Teaching Literacy in Languages in year 7 Italian

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1 Teaching Literacy in Languages in year Italian

2 Italian Teaching Literacy in Languages in Year Italian Curriculum Support Directorate 1

3 Teaching Literacy in Languages in year Acknowledgements The Department of Education and Training wishes to acknowledge the work of the following officers in the preparation of this document: Italian writing team Flavia Cancian Marco Man Evelyn Manson Project team Nina Conomos David Jaffray Susi Steigler-Peters Karen White Design and desktop publishing Campbell Graphics 1998 NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum Support Directorate Restricted waiver of copyright The printed material in this publication is subject to a restricted waiver of copyright to allow the purchaser to make photocopies of the material contained in the publication for use within a school, subject to the conditions below. 1. All copies of the printed material shall be made without alteration or abridgement and must retain acknowledgement of the copyright. 2. The school or college shall not sell, hire or otherwise derive revenue from copies of the material, nor distribute copies of the material for any other purpose. 3. The restricted waiver of copyright is not transferable and may be withdrawn in the case of breach of any of these conditions. SCIS Order Number: ISBN:

4 Italian Foreword This publication complements Teaching literacy in languages in Year, a document released in 199 to support the State Literacy Strategy. It has been designed to affirm and support the work of secondary teachers of Italian in making clear connections between learning Italian and the development of literacy. It is acknowledged and emphasised that the systematic teaching of literacy skills is the responsibility of all teachers. Teaching literacy in languages in Year : Italian presents a range of literacy skills, making specific reference to how the development of literacy can be supported in the languages classroom. Key aspects of Teaching literacy in languages in Year : Italian include: continued opportunities for students to improve their language skills the systematic teaching of literacy skills recognition of the close connection between learning languages and the development of literacy skills. Teaching literacy in languages in Year : Italian brings together the experience and expertise of languages teachers from across the state. It aims to improve learning outcomes for all students. The stimulus texts and activities that follow are practical examples which you might consider referring to when programming lessons. They provide ideas and advice to all teachers for effectively linking languages learning with developing literacy skills. I highly commend Teaching literacy in languages in Year : Italian and encourage teachers to explore the many opportunities it offers to strengthen the links between learning Italian and developing literacy. Lindsay Wasson Director of Curriculum Support June,

5 Teaching Literacy in Languages in year Contents Literacy in the languages KLA 5 Defining literacy 5 Links with literacy 6 Teaching and learning activities 8 Mixed proficiency classes 9 Contextual introduction 11 Stimulus text 1 Dialogue 12 Stimulus text 2 Letter to a penfriend 14 Stimulus text 3 Planning a trip overseas 16 Stimulus text 4 Itinerary 18 Stimulus text 5 Passport 20 Stimulus text 6 Accommodation advertisements 22 Stimulus text City profiles 24 Stimulus text 8 Diary 26 4

6 Italian Literacy in the languages KLA Teaching literacy in languages in Year : Italian has been written by teachers for teachers. It presents a selection of texts and associated activities for developing language skills in the context of the development of literacy skills. The following factors were considered when the texts and activities were being developed: selecting language and content to match the stage of schooling using meaningful language recognising prior learning in Italian teaching mixed proficiency classes. Teaching literacy in languages in Year : Italian makes clear links between languages learning and the development of literacy and provides teachers with a greater understanding of how students develop literacy skills through learning Italian. Defining literacy Literacy is the ability to read and use written information and to write appropriately, in a range of contexts. It is used to develop knowledge and understanding, to achieve personal growth and to function effectively in our society. Literacy also includes the recognition of number and basic mathematical signs and symbols within text. Literacy involves the integration of speaking, listening and critical thinking with reading and writing. Effective literacy is intrinsically purposeful, flexible and dynamic and continues to develop throughout an individual s lifetime. Australia s Language and Literacy Policy Companion Volume to the Policy Paper, 1991 This is an extract from the definition of literacy used by the Department. It could also be used as a rationale for learning and teaching languages. The functional approach to language shows the relationships between context, language structure and meaning and involves the skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing. The close relationship between the development of language skills in Italian and the development of literacy in English enables teachers to incorporate into the teaching of Italian explicit strategies for developing literacy. Three of the major issues for teachers of Italian when considering literacy are: developing literacy skills in Italian transferring these skills from Italian to English enhancing literacy skills in English through the learning of Italian. The languages classroom provides a rich environment for developing students understandings of language as a system by drawing on comparative language analysis. This is just one significant aspect of literacy developed in the languages classroom. The following are some examples of the activities which languages teachers use and which fulfil the dual purposes of developing the target language and enhancing literacy skills: By comparing and reviewing the construction of sentences and texts the students develop their understanding of how the language operates as a system. These skills are transferable from language to language. While developing proficiency in the target language, students develop literacy skills which apply both to the target language and to English. Decoding messages, reading for meaning, scanning a text and predicting the message of a text through cues, are literacy strategies employed by all students in all languages to make meaning. When teachers use explicit strategies for developing language and literacy, their students are able to decode language much more easily and are able to make comparisons between languages and draw conclusions about how their own language works. See also: Teaching literacy in languages in Year. NSW Department of School Education,

