Latinos in Massachusetts Public Schools Springfield

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1 s in Massachusetts Public Schools Springfield by Michael Berardino, MS June, 2014 THE MAURICIO GASTÓN INSTITUTE FOR LATINO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND PUBLIC POLICY

2 Springfield Notes 1 While analyzing and presenting the data using MADESE s ethno-racial categories, we use the term rather than Hispanic. This report provides a snapshot of current educational outcomes of students in the city of Springfield. It is based on publicly available data from the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (MADESE) that have been analyzed by the Gastón Institute for a community meeting in Springfield. This report uses the ethno-racial categories assigned by MADESE. It focuses on the evolving demographic trends and the most recent educational outcomes of students relative to other ethno-racial groups in the school district and to students statewide. The first section illustrates the demographic shift occurring in the Springfield Public Schools, with a growing student population and a shrinking and African-American/Black student population. The second section compares the performance of students in Springfield on the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests with the performance of all students statewide and other ethno-racial groups in Springfield. The third section shows graduation, dropout, and college enrollment rates, relative to other students in the district and to all students statewide. The second and third sections show that despite persistent disparities in outcomes, the achievement gap between and students has been shrinking slightly over recent years. students in Springfield have made especially large improvements on the Grade 10 ELA and Science/Technology/Engineering tests. The fourth section compares outcomes and engagement variables at the four main high schools in Springfield, demonstrating the drastic disparities in outcomes between Central High School and Putnam Vocational Technical High School on the one side and High School of Commerce and High School of Science and Technology on the other side. 2 The Mauricio Gastón Institute, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA T

3 I. Demographics Demographics Figure 1. Ethno-Racial Composition of Springfield Public Schools, SY2013 Figure 1. Ethno-Racial Composition of Springfield Public Schools, SY2013, 14% Other, 6% African American/ Black, 2, 61% Source: MADESE (n.d.). Enrollment Data. Source: MADESE (n.d.). Enrollment Data. I. Demographics Figure 1. Ethno-Racial Composition of Springfield Public Schools, SY2013 Springfield is the second largest public school district in the state with 25,283 students in SY A great majority Other, (88%) 6% African of its students are classified as lowincome, the second highest percentage among Black, all 2 school districts in the state. More, 14% American/ than a quarter (26%) of students in Springfield spoke a language other than English as their first language and 17% are classified as English Language Learners (ELLs). As seen in Figure 1 above, students are the largest student group: the 15,397 students, represent 61% 61% of the total enrollment in Springfield. African-American/Black Source: MADESE (n.d.). students Enrollment are Data. the second largest student group, representing 2 of total enrollment. students make up 14% of the district, while other ethno-racial groups make up the remaining 6%. As seen in Figure 2, since SY2006, the overall number of students in the district has remained steady but the ethno-racial composition has shifted. There has been a 2 increase in the number of students in the district, while the numbers of all other ethno-racial groups have decreased: by for students and by 2 for African-American/ Black students. As a result, students went from 49% of all students to 61% of all students. Approximately one-fourth (24%) of students in Springfield are classified as ELLs. students in Springfield are highly mobile, as evidenced by the 14% of students who left the district and the 24% who changed schools in SY2013, both higher than all other ethno-racial groups in the district. Figure While 2:Change specific information Student about Enrollment, the ancestry Springfield of the Public students Schools, in Springfield SY2006 to SY2013 is not available, the American Community Survey estimates that 85% of s in 4 Springfield are of Puerto Rican heritage (ACS, 2012) Figure 2: Change in Student Enrollment, Springfield Public Schools, SY2006 to SY % Figure 2:Change in Student Enrollment, Springfield Public Schools, SY2006 to SY SY refers to the ending year of the school year. For example SY2013 is the school year that began in September of 2012 and ends in June of This does not include independent charter schools, which are considered their own school districts. 4 The churn rate is the percentage of students who change schools during the school year Total African American/Black Other % Total African American/Black Other 2 Source: Author s calculations based on MADESE (n.d.). Enrollment Data. The Mauricio Gastón Institute, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA T

