4/9/2015. School of Risk Control Excellence. Disclaimer. Learning Objectives. Eliminating the Risk Associated with Slips, Trips and Falls

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1 School of Risk Control Excellence Eliminating the Risk Associated with Slips, Trips and Falls April 22, 2015 Wisconsin Safety Council Disclaimer The information, examples and suggestions presented in this material have been developed from sources believed to be reliable, but they should not be construed as legal or other professional advice. CNA accepts no responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of this material and recommends the consultation with competent legal counsel and/or other professional advisors before applying this material in any particular factual situations. This material is for illustrative purposes and is not intended to constitute a contract. Please remember that only the relevant insurance policy can provide the actual terms, coverages, amounts, conditions and exclusions for an insured. All products and services may not be available in all states and may be subject to change without notice. CNA is a registered trademark of CNA Financial Corporation. Copyright 2013 CNA. All rights reserved. 2 Learning Objectives At the end of this module, you should be able to: Describe major causes of slip, trip and fall injuries in the commercial real estate industry Describe proven techniques to reduce and mitigate slip, trip and fall injuries to your workers and the public 3 1

2 Why? 4 Why? The average victim of a slip-and-fall accident is a woman age 60 or greater The average slip-and-fall claim is $5,286. Litigation costs can often reach as much as $100,000 per incident. Aging population Growth of the 65+ Population 1900 to Why? Legal Costs Average cost of litigation now exceeds $50,000 Average Slip and fall settlement is $24,000 Average jury award tops $100,000 Since 1980, personal injury lawsuits have risen by more than 300% 6 2

3 7 Slip, Trip and Fall Claim Causes Slip and Fall Same Level Foreign material on the floor Slip because of surfaces with different traction characteristics Floor surface selection or changes Trip and Fall Same Level Walking surface deviations Trip over equipment obstruction Trip over aisle arrangement/layout/debris (housekeeping) Human element misstep 8 Slip, Trip and Falls 9 3

4 Floor Selection 10 Flooring Surfaces 11 Flooring Selection Terrazzo Marble Ceramic and Quarry Tile Vinyl Tile Wood Laminate Wood Brick 12 4

5 Flooring Selection Carpeting Best slip prevention Hazardous when torn or loose Difficult to maintain Marble Beautiful Difficult to maintain and repair Slippery when polished 13 Flooring Selection Terrazzo Long lasting Extremely slippery when wet Vinyl Tile Surface texture wears with age Very slippery when wet Broken or loose tiles can be hazardous 14 Flooring Selection Wood Slippery when waxed or varnished Laminates must be maintained properly Difficult to maintain and repair Concrete Very slip resistant when textured even when wet Polished is adequate when dry but can get slick when wet 15 5

6 Flooring Selection Ceramic and Quarry Tile Can offer good slip resistance Must be maintained properly Glazed tile should be avoided Characteristics vary greatly Easy to maintain

7 19 People Don t Slip on Dry Floors! Most flooring manufacturers measure dry coefficients of friction when set their products specifications Most architects specify flooring base on their dry coefficients of friction 20 Current Slip Resistance Standards ASTM D Standard Test Method for Static Coefficient of Friction of Polish-Coated Floor Surfaces as Measured by the James Machine Dry surfaces only 0.5 SCOF or higher slip-resistant Very frequently cited by flooring and treatment manufacturers 21 7

8 Slip Meters 22 BOT BOT 3000 Records five independent samples 24 8

9 NEW ANSI/NFSI 101-A Standard 10/09 Walkway material test standard Wet (real world) test protocol Walkways with a wet SCOF of a 0.6 or greater are rated as High-Traction 25 Why Wet Testing? Clinical studies have proven that walkways possessing a wet Static Coefficient of Friction of 0.6 or greater are 50-75% less likely to induce a slip-and-fall. 26 General Observations Most clean, dry surfaces are slip resistant (0.5 COF or higher) Slips/falls occur when floor is wet and/or contaminated (dust, grease, oil etc.) Transitions from non-slippery to slippery floors are a problem (especially spills) Slipperiness increases over time when floor is worn 27 9

10 Floor Maintenance How a floor is maintained is equally as important in preventing slipsand-falls as the floor itself! 28 Summary Humans cannot be relied upon to detect slippery floors and take corrective action. Installing the best flooring and keeping it clean and as dry as possible is key to prevention. 29 How Soap Works How detergents work to remove soil 30 10

11 How Soap-Film is Created 31 Polymerization New quarry tile 1600x 32 Polymerization Polymerized quarry tile 1600x 33 11

12 Polymerization Real World 34 Polymerization Removal Before After 35 Types of Cleaners Alkaline Cleaners Acidic Cleaners Neutral Cleaners Microbial Cleaners 36 12