7 Teaching Literacy in Languages in year Links with literacy The identification of explicit links with literacy will support the development of language programs. While not definitive, the following list identifies the skills that will enhance students literacy development as they learn a language. for the languages classroom may include: associating text with picture reading ahead to infer meaning associating pictures with an oral or aural stimulus recognising the association between print and sound predicting the content of a text using headings, visual clues, known words and cognates scanning to locate key words using a bilingual dictionary using facial expressions, body movements and gestures to support meaning using a monolingual dictionary using illustrations to confirm meaning using known words and sounds to understand and read new words using pictures and diagrams to predict meaning identifying, understanding and applying punctuation classifying information identifying grammatical patterns and features comparing and contrasting English with the target language placing key words in context (e.g. cloze) cross-referencing information understanding how to open and close conversations interpreting cognates and using them to infer meaning choosing an appropriate form of language for the audience or text making links between spoken and written forms choosing an appropriate language register 6

8 Italian constructing a meaningful text decoding abbreviated styles of communication constructing a text for a specific purpose identifying specific details decoding information from a graph or grid inferring meaning encoding information into an abbreviated style locating information identifying the language relevant to the topic recognising speech melodies and varying tones planning and reconstructing text recording information on an appropriate form planning the stages of a letter, profile, note or timetable recounting facts in oral or written form recognising the purpose of a text responding appropriately to an oral or aural stimulus selecting information for a specific purpose understanding language as a system sequencing jumbled words, dialogue or pictures understanding the forms and conventions of letters and sequencing according to different criteria skimming for general meaning using the same information for a variety of purposes understanding culturally-specific conventions of communication writing in various forms, e.g. note form collaborating with others to identify clues to meaning understanding the cueing of questions and answers.

9 Teaching Literacy in Languages in year Teaching and learning activities Following are a range of activities for developing skills in the target language. A specific literacy focus has been identified for each activity. All activities may not be appropriate for all language content, language functions, topics or stages of learning. The needs of the student and the teacher s professional judgement will be the key factors in determining the appropriateness of activities. 8 Recognising cognates A cognate is a word which resembles, in meaning and in form, a word in a different language. Literacy link: Using cognates to support languages learning and the development of literacy can be a useful tool for supporting the development of meaning as well as for making comparisons between languages. Information gap In these activities, some students hold information that others do not. The topic is usually specifically defined, e.g. someone s daily routine or their likes and dislikes. Vehicles for this activity may include questionnaires, barrier games and crossgroup games. Literacy link: The nature of the activity compels the student to listen for specific detail and match aural understanding with print. Sequencing This type of strategy requires students to reorganise written text, pictures or symbols into an appropriate sequence. Literacy link: In drawing students attention to the logical and reasonable order of words, this activity requires an understanding of the verbal and visual clues associated with the flow of thought from beginning to end. Listening activities These activities require students to listen actively in order to discriminate among elements of information. It is a strategy that can be used to familiarise students with a specific text or teaching point. During global listening, students may be given the opportunity to listen repeatedly and be guided by general questions, which they may be encouraged to discuss, e.g. What might be happening? Where might this be taking place? Listening may also be used in more prescriptive ways, requiring students to listen for specific details or for reasons, facts, opinions or instructions. Literacy link: By identifying the purpose and language features of a text through active listening, students learn to interpret speech patterns and varying tones, locate key words and main ideas and to predict meaning from the context. Cloze A cloze refers to a text from which key words have been deleted. The reader is asked to fill in the spaces. Literacy link: Students are compelled to use their understanding of language structures, grammar and context to make a meaningful attempt at identifying or locating the missing word or words. These exercises slow down the reading and focus the students attention on the meaning of the text. Modelling Modelling involves students in structured demonstrations of what effective communicators do. It can be a useful way of teaching language content while providing opportunities for the teacher and the students to pause and consider literacy demands. Literacy link: The process of modelling can slow the construction of text. It offers students a useful framework for developing and refining their understanding of particular text types and provides an opportunity for closer textual analysis.