4 MCAS Performance II. MCAS Performance Figure 3: Percentage of All Students Scoring Proficient or Higher on MCAS by Grade and Subject, SY2013 Figure 3: Percentage of All Students Scoring Proficient or Higher on MCAS by Grade and Subject, SY State Springfield Source: MADESE (2013). MCAS Tests of Spring 2013, Percent of Students at Each Achievement Level for Springfield. Source: MADESE (2013). MCAS Tests of Spring 2013, Percent of Students at Each Achievement Level for Springfield. As evidenced by Figure 3 above, Springfield as a district performs far below statewide averages on the standardized tests in the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS). Figure 3 shows the percentage of all students in Springfield and all students statewide who passed (i.e., scored Proficient or higher) on the As 2013 evidenced MCAS tests by Figure in English 3 above, Language Springfield Arts (ELA), as Math, a district and performs far below statewide averages on the standardized tests in the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assess- Science/Technology/Engineering (STE) MCAS tests. As seen, the pass rates in Springfield are far below ment System (MCAS). Figure 3 shows the percentage of all students in Springfield and all students statewide who passed (i.e., scored Proficient or higher) on the 2013 MCAS tests in English Language Arts (ELA), Math, and Science/Technology/Engineering (STE) MCAS tests. As seen, the pass rates in Springfield are far below the statewide rates across all grades. Particularly alarming is the jump in the performance gaps between Grades 5 and 6. For the ELA tests, the State-Springfield gap increases from 24 percentage points in fifth grade to 39 points in sixth grade and for the Math tests the gap increases from 20 percentage points in Grade 5 to 38 percentage points in Grade 6. This jump in the gap between fifth and sixth grade has been evident since the introduction of the Grade 5 and Grade 6 tests in SY2006. Furthermore, looking at the MCAS tests for Grades 6-10, Grade 10 ELA was the only test on which the State-Springfield gap was less than 30 percentage points. In other words, Springfield students start behind their counterparts across the state, but fall further behind starting in middle school. Comparing the pass rates for students in Springfield to the pass rates for students statewide shows much smaller gaps, especially in earlier grades; there is even one test (Grade 5 STE) on which students in Springfield had a higher proficiency rate than students statewide. The following section highlights the performance by students in Springfield on the Grade 3 Reading and Grade 10 ELA, Math, and STE tests, all important performance measures. Grade 3 Reading is considered an important measurement for academic preparation, because the end of third grade marks the time when students go from learning how to read to learning from reading. The Grade 10 MCAS tests are also an important metric of preparation for participation in postsecondary education. Furthermore, all students in Massachusetts are required to pass the Grade 10 ELA, Math, and STE MCAS tests in order to qualify for a high school diploma. 4 The Mauricio Gastón Institute, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA T

5 Figure 4: Percentage of Students Scoring Proficient or Higher on Grade 3 Reading MCAS Figure by 4: Race/Ethnicity, Percentage of Students SY2013 Scoring Proficient or Higher on Grade 3 Reading MCAS by Race/Ethnicity, SY % 61% 4 35% 28% Figure 2 4: Percentage of Students Scoring Proficient or Higher on Grade 3 Reading MCAS by Race/Ethnicity, SY State - All 57% Students African-American/ Black 4 35% Source: MADESE (2013) MCAS Results by Subgroup by 28% Grade and Subject. 2 61% As seen in Figure 4 above, 28% of students in Springfield performed at Proficient or higher All Students on the Grade 3 Black Reading MCAS. This was the lowest among all State - African-American/ ethno-racial Source: MADESE groups (2013). in Springfield, 2013 MCAS Results 33 percentage by Subgroup points by Grade below and Subject. the rate for students in Springfield, and 29 points below the rate for all students statewide. Figure 5 below illustrates that the proficiency rate for students has been largely stagnant Figure 5: since Percentage 2003 and of Students has actually Scoring decreased Proficient over or Higher recent on years. Grade Meanwhile, 3 Reading MCAS the by rate Race/Ethnicity, for students SY2003-SY2013 varied markedly from one year to another, with the result that the - gap in Springfield narrowed in 2010 and 2011 but then widened once again in 2012 and Figure 5 5: Percentage of Students Scoring Proficient or Higher on Grade 3 Reading MCAS by Figure Race/Ethnicity, 5: Percentage SY2003-SY2013 of Students Scoring Proficient or Higher on Grade 3 Reading MCAS 4 by Race/Ethnicity, SY2003-SY State - All Students 1 A State - All Students A The Mauricio Gastón Institute, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA T

