy to see, and you have the proper writing implements. Make sure you have 6" x 8" index cards or other materials to be used as name tents for attendees. Make sure you have made up a sufficient number of copies of the quiz, as well as any other handouts you are using. Final Check Make sure equipment is in the room prior to the scheduled session. Check to see that the room is set up properly. Check equipment prior to the presentation to assure that it works. Make sure extension cords, etc. are taped down, if need be, to avoid tripping. If you are using the videotape version of the program, run the leader up to the point where the program begins.
9 The Initial Steps CONDUCTING THE SESSION In conducting the session remember the positive nature of this presentation. Everyone is attending in order to learn more about how to do things safely. Initially, you need to: Introduce yourself as the session leader. State the title of the program, Slips, Trips and Falls. Inform the attendees when there will be breaks (if you plan them) the location of exits and restrooms and if water, coffee, or other refreshments will be available. Make sure all of the attendees have signed in on your scheduling and attendance sheet. Remember, it is very important to document peoples' attendance at the session. Once this housekeeping is done, it is time to move to the meat of the session. First, the attendees need to be informed about the objectives of the session (this is where you can use a flip chart or board to list the objectives, which should be done prior to the class starting). This listing should be preceded with some introductory remarks. Your own words are always best, but the remarks should follow along the lines of the following: "Today we are going to talk about slips, trips and falls. Unless we have had a serious problem in the past as a result of a slip, trip or fall, we take these accidents very lightly. But slips, trips and falls happen more frequently than any other type of workplace accident. Over 13 million of us will experience an injury as a result of a slip, trip or fall this year!" "One of the problems with slips, trips and falls is that they are frequently caused by very common activities: Walking, lifting, climbing, reaching just turning around can lead to a slip, trip or fall...
10 and resulting injuries, if we are not paying attention to the correct way to do these things." "A number of very serious injuries can result from a slip, trip or fall. And once we experience such an injury, it can impact every aspect of our lives. It can make our job more difficult and affect our group's ability to get their work done, causing problems for the company's operations. But even more important, the resulting problems do not stay here at work when you leave. They can cause you to have to give up many of your recreational activities, make working around the house difficult and even make sleeping a painful experience." "The program we are going to watch today will give us some good information on how to avoid slips, trips and falls. It can help us prevent these accidents and their resulting injuries and problems... for ourselves and others that we work with. To make this the most productive session possible, we need to look at what we want to accomplish here today (verbally reference the Objectives list from the first section, or point to the blackboard or chart where you have written them down)." Once the objectives have been provided, you are ready to show the program. However, you do need to let the attendees know that they will be taking a quiz at the end of the session (if you are using it). It needs to be emphasized that they are not being graded, but that the quiz is being used to see if the session is effectively transmitting information to them in a way they will remember. Showing the Program At this point, you need to introduce the title of the program once again, Slips, Trips and Falls, darken the lights if necessary, and begin the showing of the program. If you are using the DVD version of the course you have several options as to how you can move through the program and what employees see.
11 The DVD menu has two selection bars: - Play. - Contact Us. To just play the program from beginning to end, select Play. If you would like information on other programs and products that are available from Training Network you can select Contact Us for information about how to contact us. Conducting the Discussion After the program has been shown, it is time for the group discussion on the information contained in the session. Care must be taken to make sure that the discussion is kept to the general topic of slips, trips and falls. There are several ways to conduct these discussions. These include: Calling for questions from the attendees and using these questions as the basis for the discussion. Leading the discussion through the points covered in the program using statements such as: "One of the sections that we saw in the program was about common causes of slips, trips and falls. What types of activities in our facility have the potential to cause these problems if we do not approach them correctly?" "We saw some interesting things about what we should consider when we select safety shoes. Who can review these considerations for us?" You should use the discussion format that you are most comfortable with. The Outline of Major Program Points section in this guide, and the questions and answers in the master copies of the quiz can be very useful as a basis for discussion.