10 Italian Mixed proficiency classes Any group of language learners may include students working across a range of outcomes. The proficiency of students cannot be defined by age or the year of schooling. The stimulus texts and activities included here have been developed to cater for Year students with a range of backgrounds and experiences in learning languages. You could consider the following strategies for differentiating activities so that they are accessible to students of varying levels of proficiency. Mentoring This enables students with little prior learning to undertake short-term tasks with a more proficient student. For example, with the support of a mentor, students can successfully complete listening exercises, cloze procedures and barrier games. This arrangement is appropriate for building success and confidence. Mixed proficiency grouping Divide the class into groups. Each group reflects a range of proficiency, from students with little prior learning to those who are considered able to complete the activity with minimal support. This type of grouping is suitable for completing a longer activity requiring teamwork. It may be that the teacher assigns roles to the students, e.g. recorder, presenter, checker, researcher or illustrator, which contribute to the expected outcome. Mixed proficiency grouping can successfully accommodate all types of learners working across a range of outcomes. Alternatively, groups of similar ability can be formed and tasks set accordingly. Grading tasks across a range of proficiency levels This allows students to work on the same activity yet complete graded tasks which match their proficiency level. During a reading activity the more proficient learners may be reading for detail with little or no support. At the same time, students with minimal prior learning may be required to identify known words in the passage, read for global understanding or work in pairs with the support of a word list. Working to a range of outcomes Students who are engaged in the same activity can produce a range of results with widely differing degrees of accuracy. In writing a letter to a penfriend, some students may write one or two lines while others complete several paragraphs. Providing a range of support strategies for students This may include displays of useful language, easy access to resource books, catch-up booklets, worked answer sheets, learning centres and contracts. 9

11 Teaching Literacy in Languages in year 10

12 Italian Contextual introduction The following stimulus texts and activities have been developed around the theme of Travel to Italy. The texts develop the scenario of Evelina, a high school student in Australia, and her parents who go to Italy for a holiday. The texts incorporate language features such as greetings, personal details, dates, time, transport and preferences, and explore the teaching of Italian in authentic and meaningful ways. In all schools a range of entry points is possible and so a Year Italian class may consist of students with varying degrees of background or prior experience of Italian. Therefore, there needs to be flexibility in the interpretation of content. Material may need to be modified to suit the needs of individual students or certain class groups. While the development of Italian language skills remains the focus, it is important to make explicit the connections between languages learning and literacy development. These materials provide examples of those links. Stimulus text 1 Dialogue Evelina tells her friend Marco about her impending trip to Italy and he asks her questions relating to her preparations. Stimulus text 2 Letter to a penfriend Evelina writes to her penfriend Flavia in Rome. Stimulus text 3 Planning a trip overseas A list of things to prepare for a trip overseas. Stimulus text 4 Itinerary Evelina s itinerary. Stimulus text 5 Passport Evelina s personal details are presented on her passport. Stimulus text 6 Accommodation advertisements Evelina and her parents compare some accommodation advertisements. Stimulus text City profiles Evelina and her parents study the profiles of some Italian cities. Stimulus text 8 Diary Evelina s diary. 11