6 Figure 6: Percentage of Students Scoring Proficient or Higher on Grade 10 ELA MCAS Figure by 6: Percentage Race/Ethnicity, of Students SY2013 Scoring Proficient or Higher on Grade 10 ELA MCAS by Race/Ethnicity, SY % 77% 71% 76% 6 4 Figure 6: Percentage of Students Scoring Proficient or Higher on Grade 10 ELA MCAS by Race/Ethnicity, 2 SY % State - All Students African-American/ 77% Black 71% Source: 6 MADESE (2013) MCAS Results by Subgroup by Grade and Subject Source: MADESE (2013) MCAS Results by Subgroup by Grade and Subject % In SY2013, 71% of students scored Proficient or higher on the Grade 10 ELA MCAS test. This pass rate was 5 percentage points lower than the rate State - African-American/ for All Students students in Springfield, Black 6 points below the rate for African-American/ Black students in the district, and 20 points below the pass rate statewide. As seen in Figure 7 below, however, this 71% is the highest pass rate for students to date and marks 10 years of consistent improvement. As a result, since SY2003, students have eliminated 88% of the performance gap with students in Springfield and 55% of the gap with all students statewide. Figure Source: 7: MADESE Percentage (2013). of Students 2013 Scoring MCAS Results Proficient by Subgroup or Higher by Grade on Grade and 10 Subject ELA MCAS by Race/Ethnicity, SY2003-SY Figure Figure 7: Percentage of Students Scoring Proficient or Higher on Grade 10 ELA MCAS 4 7: Percentage of Students Scoring Proficient or Higher on Grade 10 ELA MCAS by by Race/Ethnicity, SY2003-SY2013 Race/Ethnicity, SY2003-SY State - All Students Source: 4 MADESE (2013) MCAS Results by Subgroup by Grade and Subject 2 B State - All Students Source: MADESE (2013) MCAS Results by Subgroup by Grade and Subject Source: MADESE (2013) MCAS Results by Subgroup by Grade and Subject B 6 The Mauricio Gastón Institute, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA T

7 Figure 8: Percentage of Students Scoring Proficient or Higher on Grade 10 Math MCAS by Race/Ethnicity, Figure 8: Percentage SY2013 of Students Scoring Proficient or Higher on Grade 10 Math MCAS by Race/Ethnicity, SY % 6 46% 38% 4 Figure 8: Percentage of Students Scoring Proficient or Higher on Grade 10 Math MCAS by Race/Ethnicity, 2 SY State - African-American/ All Students Black 59% Source: 6 MADESE (2013) MCAS 46% Results by Subgroup by Grade and Subject. Source: MADESE (2013) MCAS Results by Subgroup by Grade 38% and Subject. 4 2 While 71% of students in Springfield in SY2013 passed the Grade 10 ELA test, only 38% passed State - the Grade African-American/ 10 Math test. As seen in Figure 8 above, this pass rate is 8 percentage All Students points below the Black rate for African-American/Black students in Source: Springfield, MADESE 21 (2013). points 2013 below MCAS the Results rate for by Subgroup students by Grade in and Springfield, Subject. and 42 points below the rate for all students statewide. As seen in the figure below, there have been large improvements in pass rates for students in Springfield over Figure 9: Percentage of Students Scoring Proficient or Higher on Grade 10 Math MCAS by the Race/Ethnicity, past 10 years. SY2003-SY2013 However, other groups have shown similar improvements over this span; the gap with students in Springfield has narrowed only slightly 10 and the gap with all students statewide remains unchanged at 42 percentage points. 6 Figure 9: Percentage of Students Scoring Proficient or Higher on Grade 10 Math MCAS by Figure Race/Ethnicity, 4 9: Percentage SY2003-SY2013 of Students Scoring Proficient or Higher on Grade 10 Math MCAS by Race/Ethnicity, SY2003-SY State - All Students Source: 4 MADESE (2013) MCAS Results by Subgroup by Grade and Subject. 2 C State - All Students C The Mauricio Gastón Institute, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA T