12 Remember, you have allocated a limited amount of time in which this discussion can take place. It is important to blend the attendees' questions and areas of obvious interest with the objective of trying to touch on each major area within the session in the discussion. By touching on each area, the attendees are much more likely to retain the information presented in the session. Concluding the Presentation Once discussion has concluded, whether naturally or you have had to bring the discussion to a close in order to complete the session within the time allowed, it is time to give the quiz (if you are using it). Again, remind the attendees that the quiz is only meant to help determine how effective the presentation of the information is, and that they will not be graded on it. Let them know that they have approximately five minutes to complete the quiz. At the end of the five minute period, remind the attendees to date and sign their quizzes, and then collect them. The attendees should be thanked for attending the session and reminded of any other sessions in the educational program that they may be attending. They can then be dismissed to return to their normal activities. *(An alternative to this approach is to give the quiz immediately after showing the program, then use a review of the quiz as a basis for your group discussion.)
13 Wrapping Up the Paperwork Before much time has passed, and the subject matter is fresh in your mind, several areas of paperwork must be completed. First, check to make sure that all attendees signed the scheduling and attendance form. Next, make sure that you have a quiz from every attendee, dated and signed. Also, depending upon what your facility has decided to do, a copy of the attendance sheet and the quiz for each attendee should be either filed in your files, or turned over to the attendee's department manager (or the personnel office) so that this paperwork can be included in their personnel file. The attendees' training logs should also be updated, and each attendee should be given a filled out and signed training certificate, signifying that they have successfully completed the course.
14 OUTLINE OF MAJOR PROGRAM POINTS The following outline summarizes the major points of information presented in the program. The outline can be used to review the program before conducting a classroom session, as well as in preparing to lead a class discussion about the program. According to OSHA, "Slips, trips and falls constitute the majority of general industry accidents." And falls result in 15% of all accidental deaths, second only to motor vehicle fatalities. It's important to realize that it doesn't take falling from a high place to injure you. Simply slipping on a wet floor or tripping over a small object can result in a fall that lands you in the hospital with a broken bone, strained back or concussion. To avoid these types of accidents, you need to understand how your body maintains its balance as your center of gravity changes. Center of gravity is defined as the point at which the entire weight of an object can be balanced. Most people are not conscious of their center of gravity, yet it is an integral part of every movement that you make. Imagine that you are standing straight up. Now draw a triangle, with your feet forming the two points at the base and the third point of the triangle at your lower back. The upper point is roughly where your center of gravity is. These three points constantly change position as you move. If the upper point extends out past the lower points you will lose your balance. Unless you regain your balance, you will fall.
15 As with any object, the shape and size of your body will have a direct impact on how naturally stable you are. A short person will have a lower center of gravity and be more stable than a tall person. It simply takes less of a push to cause the taller person to extend their center of gravity out past their feet and fall over. Weight is also a contributing factor. A person who is barrel-chested will have a higher center of gravity and be more top heavy than someone who is thinner. How you stand also affects your stability. You are in your most stable standing position when you are perfectly upright, with your arms at your sides. This keeps your center of gravity low (around the lower part of your spine) and over your feet. If you hunch over or slouch, your center of gravity can extend out past your feet, making you less stable. Reaching for something can also cause you to lose your balance. In fact, when you reach over your head, your center of gravity rises dramatically and you become extremely unstable. So you should get a step ladder if you need to get something up high. But be careful on ladders. They become an extension of your body. The higher you are on a ladder, the higher your center of gravity becomes and the less stable you will be. So it's always a good idea to have someone steady the ladder, to make sure that you don't lose your balance.
16 Carrying something can make you unstable as well especially if you position it incorrectly. For instance, putting a load on your shoulder not only raises your center of gravity, it throws it dangerously off to the side. To maintain you stability, you should carry objects at waist level and close to your body (this keeps your center of gravity low and balanced over your feet). Maintaining your balance is especially important when you walk, since this is when you are most likely to trip or slip. Most people take walking for granted, but it requires split second timing, and a lot of dexterity. When you walk, you lean forward, extending your center of gravity out past your feet. Taking a step to keep up with your center of gravity prevents you from falling. As you walk, you plant one foot as you move the other. Since a single foot does not provide much of a base of support, it does not take much to cause you to slip or trip. Trips usually occur when you stumble on uneven walking surfaces or objects that are in your path. Slips are caused by a lack of friction between the soles of your shoes and the surface that you are walking on. Slips generally happen while you are on surfaces that are smooth, slick or wet. But there are other factors that can contribute to you slipping as well, including: The slope of the surface. Wearing shoes that don't provide adequate traction. The momentum that you build up while walking.