13 Teaching Literacy in Languages in year Stimulus text 1 Dialogue Marco: Evelina: Marco: Evelina: Marco: Evelina: Marco: Evelina: Marco: Evelina: Marco: Evelina: Ciao Evelina. Dove vai? Vado in Italia con la mia famiglia. Che fortuna! Vado a Roma per le mie vacanze. Hai il passaporto? Sì, certo! Quanto costa il biglietto? Il biglietto costa duemiladuecento dollari australiani. Quando parti? Parto sabato. Buon viaggio! Mandami una cartolina! Va bene! Ciao! Vado in Italia con la mia famiglia. Ciao Evelina. Dove vai? Language features Greetings Vocabulary associated with travel Days of the week Opening and ending conversations. Use of punctuation: question marks, exclamations Understanding the cueing of questions and answers Inferring word meaning from context Making the link between spoken and written forms Understanding how to open and end conversations. Activity 1 Orientation The students listen to the recorded dialogue. In groups, the students write down any known words or cognates. Together the students can predict meaning and suggest possible content. Locating cognate words and using them to infer meaning Inferring word meanings from context. 12

14 Italian Activity 2 Role-play With student participation, read the dialogue. Then the students read and practise the dialogue in pairs. The dialogue could then be performed, perhaps with the support of cue cards. Making the link between spoken and written forms Understanding how to open and end conversations Recognising speech melodies and varying tones. Activity 3 Punctuation The stimulus text is displayed on the OHP. Read the dialogue with emphasised intonation for exclamation and question marks. Discuss these punctuation signals with the students, and encourage them to repeat the dialogue in a similar manner. Then the full text is displayed without punctuation marks. Read the text aloud and have the students identify the missing punctuation. : Making the link between spoken and written forms Identifying communicative pointers, such as punctuation signals Recognising exclamatory tone and speech melodies. Activity 4 Unjumble (a) Students are presented with a jumbled version of the dialogue in written form. In pairs, students arrange the dialogue in the appropriate order. (b) In pairs students use a drawing package to create a small picture of each character and then duplicate the pictures six times as there are six speech acts for each character. They then use the text tool to create a text box for each speech act. After creating text boxes for the 12 speech acts, students mix up the pictures and text boxes to get a jumbled version of the dialogue and save it on disk. Students swap disks and reorganise the jumbled dialogue into its correct sequence. See a detailed description of the method in Computer-based technologies in the Languages KLA, Activity 3 Story Outline, p. 3. Understanding the cueing of questions and answers Sequencing pictures and texts in logical order. Activity 5 Cloze Students complete a cloze exercise with the key words omitted. These words should reflect the focus of the text, e.g. fill in the blanks using the following words: cartolina, dollari, il biglietto, il passaporto, Italia, parto, vai, vacanze, viaggio. Marco: Ciao Evelina. Dove? Evelina: Molto bene. Vado in con la mia famiglia. Marco: Che fortuna! Evelina: Vado a Roma per le mie Marco: Hai? Evelina: Sì, certo! Marco: Quanto costa il biglietto? Evelina: costa duemiladuecento australiani. Marco: Quando parti? Evelina: sabato. Marco: Buon! Mandami una! Evelina: Va bene! Ciao! Placing key words in their context Scanning for detail. 13

15 Teaching Literacy in Languages in year Stimulus text 2 Letter to a penfriend Lettera di Evelina: Leichhardt, Australia Cara Flavia, Come stai? Io sono molto contenta perchè tra poco vengo in Italia. Parto per l Italia con l Alitalia sabato il diciotto aprile e arrivo a Roma domenica il diciannove di aprile alle Lunedì pomeriggio sarò a Roma e spero di vederti e la tua mamma. Ciao. Tanti abbracci, la tua amica di penna Evelina Language features Greetings Using numbers for different purposes. Understanding letter format Locating information Interpreting and processing information. 14