8 Figure 10: Percentage of Students Scoring Needs Improvement or Higher, Grade 10 Figure 10: STE Percentage MCAS of by Students Race/Ethnicity, Scoring SY2013 Needs Improvement or Higher, Grade 10 STE MCAS by Race/Ethnicity, SY % State - All Students 81% African-American/ Black Source: Figure MADESE 10: Percentage (2013) of Students MCAS Scoring Results Needs by Subgroup Improvement by Grade or Higher, and Subject. Grade 10 STE MCAS by Race/Ethnicity, SY2013 Source: MADESE 95% (2013) MCAS Results by Subgroup by Grade and Subject % 81% 75% 4 Figure 10 illustrates that students in Springfield have the lowest Grade 10 2 STE pass rates (for the Science, Technology, and Engineering MCAS tests, passing requires a score of Needs Improvement or higher) of all ethno-racial groups in Springfield. State The - African-American/ rate is 6 percentage points below the rate for African- All Students Black American/Black students, 12 points below the rate for students, and 20 Figure Source: 11: points Percentage MADESE below of(2013). Students the rate 2013 Scoring for MCAS all Needs Results students by Improvement Subgroup statewide. by Grade However, orhigher and Subject. ongrade Figure STE below MCAS shows by Race/Ethnicity, SY2008-SY2013 that students in Springfield have made especially strong progress on the STE 10 tests since their introduction in SY2008, improving by 24 percentage points in only six years. This improvement has resulted in closing 6 of the gap with 9 students in Springfield and 46% of the gap with all students statewide. 7 Figure 11: Percentage of Students Scoring Needs Improvement or Higher on Grade 10 STE MCAS by Race/Ethnicity, SY2008-SY Figure 11: Percentage of Students Scoring Needs Improvement orhigher ongrade 10 STE MCAS by Race/Ethnicity, SY2008-SY % 87% State - All Students 6 D State - All Students D 8 The Mauricio Gastón Institute, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA T

9 Graduation Rate, Dropout Rate, and College Enrollment Rate Figure III. Graduation 12: Four-Year Rate, Dropout Cohort Graduation Rate, and College Rate Enrollment and Dropout Rate Rate by Race/Ethnicity, SY2013 Figure 12: Four-Year Cohort Graduation Rate and Dropout Rate by Race/Ethnicity, SY % % Graduated % Dropped Out 55% 63% 63% 47% 25% 21% 19% 3 7% State Springfield - All Students African American/ Black Source: MADESE (n.d.). Cohort 2013 Graduation Rates. Source: MADESE (n.d.). Cohort 2013 Graduation Rates. As demonstrated in Figure 12 above, Springfield struggles to graduate students within the anticipated four years of high school. In SY2013, the four-year cohort graduation rate for all students in Springfield was 55%, the second lowest rate (behind only Holyoke s 53%) among all school districts. 3 Likewise, the four-year cohort dropout rate in Springfield was 25% in SY2013, the second highest dropout rate in the state among all school districts behind only Holyoke. For students, the SY2013 four-year graduation rate was 47% and the dropout rate was 3; both of these outcomes were worse than for all other ethno-racial groups in Springfield. There have been slight improvements on four-year cohort graduation and dropout rates for students in Springfield over the past seven years, with the graduation rate improving from 43% to 47% and the dropout rate decreasing from 41 to 3. A large proportion of students are still in school after four years of high school. Looking at the outcomes for the class of 2013, 14% of students were still in school after four years. One explanation for this large proportion of students still in school after four years is the low percentage of first-time ninth graders who are promoted to tenth grade. In SY2012, only 73% of first-time ninth graders in Springfield were promoted to tenth grade, much lower than the rate of 91% of all first-time ninth graders statewide. The cohort graduation rate, while important, reflects the outcomes over the past four years and does not reflect recent Springfield Public Schools dropout initiatives. An alternative measure is the annual dropout rate, which measures the percentage of students in grades 9-12 who drop out each year. In SY2013 the annual dropout rate for all students in Springfield was 7%, down from 1 in SY2009. The Mauricio Gastón Institute, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA T