17 Momentum is the force behind your movement. It is generated by your weight and the speed at which you walk. When you walk, you build up more momentum than someone who walks slower or weighs less than you. Likewise, when you carry a heavy object you create more momentum than when you are not carrying anything at all. The more momentum that you produce, the more friction you need between the soles of your shoes and the walking surface to keep you from slipping (and the more difficult it is for you to regain your footing and stop yourself from falling). Different walking surfaces provide varying degrees of friction. For instance, carpeting has a lot more friction than a smooth tile floor. A dry tile floor provides more friction than one that is wet. You can avoid slipping by being aware of the type of surface that you are walking on, and knowing how much traction it provides. Let's look at some of the walking surfaces that you may encounter. They can be divided into three types: Non-slip. Moderately slippery. Slippery. Non-slip surfaces provide traction regardless of whether they are wet or dry. They include: Carpet. Rough-textured concrete. Rubber mats Textured steel plate. Surfaces covered with abrasive paint or non-slip coatings.
18 Moderately slippery surfaces are reasonably slip-resistant when they are dry but can be very slippery when they are wet. These include: Unpolished ceramic tile. Vinyl. Smooth concrete. Unfinished wood. Slippery surfaces don't provide much traction, wet or dry. They include: Polished marble and tile. Smooth metal. Freshly painted concrete. Varnished wood. The most slippery places inside of buildings tend to be near entrances, restrooms and areas around machinery. Often the floors in these locations are made of moderately slippery materials, such as vinyl, tile or concrete which can become skating rinks when they get wet. If possible these areas should be covered with non-slip materials, such as rubber mats or carpeting. Outside of your building, you need to be careful when walking on sidewalks and pavements that may be wet or icy. In addition to water, there are other slippery things that you need to keep an eye out for, such as: Dirt. Sand. Sawdust. Metal shavings. Packaging materials. Loose gravel. Grease. Street grime. You also need to be careful when you are walking on ramps or other sloping surfaces, since the likelihood of slipping increases when a surface is not level.
19 Keeping everything neat, tidy and well maintained can go a long way in helping to avoid slips, trips and falls. For instance: You have to be able to see hazards to avoid them. So something as simple as replacing a burned out light bulb can prevent you from tripping over an object on the floor. To help prevent slipping, keep walking surfaces dry and clean up loose material. Use absorbent substances like vermiculite or kitty litter to soak up any grease or oil, but be sure to sweep everything up when you're done. You can also use a non-skid rubber mat or a piece of carpeting to cover a slippery spot (make sure that these lie flat and stay in place, so that they don't create a tripping hazard). You slip on surfaces, but you trip on objects. Boxes, tools and other things that are left where people walk are a leading cause of trips. Remember, even small items such as pencils and paperclips can cause people to skate across the floor (so pick them up whenever you see them). Inspect stairways, to ensure that they are clear of debris. Check to see that hand rails are firmly attached and use them whenever you go up or down the stairs. Loose floorboards, torn carpet, protruding nails and small potholes in the floor are also dangerous. Cordon off these areas with caution tape. Then have the hazards repaired. Make sure that you close file cabinets and desk drawers before you walk away, so that someone doesn't trip over them.
20 Even the process of cleaning up can create slip or trip hazards. Place signs to warn people of wet floors when you mop. Make sure that you don't stretch your vacuum cleaner's cord across pathways. If you do need to use a power cord in a high traffic area, tape it down. But don't leave it there for more than a few hours, since the tape will eventually loosen. A clean and well maintained workplace can eliminate many slip hazards, but to be truly slip-resistant you need to wear the proper shoes. While some jobs require you to wear many hats, to avoid slipping on the job you may need several different pairs of shoes as well. For instance, if you are a salesperson you might want to: Wear dress shoes to meet with a client in their office But switch to safety shoes with slip resistant soles when you tour their manufacturing facilities. Shoes should always: Fit properly. Be comfortable. Have soles and heels that are suited for the surfaces that you will be walking on. The heels of your shoes are especially important. They are the first part of your shoes to come in contact with the floor when you take a step. Most slips occur when there is not enough friction between the heel of your shoe and the walking surface to counteract the momentum that is created as your body weight shifts to the forward leg.