16 Italian Activity 1 Activity 3 Orientation Distribute the letter to the class. The students highlight words they recognise and guess the meaning of unknown words. The class collectively establishes the meaning of the complete text. Skimming for meaning Locating key words for understanding Using cognates and known words to make meaning. Activity 2 Drafting a reply Ask the students to list items, words or phrases that might be included in a possible reply. Model a possible reply on OHP with student input. Students write group or individual replies to Evelina s letter. Completed letters can be read out by students or displayed on the walls. : Identifying language relevant to topic Constructing a text for a specific purpose Planning the stages of a text. Summarising Using Italian the students orally paraphrase or summarise the letter. Reading for global comprehension Making the link between the written and the spoken form. 15

17 Teaching Literacy in Languages in year Stimulus text 3 Planning a trip overseas Prima di partire per Roma, la mamma di Evelina deve fare tante cose! Deve: fare i passaporti comprare i biglietti decidere l itinerario fare la prenotazione di alberghi e pensioni a Roma, Venezia e Milano preparare le valige Language feature Using the imperative. Identifying the purpose of the text Interpreting cognates and using them to infer meaning. 16

18 Italian Activity 1 Activity 3 Orientation Read the text and ask the students to locate 5 items from the text which Evelina s parents need to prepare for the trip overseas. The students can work in groups. Stimulus text 3 can be shown on an OHP. The students crossreference their findings with the text and with other groups. Lead a discussion in Italian about items that may be added to stimulus text 3. Identifying language relevant to a topic Cross-referencing information Identifying specific detail. Activity 2 Questions and answers Model the questions and answers for What does Evelina s mum need to do? La mamma di Evelina deve... Write each dot point on a separate strip of paper, fold and place in a hat or container. A volunteer from the class selects a strip from the lucky dip and reads the text on it as the response to the question provided. Students could play this in groups. This activity could be expanded to incorporate responses previously covered. Substitution Evelina is preparing a checklist of items before leaving for Italy. The students brainstorm additional items and add them to the list. Prima di andare in Italia Evelina deve: andare a comprare un libro finire i compiti lavare i piatti comprare le scarpe mangiare la pizza bevere la limonata pulire la camera scrivere una lettera per Flavia Recognising aspects of a procedural text Choosing an appropriate form of language for the audience or text Classifying information. Literacy skill Making the link between the written and the spoken form. 1

19 Teaching Literacy in Languages in year Stimulus text 4 Itinerary 1 0 giorno sabato Partenza per Roma, Italia da Sydney. 2 0 giorno domenica Arrivo Fiumicino (aeroporto di Roma). Treno per stazione Termini Arrivo all albergo I Tre Amici. Pomeriggio libero. 3 0 giorno lunedì 8.00 Prima colazione in albergo Gita turistica di Roma (il Colosseo, il Foro Romano, la Basilica di San Pietro) Pizza in una trattoria romana Visita della Fontana di Trevi con Flavia (amica di penna). 4 0 giorno martedì.00 Partenza da stazione Termini per Venezia Arrivo alla stazione di Santa Lucia a Venezia Pranzo in un ristorante veneziano Giro in gondola Concerto in Piazza San Marco con Luciano Pavarotti e l orchestra veneziana. 5 0 giorno mercoledì 8.00 Prima colazione in albergo Visita di Murano. Pomeriggio: tempo libero. 6 0 giorno giovedì Partenza per Milano Visita negozi di Versace, Armani, Ferragamo Concerto a La Scala: Opera di Puccini. 0 giorno venerdì 9.00 Prima colazione in albergo Visita di Duomo di Milano Pranzo con Roberto Baggio Partita di calcio allo stadio Meazza Partenza per Roma. Language features Recognition of 24-hour clock Ordinals Days of the week. Recognising aspects of a procedural text Decoding and interpreting information from a timetable Cross-referencing information. 18