10 College Enrollment College Enrollment Figure 13: Percentage of High School Graduates Attending Institutions of Higher Education Percentage within 16 of Months High School of Completing Graduates Attending High School, Institutions SY2011 of Higher Education within 16 Figure 13: Months of Completing High School, SY % 72% 66% 66% State - All Students Springfield - All Students African-American/ Black Source: MADESE (n.d.) Graduates Attending Institutions of Higher Education, All Colleges and Universities. Source: MADESE (n.d.) Graduates Attending Institutions of Higher Education, All Colleges and Universities. As shown in the figure above, among Springfield students who completed high school in SY2011, 66% of all students and 6 of students enrolled in an institution of higher education within 16 months of completing high school. students have the lowest college enrollment rates among all ethno-racial groups in Springfield: 6 percentage points below the rate for students, 12 points behind the rate for African-American/Black students, and 14 points behind the statewide rate. Notably, however, the 6 rate is an increase from 46% in SY2004; in those nine years, students eliminated 45% of the gap with students in Springfield and 36% of gap with all students statewide.!; Upon first glance, the 66% college enrollment rate for Springfield is comparable to those of other large urban districts (e.g., 67% for Boston, 68% for Worcester). However, there is a disparity in the types of colleges that students from the various districts are enrolling in. In SY2011, 72% of the Springfield students who enrolled in an institution of higher education enrolled in a public two-year college. This is much higher than the state rate of 3, the Boston rate of 33%, and the Worcester rate of 49%. Over three-quarters (78%) of the Springfield students attending higher education are enrolled in public two-year colleges, a higher rate than for students statewide (57%), students in Boston (4), and students in Worcester (68%). Community colleges offer great opportunities to students, but completion rates at two-year colleges are lower than the completion rates at fouryear colleges and universities. According to the Chronicle of Higher Education (2013), only 11% of first-time students at Massachusetts two-year public colleges graduate within three years as compared to the 44% of students at Massachusetts four-year public colleges who graduate within six years. 10 The Mauricio Gastón Institute, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA T

11 Spotlight on Springfield High Schools Previous Gastón Institute research working with the community in Springfield has shown drastically different perceptions of the four major high schools in Springfield. The purpose of this section is to compare key educational outcomes at the four major Springfield high schools. Table 1: Characteristics of Springfield High Schools, SY2013 % ELL % Low income % Students with Disabilities Churn 4 Rate High School Type/ Focus Enrollment Accountability Level Central 2,034 11% 78% 15% 15% Comprehensive Level 3 Putnam 1,284 12% 9 8% Vocational/ Technical Commerce 1,258 26% 85% 24% 46% International Baccalaureate SciTech 1,401 16% 85% 21% 3 Science and Technology Source: MADESE (2013). Enrollment Data; MADESE (2013). DART for Schools Level 3 Level 4 Level 4 The four largest high schools in Springfield are Central High School (Central) (2,034 students), Putnam Vocational Technical High School (Putnam) (1,284 students), High School of Commerce (Commerce) (1,258 students), and High School of Science and Technology (SciTech) (1,401). Central has the largest enrollment, but has the lowest proportion of ELLs, low-income students, and students with disabilities. Below is a figure showing the ethno-racial composition of the various high schools in SY2013. Two-thirds (67%) of all students at Commerce and SciTech are students, a higher rate than the district proportion. In contrast, only 48% of students at Central are. Figure 14: Ethno-Racial Composition of Springfield High Schools, SY2013 Figure 14: Ethno-Racial Composition of Springfield High Schools, SY2013 African-American/Black Other SciTech 67% 19% 1 4% Commerce 67% 8% 3% Putnam 63% 21% 13% 4% Central 48% 25% 17% 11% Source: MADESE (2013). Enrollment Data. Source: MADESE (2013). Enrollment Data. The Mauricio Gastón Institute, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA T

