Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings

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1 Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings September, 1995 Solid Freeform Fabrication as an important and totally integrated approach to design, materials processing and manufacturing research results related to it is contained in this proceedings of the SFF Symposium held in Austin, Texas on August 7-9, 1995 SFF Topics covered in the Symposium include: Machine Design Computer Sectioning Reverse Engineering Materials Processing Applications Harris L. Marcus, Joseph J. Beaman, David L. Bourell, Joel W. Barlow, and Richard H. Crawford, Editors 1995 All rights of reproduction in any form are protected by U.S. Copyright Laws. Permission to copy all or portions of the proceedings contents must be obtained from the authors and. Library of Congress ISSN TECHNISCHE 'NFORMATIONSBI8LIOTHEK UNIVERSITATSBfEUOTHEK HANNOVER

2 - -, * ' '.. " Table of Contents Preface ^.-., ^.J,. _, vi Structural Ceramics by Fused Deposition of Ceramics < ;< * * vo ; 1 *M.K. Agarwala,* R. van Weeren,* R. Vaidyanathan, *A. Bandyopadhyay, *G. Carrasquilo, *V. Jamalabad,* N. Langrana, *A. Safari, *S.H. Garofalini, *S.C. Danforth, + J. Burlew, + R. Donaldson, + P. Whalen, + C. Ballard *Rutgers University, + Allied-Signal Research & Technology AI 2 O 3 Ceramics made by CAM-LEM (Computer-Aided Manufacturing of Laminated 9 Engineering Materials) Technology + J.D. Cawley, + P. Wei, + Z.E.Liu, + W.S. Newman, *B.B. Mathewson, + Arthur H. Heuer + Case Western Reserve University, 'CAM-LEM Inc. Predicting and Controlling Resolution and Surface Finish of Ceramic Objects 17 Produced by Stereodeposition Processes + R.S. Crockett, + J. O'Kelly, + P.D. Calvert, + B.D. Fabes, *K. Stuffle, *P. Creegan, *R. Hoffman + University of Arizona, 'Advanced Ceramics Research Selective Laser Sintering and Fused Deposition Modeling Processes For Functional 25 Ceramic Parts E. Alair Griffin, Scott McMillin Lone Peak Engineering Ceramic Stereolithography for Investment Casting and Biomedical Applications 31 Michelle L. Griffith, Tien-Min Chu, Warren C. Wagner, John W. Halloran The University of Michigan Application of Cementitous Bulk Materials to Site Processed Solid Freeform 39 Construction Joseph Pegna Selective Laser Sintering of Alumina-Zinc Borosilicate Glass Composites using 46 Monoclinic HB0 2 as a Binder + Insup Lee, + A. Manthiram, *H.L. Marcus +, 'University of Connecticutt Effect of Processing Parameters in SLS of Metal-Polymer Powders 55 B. Badrinarayan, J.W. Barlow Electron Beam Solid Freeform Fabrication of Metal Parts 64 + Vivek Dave,*John Matz, Thomas Eagar *MIT, + UTC/Pratt & Whitney Accuracy and Mechanical Behaviour of Metal Parts Produced by Lasersintering 72 T. Pintat, * M. Greul, *M. Greulich, + C. Wilkening *Fraunhofer - IFAM, + EOS GmbH ma t