20 Italian Activity 1 Orientation Issue students with a copy of stimulus text 4. Students circle known words and predict the text meaning. Lead a discussion in Italian about unknown words. Students guess at meaning and suggest possible content. Using cognate words to make meaning Activity 2 Recounting Using Italian, ask questions beginning with: when? where? how? who? with whom? to get information about Evelina Tomba s itinerary. More proficient students may like to pose similar questions to the class. Identifying specific detail Inferring word meanings from context. Making links between spoken and written forms. Activity 3 Transposing the information into a grid form (a) Issue groups of students with a grid form. After modelling and with support the students fill in the blank boxes on the grid using information from Evelina s itinerary. Classifying information Selecting information for a specific purpose Planning and reconstructing text. (b) Using a word processing package, students make an itinerary grid and then transpose information from the stimulus text into the grid. 19

21 Teaching Literacy in Languages in year Stimulus text 5 - Passport Data di scadenza: Cognome: Tomba Nome: Evelina Cittadinanza: Australiana Data di nascita: Luogo di nascita: Sydney Data di rilascio: Residenza: Leichhardt Altezza: 1.0 m Colore degli occhi: blu Firma del titolare: Language features Using personal identification words, e.g. name, date of birth Using numbers and dates Official terminology. Recognising cognate words Decoding abbreviated styles of writing Identifying general meaning. 20

22 Italian Activity 1 Orientation The students identify known words and predict meaning. Lead a discussion to elicit the meaning of unknown words. The students predict meanings and suggest possible content. Interpreting cognate words and using them to infer meaning Predicting text content using known words. Activity 2 True or false The students indicate whether oral statements about Evelina are true or false. This could be consolidated later on in written form. Scanning and verifying information Making links between spoken and written form. Activity 3 Recounting Using Italian ask the students to provide information about Evelina Tomba s identity, e.g. When was she born? What colour are her eyes? Identifying specific detail Making links between spoken and written forms. Activity 4 Writing Display a blank profile on the OHP and invite the class to suggest details for an imaginary person or a representative of the class. Issue a blank card to each student and have students complete the cards with their own details or those of an imagined person. Passaporto Data di scadenza: Cognome: Nome: Cittadinanza: Data di nascita: Luogo di nascita: Data di rilascio: Residenza: Altezza: Colore degli occhi: Firma del titolare: Literacy skill Choosing appropriate language for the text. Activity 5 Computer activity database Using a database package, students work in pairs to set up a form to record passport information. Students create fields for each criterion and label them in Italian. Students enter the data from the stimulus text into the appropriate fields, then create new records to enter data about themselves and other class members. Then they can sort classmates into groups of the same given name, eye colour, suburb, etc. Interviewing others Identifying specific detail Constructing a text for a specific purpose Classifying information. 21

23 Teaching Literacy in Languages in year Stimulus text 6 Accommodation advertisements Pensione La Bella Napoletana Cucina, doccia 6 posti per camera 5 minuti dalla fermata autobus L per sera. Pensione I Tre Amici Pensione comodissima Atmosfera familiare Prima colazione e cena inclusa L per sera. Albergo Gran Ducato Albergo Tre Stelle. Veduta panoramica, bagno privato Camere con televisione 5 minuti dal centro L per sera. Albergo Luxor Albergo Quattro Stelle. Piscina privata Ristorante In Via Condotti L per sera. Language features Conventions with currency Vocabulary related to accommodation. Locating specific information Decoding abbreviated styles of communication. 22

24 Italian Activity 1 Activity 3 True or false Students answer true or false questions in Italian. e.g. Does Pensione I Tre Amici charge L per night? Is Pensione La Bella Napoletana 5 minutes from the centre of town? Writing an advertisement In groups, with teacher modelling, students write their own advertisements for pensioni/alberghi italiani/australiani. Literacy skill Constructing a text for a specific purpose. Scanning to locate key words Recognising the association between print and sound. Activity 2 Comprehension Students read the text and answer questions, e.g. Which is the cheapest/most expensive hotel? Which hotel has a pool? Which hotel has a private bathroom? How far is the bus stop from La Pensione La Bella Napoletana? Which hotel has lunch included? Processing information Selecting infomation for a specific purpose Identifying specific detail. 23

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