12 The following section provides more detailed information on the performance and engagement of students in the four high schools, disaggregated by race/ethnicity. This section highlights the disparities that exist between Central and Putnam on one hand and Commerce and SciTech on the other, focusing on MCAS scores, graduation rate, dropout rate, and suspension rate. While not shown in this report, similar disparities exist when looking at attendance rates, chronic absenteeism, and participation in AP exams. MCAS MCAS MCAS Figure 15: Percentage of Students Scoring Proficient or Figure 15: Percentage of Students Scoring Proficient or Figure Higher 15: on Percentage Grade 10 Higher on Grade 10 ELA of ELA Students MCAS MCAS Scoring by Race/Ethnicity, by Race/Ethnicity, Proficient or Higher SY2013 on Grade 10 ELA MCAS by Race/Ethnicity, SY2013 SY % 95% 83% 87% 83% 78% 87% 79% 78% 79% 98% 98% 83% 83% % 78% 64% 63% 63% 64% 63% 63% 55% 55% Source: MADESE (2013) MCAS Results by Source: MADESE (2013) MCAS Results by Source: Subgroup MADESE by Grade (2013). and 2013 Subject. MCAS Results by Subgroup by Grade and Subgroup MCAS Subject. by Grade and Subject. Figure 15: Percentage of Students Scoring Proficient or Figure 16: Percentage of Students Scoring Proficient or Figure 16: Percentage of Students Scoring Proficient or Figure Higher 16: on Percentage Grade 10 of ELA Students MCAS Scoring by Race/Ethnicity, Higher on Grade 10 Math MCAS by Race/Ethnicity, Proficient or Higher Higher SY2013 on on Grade Math MCAS by by Race/Ethnicity, SY2013 SY2013 SY % 86% 83% 86% 87% 78% 79% 72% 72% % 57% 53% 49% 53% 49% 29% 24% 29% 25% 24% 25% Source: MADESE (2013) MCAS Results by Source: MADESE (2013). (2013) MCAS MCAS Results Results by Subgroup by by Grade and Source: Subgroup Subject. MADESE by Grade (2013). and Subject MCAS Results by Subgroup by Grade and Subject. Subgroup by Grade and Subject. Figure Figure 17: 16: Percentage Percentage of of Students Students Scoring Scoring Proficient Improvement Figure Higher or 17: on Higher, Percentage Grade Grade 10 Math of 10 Students STE MCAS MCAS by Scoring Race/Ethnicity, by Race/Ethnicity, Needs Improvement or Higher, Grade 10 STE MCAS by or Figure 17: Percentage of Students Scoring Needs Improvement SY2013 or Higher, Grade 10 STE MCAS by Race/Ethnicity, SY2013 Race/Ethnicity, 86% SY % 89% 96% 89% 6 81% 57% 81% 72% 89% 91% 84% 89% 91% 84% 53% 49% 98% 83% 71% 78% 71% 64% 7 64% 64% 63% 63% 55% % 96% 71% 93% 93% 64% 83% 83% 5 79% 79% 68% 68% 65% 64% 29% 65% 64% 24% 56% 25% 56% Figure 15 shows Grade 10 ELA MCAS pass rates for SY2013. students at Putnam have a higher pass rate than students at the other three high schools: 83%, which is four percentage points higher than at Central and 20 points better than at Commerce and SciTech. At Putnam and SciTech, students have a higher pass rate than students. The pass rates at Central and Putnam are both higher than the statewide pass rate. As seen earlier in the report, students in Springfield struggle with the Grade 10 Math MCAS test. Figure 16 shows the Grade 10 Math pass rates of 53% at Central, 5 at Putnam, 29% at Commerce, and at SciTech. While students at Putnam had a higher pass rate than students on the ELA test, the student pass rate on the Math test is 14 percentage points lower than the student rate and 21 points lower than the African-American/Black rate. Figure 17 shows that students at Putnam have a pass rate of 93% on the Grade 10 STE tests, which is 4 points above the rate for students at Central, 28 points higher than the rate at SciTech, and 37 points higher than the rate at Commerce. At Putnam, a higher percentage of students pass the STE test than students, and the pass rate at both Putnam and Central is higher than the statewide student pass rate. Source: State MADESE (2013). Central (2013) Putnam MCAS MCAS Results Commerce Results by Subgroup by SciTech by Grade and Subgroup Subject. by Grade and Subject. 12 Source: Figure 17: MADESE Percentage (2013). The of Students Mauricio 2013 MCAS Scoring Gastón Results Institute, Needs by University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA T Source: Improvement MADESE (2013) MCAS Results by Subgroup by Grade or Higher, and Subject. Grade 10 STE MCAS by Subgroup Race/Ethnicity, by Grade SY2013 and Subject.