21 To help avoid slips you should make sure that the heels on your shoes are in good condition, and are as low and wide as possible. While high heels may look nice, they don't provide much traction and can cause real slipping problems. High heels are also unstable, and can catch on carpet or groves in the floor, too. You also need to pay attention to what the soles of your shoes are made of, and how much tread they have on them. Nowadays most shoes and boots have soles made of synthetic rubber. However, a few soles are still made with natural rubber. Some shoes even have leather soles. Soles made of synthetic soft rubber, such as those that are found on sneakers and most walking shoes: Are effective on dry surfaces. But may be slippery when conditions are wet. Many work boots have soles made out of hard rubber. These soles do not provide as much friction on dry surfaces. But they have good traction in areas that are wet or greasy. Some men's and women's dress shoes have smooth leather soles. These can be slippery even on carpet and other non-slip surfaces. Fortunately there are many attractive business shoes with slip-resistant rubber soles. These are not only a lot safer than leather-soled business shoes they also tend to be more comfortable. But it is not just the materials that soles are made of that give them their slip-resistant qualities. It's also the added friction provided by the raised pattern or tread on the soles.
22 Where traditional business shoes tend to have smooth soles, slip-resistant soles have groves cut into the bottom of them. The soles of most work shoes and boots have especially deep treads, which channel water away to prevent you from slipping (just like the tread on automobile tires channels away water to keep cars from skidding). Whatever footwear you choose, make sure that it is in good shape. Inspect your shoes for worn laces, torn stitches and loose soles. Look for imbedded foreign objects (even a small stone or thumbtack can turn a slip-resistant shoe into a skate). Falls happen quickly, but if you know how to fall properly you can avoid ending up flat on your face. The important thing to remember is to not tense up. By remaining loose you will decrease the chances of serious injury. As you fall relax. Bend your elbows and knees. Allow your muscles to gradually absorb the impact. And roll in the direction of the fall. Don't try to break a fall with your hands. If you land with all of your body weight on a hand, you could seriously sprain your wrist or break a bone. If a fall does result in an injury, you may need to give the victim first aid. But only attempt first aid if you have been trained to handle the apparent injury. You should never move anyone who has been knocked unconscious, or who may have seriously injured their head, neck, back or hips. Keep them immobile. Call 911 to get emergency medical help.
23 * * * SUMMARY * * * By putting your best foot forward, you can avoid slipping, tripping and falling. Let's review. Maintain your center of gravity with good posture, and by carrying objects low and close to your body. Pay attention to the surface that you are walking on and look for slip and trip hazards. Cover slippery floors with rubber mats or other materials that provide traction. Clean up spills and keep walking areas free of all obstacles. Wear the proper shoes or boots for the conditions that you will be working in. If you do fall, remember to relax and roll with it, so that you don't get hurt. Slips, trips and falls can be more serious than many people think. But staying on your toes will keep you on your feet!
24 ACCOMPANYING MATERIALS In order to assist you in conducting your session on slips, trips and falls, we have provided some materials that can be used with this program. These materials have been furnished in master form. This will enable you to make as many copies of these forms as you need. If you have colored paper available to you, it is often useful to put each form on a different color. This enables you to easily differentiate between the materials. The materials enclosed with this guide include: Scheduling and Attendance Form This form is provided so you can easily schedule your attendees into each session of the program. It is important that you have each attendee sign-in on the appropriate form, documenting their attendance at the session. Typically, a copy of this attendance/sign-in form is filed in the employee's personnel file. Quiz The quiz is normally given after viewing the program. However, if you want an indication of the increase in the attendees' knowledge of how to avoid slips, trips and falls, you can give the quiz both before and after the program is shown. You can also use the quiz as the basis for class discussion. If you have decided to give the quiz both before and after the attendees view the program, it is often interesting to have the attendees compare their before and after answers as part of the session. Typically, the quiz is filed in the employee's personnel folder.