RAPID PROTOTYPING. Principles and Applications. RAFIQ NOORANI, Ph.D. Professor of Mechanical Engineering Loyola Marymount University Los Angeles, CA

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1 RAPID PROTOTYPING Principles and Applications RAFIQ NOORANI, Ph.D. Professor of Mechanical Engineering Loyola Marymount University Los Angeles, CA WILEY JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.

2 CONTENTS Preface Acknowledgments About the Author xv xix xxi 1 Introduction Introduction World of RP What Is RP? Basic Process Industries Using RP Growth of RP Installations by Countries Technology Development History of RP Early History Early Solid Freeform Fabrication Commercial Development Chronology of RP Development Development of RP Systems D Systems' Stereolithography Process D Systems'Selective Laser Sintering Helisys'Laminated Object Manufacturing 17

3 vi CONTENTS Stratasys' Fused Deposition Modeling Solidscape's 3D Printing Applications in Education and Industry Application in Product Development Application in Reverse Engineering Application in Casting and Pattern Making Application in Rapid Tooling Application in Medicine Application in Rapid Manufacturing Case Study: Fabricating a Prototype Using 3D Printing Summary 30 Problems 32 References 32 2 Principles of Rapid Prototyping Principles of Automated Processes RP Fundamentals Creation of Solid Models Conversion to STL File Slicing the File Making or "Growing" the Prototype Postprocessing Problems with STL File Format Other Translators Case Study: Designing and Prototyping a Spur Gear Introduction Project Procedure Summary 53 Problems 54 References 56 3 Liquid-Based RP Systems Classification of RP Systems Liquid-Based Systems Solid-Based Systems Powder-Based Systems 58

4 CONTENTS vii 3.2 3D Systems' Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) Company Profile Details of Stereolithography ("SL") Process SLA Systems Advantages and Disadvantages Applications and Uses D-MEC's Solid Creation System Company Profile Solid Creation System Products D-MEC Modeling CMET Solid Object UV Laser Plotter Company Profile SOUP Process SOUP Machines Advantages and Disadvantages Summary 78 Problems 79 References 79 4 Solid-Based RP Systems Stratasys' Fused Deposition Modeling Systems Company Profile Principles Process Products Advantages and Disadvantages Applications and Uses Helysis Laminated Object Manufacturing System 93 Company Profile 93 Principles 94 Process 94 Products 94 Advantages and Disadvantages 94 Applications and Uses Solidscape's 3D Printing and Deposition Milling Company Profile Principles of Solidscape Prototyping Process Products 97

5 vm CONTENTS Advantages and Disadvantages Applications D Systems' Multijet Modeling System Company Profile Principles Process Products Advantages and Disadvantages Applications and Uses KIRA's System Summary 105 Problems 106 References Selective Adhesive and Hot Pass (SAHP) 102 Company Profile 102 Principles 102 Process 102 Products 105 Advantages and Disadvantages Applications and Uses Powder-Based RP Systems D Systems'Selective Laser Sintering Company Profile Principles of SLS Process Principles of Sinter Bonding Process Laser Sintering ("LS") Materials Products Advantages and Disadvantages Applications and Uses MIT's Three-Dimensional Printing Institution Process Major Applications Research and Development Z Corporation's Process (Z406 System) Company Profile Process 121

6 CONTENTS ix 5.4 Soligen's Direct Shell Production Casting Company Profile Model and Specifications Key Strengths Process Applications and Uses Case Studies Research and Development EOS's Laser Sintering Systems Company Profile Models and Specifications Laser Sintering Process Applications and Uses e-manufacturing using Laser Sintering Introduction Customized Plastic Parts Customized Metal Parts e-manufacturing in a Brief Summary 154 Problems 155 References Materials for Rapid Prototyping Introduction Nature of Materials Chemical Bonding and Structure Types of Materials Polymers Metals Ceramics Composites Liquid-Based Materials Photopolymer Development Photopolymer Chemistry Solid-Based Materials Polymers Metals Composites Powder-Based Materials 186

7 i CONTENTS Polymers Metals Ceramics Case Study Summary 195 Problems 196 References Reverse Engineering Introduction Measuring Devices Overview Contact-Type Measuring Devices Non-Contact-Type Measuring Devices CAD Model Construction from Point Clouds Preprocessing Point Clouds to Surface Model Creation Medical Data Processing Data-Handling and Reduction Methods Uniform-Grid Method Nonuniform-Grid Method Three-Dimensional Grid Methods Applications and Trends Applications Future Trends Case Study Introduction Methodology Bronze Cast of OVG Summary 239 Problems 239 References Rapid Tooling Introduction Indirect Methods of RT 244

8 CONTENTS xi Room Temperature Vulcanizing Silicone Rubber Molds Spray Metal Tooling Sprayed Steel Cast Aluminum and Zinc Kirksite Tooling Three-Dimensional Keltool Vacuum Casting Reaction Injection Molding Wax Injection Molding Spin Casting Cast Resin Tooling Rapid Solidification Process Plaster Molds Electroforming Investment Cast Tooling Direct Methods of RT Direct ACES Injection Molding Tooling Copper Polyamide Tooling Direct Metal Laser Sintering Selective Laser Sintering RapidSteel Laminated Tooling Laser Engineered Net Shaping Controlled Metal Buildup Prometal Case Study: Sheet-Metal Forming by RT Forming Technologies Stereolithography Process Fused Deposition Modeling Laminated Object Modeling Research Results Summary 267 Problems 267 References Medical Applications in Rapid Prototyping Introduction Medical Applications of RP Presurgical Planning Models Mechanical Bone Replicas Teaching Aids and Simulators Customized Surgical Implants 271

9 xii CONTENTS Prosthetics and Othotics Anthropology Forensics Types of Medical Imaging X-Ray Technology Magnetic Resonance Imaging Computed Tomography Software for Making Medical Models MIMICS and the CT Modeler System Velocity 2 Pro Software by Image D-Doctor from Able Software VoXim Medical Materials Other Applications Anthropology Biology and Chemistry Summary 285 Problems 286 References Industry Perspectives Guidelines for Implementation Purchasing Decisions Facilities Planning Environmental Issues Operating Issues Cost Analysis Training of Personnel Maintenance Costs Managing Issues Integrating Technology Within the Company Productivity Advantage Lean Production Service Bureaus What Is a Service Bureau? Reasons for Using Service Bureaus Factors in Choosing a Service Bureau Rapid Prototyping Consortia Benefits in Consortia Affiliation 304

10 CONTENTS xiii University-Industry Consortia Industry-Industry Consortia Present and Future Trends Summary 308 Problems 309 References Research and Development 11.1 Improvement of FDM Process Using Design of Experiment Abstract Introduction Design of Experiments Selection of Build Parameters Experimental Method Results and Analysis of DOE Factor Analysis and Physical Interpretation Conclusions and Recommendations Improvement of Part Accuracy Abstract Introduction Theory and Analysis Results and Data Analysis Conclusions and Recommendations Effects of Cryogenic Processing on RP Materials Abstract Introduction Background Experimental Procedure Results and Discussion Conclusions and Recommendations New Technologies Laser Engineered Net Shaping Solidica On Demand Manufacturing Direct Material Deposition: OPTOMEC Summary 348 Problems 349 References

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