13 Figure 18: Four-Year Cohort Dropout Rate, State and Springfield High Schools,,, Figure and 18: Four-Year African-American/Black Cohort Dropout Rate, Students, State SY2013 and Springfield High Schools,,, and African-American/Black Students, SY % 14% 15% 1 1 9% 1 4% 5% Figure 18: Four-Year Cohort Dropout Rate, State and Springfield High Schools,,, and African-American/Black Students, SY % 41% 4 4 Source: MADESE (n.d.). Cohort 2013 Graduation Rates. 3 Source: 3 MADESE (n.d.). Cohort 2013 Graduation Rates. 26% 24% 2 1 All four high schools 4% in Springfield have 5% four-year cohort dropout rates higher than the statewide four-year cohort dropout rate of 5%. These struggles are particularly acute State for and Central students Putnam at Commerce Commerce and students SciTech at SciTech where approximately 4% of students drop out within four years of starting high school. At 1, the student four-year cohort rate at Putnam is lower Source: than MADESE the statewide (n.d.). Cohort 2013 student Graduation dropout Rates. rate of 16%. As seen in Figure 19 below, Figure there 19: Four-Year are similar Cohort and Graduation related disparities Rate, State and in Springfield the four-year High graduation Schools, rates and at Students, SY2013 Commerce and SciTech as compared to Central and Putnam. Only 3 of students 10 at Commerce 9 and 36% of students at SciTech graduated within 85% four years, 74% as compared to 75% 61% of 74% students 74% 77% at Central and 74% of 67% students at Putnam. The 61% graduation rate at Putnam is 7 points higher 58% than 61% 6 5 the statewide graduation rate % 14% 15% 2 Figure 19: Four-Year Cohort Graduation Rate, State and Springfield High Schools, and Figure 19: Students, Four-Year SY2013 Cohort Graduation Rate, State and Springfield High Schools, and Students, SY % Source: MADESE 74% (n.d.). Cohort 75% 2013 Graduation 74% Rates. 74% 77% 67% 61% 58% 61% 6 5!< 36% % 2 1 9% 24% 41% 41% % 3 36% 26% Source: MADESE (n.d.). Cohort 2013 Graduation Rates. Source: MADESE (n.d.). Cohort 2013 Graduation Rates.!< The Mauricio Gastón Institute, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA T