13 Case Study Problem: Major national retailer had problems with patrons falling especially during bad weather. Change: Changed to a high traction floor care system. Results: During first year reduced accident costs by $1.3 million. Insurance premium dropped by $377, Case Study Problem: Large time share condominium vacation complex was experiencing 12 patron slip and fall injuries every month. Workers compensation costs from slips and falls were costing the resort over $350,000 a year. Change: Changed to a high traction floor care system. Embarked upon a floor auditing system to check each unit and all common areas after cleaning. Results: After 18 months patron accidents dropped to less than 12 a year. Workers compensation costs from slips and falls fell to less than $30, Summary The single most important factor in determining the slip resistance of a floor is not the floor itself or the floor finish or cleaner. It is the way the floors are cleaned and maintained

14 Summary Identify contaminant and select the right cleaner Have proper cleaning tools and supplies Develop a written floor cleaning protocol Follow guidelines from cleaner manufacturer (concentration, dwell time, brushing and rinsing) Establish floor cleaning schedule Train housekeeping employees on protocol Follow-up to ensure protocol is followed Manage when not followed If possible do periodic floor audits to confirm effectiveness of cleaning 40 Special Areas and Features 41 Restrooms 42 14

15 Stairs Stairs 43 Stairs 44 Stairs 45 15

16 Stairs visual cues? 46 Visibility of change in elevation is key to safe use 47 Warning Signs 48 16

17 Don t overuse! 49 Warning Signs Should Be at least 28 tall and be visible from 360 degrees Have a large stable base Be stored close to all entrances and be easy to locate 50 How to Use a Warning Sign Employees should be trained to post signs when a hazard is present and remove them promptly when the hazard no longer exists Use a sign with a positive safety message (ie: Safety First) DO NOT POST SIGNS WHEN A HAZARD IS NOT PRESENT 51 17

18 Slip, Trip and Falls In Between 52 In Between -Transition Areas In Between 53 Walk off matting In Between 54 18

19 Things a Mat Should Do In Between Stop soil and water at the door Store soil and water for removal Elevate personnel above standing water Minimize tracking of soil and water Provide a safe surface 55 Mat Selection In Between Dirt removal Water removal Combination Indoor or outdoor Designed and placed so as not to create additional fall hazard 56 Mat Selection Criteria In Between Sufficient running lengths of mats Snow: walking steps Rain: 8-10 walking steps Dry: 6-8 walking steps 80% of soil entering a building should be trapped within the first 15 on a carpeted surface (ANSI A1264.2) Rule of thumb: you should not be able to see footprints after stepping off mat (wet) 57 19

20 Rule of Thumb Things a Floor Mat Should Not Do! In Between Buckle Crack Flip over Migrate Fail to contain water 59 What s Wrong? In Between 60 20

21 How Not to Use a Floor Mat! In Between 61 Remove Any Entrance Way Trip Hazards In Between 62 Exterior Matting In Between 63 21

22 Slip, Trip and Falls Outside 64 Walkway Material Selection Outside 65 Tripping Hazards Outside 66 22

23 Entryways Outside 67 Changes in Elevation Outside 68 Parking Lots Outside INSPECT, INSPECT, INSPECT! Clearly mark speed bumps and curbs Clearly mark walkways Provide adequate lighting Inspect for cracks, potholes, and buckles Ensure proper drainage especially in Northern areas Evaluate and manage snow removal services 69 23

24 Tripping hazard Tripping hazard Could this create a problem in winter months? 72 24

25 Water Accumulation Outside 73 Snow Removal Outside Know local regulations Clear fire hydrants Clear fire lanes Clear main entrance Wheelchair accessibility Protect landscaping Define storage areas Check lessees 74 How to Select Snow Removal Contractors Outside Referrals Look for physical address Talk to at least 3 Be specific performance based Get Certificates of Insurance Contracts get it in writing Check BBB Check references READ THE CONTRACT! 75 25

26 Parking Lot and Snow Removal Tips Outside Parking Lot Safety Addressing the Trip and Fall Hazard Snow and Ice Removal Tips 76 Site Planning Diagramming Document through a diagram of the property. Benefits Communicates plan to contractor. Types Pre-determines type of equipment. Hand-drawn Identifies the trouble areas. Google Earth Identifies fire hydrants. Identifies curb and island locations. Where snow piles will be placed. Illustrates areas of concern (handicap access)

27 Learning Objectives Can you: Describe major causes of slip, trip and fall injuries in the commercial real estate industry Describe proven techniques to reduce and mitigate slip, trip and fall injuries to your workers and the public 79 I will be here if you fall - The Floor Questions? 80 27

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