3 A New SFF Process for Functional Part Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing: 80 Freeform Powder Molding Stephen J. Rock, Charles R. Gilman Thermal Design Parameters Critical to the Development of Solid Freeform 88 Fabrication of Structural Materials with Controlled Nano-Liter Droplets Melissa Orme, Changzheng Huang University of California The Finishing of Stereolithography Models using Resin Based Coatings 96 P.E. Reeves, R.C. Cobb University of Nottingham Influence of Post-Curing Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of 107 Stereolithographic Photopolymers Suresh Jayanth^ Bronson Hokuf, John Lawton DuPont Somos tm Materials Group Processing, Thermal, and Mechanical Issues in Shape Deposition Manufacturing F.B. Prinz, *L.E. Weiss, * C.H. Amon, * J.L. Beuth " "Stanford University, 'Carnegie Mellon University A 3D Print Process for Inexpensive Plastic Parts 130 I. Ederer, R. Hochsmann, J. Machan Lehrstuhl fur Feingeratebau (FGB) In-Situ Property Measurements on Laser-Drawn Strands of SL 5170 Epoxy and SL Acrylate T. R. Guess, R.S. Chambers Sandia National Laboratories Gas-Phase Laser-Induced Pyrolysis of Tapered Microstructures 143 James Maxwell, Joseph Pegna, Eric Hill Improved Energy Delivery for Selective Laser Sintering 151 CarlDeckard, David Miller Clemson University Improvements in, SLS Part Accuracy 159 Christian Nelson, Kevin McAlea, Damien Gray DTM Corporation Accuracy of Stereolithography Parts: Mechanism and Modes of Distortion for a 170 "Letter H" Diagnostic Part 'Thomas H. Pang, + Michelle D. Guertin, + Hop D. Nguyen *Ciba-Geigy Corp., + 3D Systems Surface Characterization of Polycarbonate Parts from Selective Laser Sintering 181 Irem Turner, David Thompson, Richard Crawford, Kristin Wood n

4 A Phenomenological Numerical Model for Fused Deposition Processing of Particle 189 Filled Parts *Atif Yardimci, *Selcuk Giiceri, + Stephen C. Danforth 'University of Illinois at Chicago, + Rutgers University Densification and Distortion in Selective Laser Sintering of Polycarbonate 196 M. Berzins, T.H.C. Childs, K.W. Dalgarno, G.R. Ryder, G. Stein University of Leeds Photoelastic Investigation Using New STL-Resins 204 W. Steinchen, B. Kramer, G. Kupfer Universitat Gesamthochschule Kassel The Use of STEP to Integrate Design and Solid Freeform Fabrication 213 Charles R. Gilman, Stephen J. Rock Control of Residual Thermal Stresses in Shape Deposition Manufacturing 221 R.K. Chin, J.L. Beuth, C.H. Amon Carnegie Mellon University Support Generation for Fused Deposition Modelling Kumar Chalasani, *Larry Jones, + Larry Roscoe + Stratasys, Inc., *SDRC Stresses Created in Ceramic Shells using Quickcast Models 242 Richard Hague, Phill Dickens University of Nottingham Automated Fabrication of Ceramic Components from Tape-Cast Ceramic Brian B. Mathewson,*Wyatt S. Newman, 'Arthur H. Heuer, 'James D. Cawley + CAM-LEM, Inc.,"Case Western Reserve University Linear Shrinkage of Stereolithography Resins 261 Jill S. Ullett, Stanley J. Rodrigues, Richard P. Chartoff University of Dayton Application of Stereolithography in the Fabrication of Rehabilitation Aids 270 *Suresh Jayanthi, 'William Harwin, 'Michael Keefe, + Vijay Kumar *A.I. DuPont Institute/ University of Delaware, ""University of Pennsylvania The Production of Electrical Discharge Machining Electrodes Using SLS: 278 Preliminary Results Brent E. Stucker, Walter L. Bradley, Somchin (Jiab) Norasetthekul, Phillip T. Eubank Texas A&M University The Development of a SLS Plastic Composite Material 287 Paul Forderhase, Kevin McAlea, Richard Booth DTM Corporation Photopolymerization Reaction Rates By Reflectance Real Time Infrared 298 Spectroscopy: Richard P. Chartoff, Jin Du University of Dayton Application To Stereolithography Resins