14 Figure 20: Ninth to Tenth Grade Promotion Rate, First Time Ninth Graders, SY2012 Figure 20: Ninth to Tenth Grade Promotion Rate, First Time Ninth Graders, SY % 92% 98% 93% 91% 85% 76% 79% 43% 47% % 6 Figure 20: Ninth to Tenth Grade Promotion Rate, First Time Ninth Graders, SY2012 State 94% Central 98% 10 92% Putnam 93% 91% Commerce SciTech 85% 76% 79% 7 58% 6 Source: 6 MADESE (2013). DART Detail: Success After High School. 43% 47% 5 Source: MADESE (2013). DART Detail: Success After High School. 4 2 As discussed earlier in the report, one factor feeding into the low four-year cohort graduation rate is the low percentage of first-time ninth grade students who are promoted to tenth grade. African-American/Black Fewer than half (47%) of first-time ninth graders Source: MADESE at Commerce (2013). and DART 58% Detail: at SciTech Success After are promoted High School. to tenth grade. As seen in Figure 20, these promotion rates are far below the promotion rates of 79% at Central and 93% at Putnam. The rate for students at Putnam is higher than the Figure 21: Annual Percentage of Students Receiving at Least One Out-of-School Suspension, SY rate for students at Putnam and higher than 34% the statewide promotion rate, but lower than the rate for Africa-American/Black 3 students. 29% 3 28% 3 18% 2 17% 16% 12% 14% Figure 21: Annual Percentage 1 12% of Students Receiving at Least One Out-of-School Suspension, SY2012 5% 1 7% Figure 21: Annual Percentage of Students Receiving at Least One Out-of-School Suspension, SY State Central Putnam 34% Commerce SciTech Gr % 3 28% 3 Source: MADESE 18% 2 17% (2013). DART Detail: Success 16% After High School. 12% 14% 1 12% 1 7% 5% State Gr Central Putnam Commerce SciTech Source: MADESE (2013). DART Detail: Success After High School. Source: MADESE (2013). DART Detail: Success After High School. An additional area of concern is the disparity of out-of-school suspension rates seen between the two groups of high schools. As seen in Figure 21, both Commerce and SciTech have suspension rates of 3, far above the 1 and 12% suspension rates at Central and Putnam. The student suspension rates at Central and Putnam are lower than the statewide suspension rate of 17%, and the student suspension rate at Putnam is lower than the rate for students at Putnam. 14 The Mauricio Gastón Institute, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA T

15 The Mauricio Gastón Institute for Community Development and Public Policy conducts research on and for the population in New England. Our goal is to generate the information and analysis necessary to develop more inclusive public policy, and to improve participation in the policy making process. As part of its effort to present vital information about s to diverse audiences, the Gastón Institute has produced this series of demographic and educational profiles for selected cities and towns. Reports can be downloaded from s in Public Schools is a series of reports based on publicly available data from the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (www.profiles.doe.mass. edu). The public school system in Massachusetts reflects the demographic shift in the diversity of the entire population. The total student enrollment has decreased over the past ten years, but during this period the state has witnessed a growing population of students both in terms of overall enrollment and in proportion of total enrollment. Since the SY2006 school year, the number of students in Massachusetts has increased by 3 (from 125,436 to 162,475 students) representing a jump from 13% to 17% in the proportion of all students). In contrast, during the same period the number of African-American/ Black students has increased by 3%, while the number of students has decreased by 12%. This growing population in the state is experiencing an achievement gap as compared to students. They face persistently lower pass rates on the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS), the state-required standardized tests. In addition, students experience the highest dropout rate and lowest graduation rate as compared to other ethno-racial groups in the state. The growing student population in many Massachusetts school districts presents these districts with a changing configuration of students and with new challenges and opportunities. We hope that this series of reports will be helpful, both to school officials and to the communities of these cities and towns. About the Author Michael Berardino holds a M.S. in Public Policy from the University of Massachusetts Boston and is currently a Research Associate at the Gastón Institute and a doctoral candidate in Public Policy at UMass Boston s McCormack Graduate School of Policy and Global Studies. His research focuses on the impacts of language instruction and high-stakes testing policies on English Language Learners, with special attention to student outcomes, school discipline, and civic engagement. Find Us on Facebook

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