5 3D Laser Shaping of Ceramic and Ceramic Composite Materials 305 J.A. Todd, S.M. Copley, M.I. Yankova, F. Fariborzi, K. West Illinois Institute of Technology Quality of Parts Processed by Fused Deposition 314 *R. van Weeren, M. Agarwala,**V. Jamalabad, *A. Bandyophadyay, *R. Vaidyannathan, * N. Langrana, *A. Safari, + P. Whalen, *S.C. Danforth, + C. Ballard 'Rutgers University, + Allied-Signal Research & Technology Shearography - a Practical Optical Testing and Measuring Method 322 W. Steinchen Universitat Gesamthochschule Kassel On Three Dimensional Heuristic Packing for Solid Freeform Fabrication 326 Alejandro Beascoechea, Michael J. Wozny Integration of a Solid Freeform Fabrication Process into a Feature-Based CAD 334 System Environment Young Suh, Michael J. Wozny Free Form Fabrication of High Strength Metal Components and Dies C.C. Bampton, *R. Burkett + Rockwell Science Center, *Rocketdyne Effect of Particle Size on SLS and Post-Processing of Alumina with Polymer 346 Binders + P. Kamatchi Subramanian, + J.W. Barlow,* H.L. Marcus ", 'University of Connecticutt Modeling of Dynamic Effects Caused by the Beam Delivery System in Selective 353 Laser Sintering Irem Turner, Kristin Wood, Ilene Busch-Vishniac Optimizing Part Quality with Orientation 362 David Thompson, Richard Crawford Selective Laser Sintering Preparation and Tribological Testing of Nanostructured 369 Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Composites + Rand D. Cottle, + Britton R. Birmingham, + Zwy Eliezer, 'Harris L. Marcus ", 'University of Connecticutt Densification Behavior of SLS Processed A1 2 O 3 /A1 Composite 374 T. Srinivasa Rao, + D.L. Bourell, # H. L. Marcus 'R.E.C.,, The University of Connecticutt Selective Area Laser Deposition of Titanium Tetrachloride 381 "Kevin Jakubenas, + H.L. Marcus, + University of Connecticutt

6 Solid Freeform Fabrication of Silicon Nitride Shapes by Selective Laser Reaction 389 Sintering (SLRS) + B.R. Birmingham, *H.L. Marcus, 'University of Connecticutt The Prediction of the Thermal Conductivity of Powders 397 Samuel Sumin Sih, Joel W. Barlow Emissivity of Powder Beds 402 Samuel Sumin Sih, Joel W. Barlow Ceramic Joining by Selective Beam Deposition J.V. Tompkins, + B.R. Birmingham, *H.L. Marcus, 'University of Connecticutt Nickel Applied for Selective Laser Sintering Using a Magnetic Field 417 Lawrence S. Melvin III, Joseph J. Beaman, Jr. A Sieve Feed System for the Selective Laser Sintering Process 425 Lawrence S. Melvin III, Joseph J. Beaman, Jr. Deposition Rates of Silicon Carbide by Selected Area Laser Deposition Y.L. Lee, + J.V. Thompkins, + J.M. Sanchez, *H.L. Marcus, 'University of Connecticutt Fundamentals of Liquid Phase Sintering During Selective Laser Sintering D.E. Bunnell, + S. Das, + D.L. Bourell, + J.B. Beaman, *H.L. Marcus, 'University of Connecticutt Production of Injection Molding Tooling with Conformal Cooling Channels using 448 The Three Dimensional Printing Process Emanuel Sachs, Samuel Allen, Michael Cima, Edward Wylonis, Honglin Guo MJT A Neural Network Architecture to Identify the Bone Tissue for Solid Freeform 468 Fabrication Nena Marin, Richard Crawford Structural Ceramic Components by 3D Printing 479 M.J. Cima, J. Yoo, S. Khanuja, M. Rynerson, D. Nammour, B. Giritlioglu, J. Grau, E.M. Sachs MTT Keyword Index 489 Author/Attendee List 491 World-Wide Web Sites Related to Solid Freeform Fabrication 497