econtent Construction for the ipad: Designing for comprehension

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1 econtent Construction for the ipad: Designing for comprehension

2 Session Themes Revisit the characteristics and skills for reading proficiency Examine a UDL approach to econtent Design Accessibility benchmarks Multiple modes of information Cognitive load considerations Differentiated instructional cues for comprehension Explore econtent design options

3 Characteristics of a proficient reader Understand the purpose of the text Monitor their comprehension Adjust their reading strategies

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7 Decoding at the word level Famous actor - Dgeeawrwe Llueice Famous novel - Ttrreasu Ighllaknd Famous singer - Tiannighar Ttuagykn

8 Fluency Fluency is critical to comprehension. You cannot comprehend material that you're not reading fluently. So it must be at your independent reading level. All the decoding bit has to be at the level of automaticity. Associate Professor Deslea Konza Automaticity to minimize cognitive overload words per minute

9 Text to speech Decode text with accuracy and fluency Reduced fatigue Enable greater independence Support comprehension development Fluency has 2 parts reading rate expression (prosody) Alex

10 Explain Everything Create Fluency Resources

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12 Vocabulary Knowledge While much vocabulary acquisition comes from incidental learning, instructional strategies such as pre-teaching words and using context clues are also effective.

13 Frayer Model Explore word meanings at many levels

14 Word web with Strip Design

15 Vocabulary Instruction - Which words? Tier 1 Everyday words that don t usually need to be taught eg. bus, sleep, pretty Tier 2 Extended vocabulary for rich descriptions; important for school language; part of capable language user s vocabulary eg. enormous, majestic, melancholy Tier 3 Specialist vocabulary that applies to that specific topic or context; low frequency eg. isotope, photosynthesis, ergonomic

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18 The Big 6 Ideas of Reading From Learning to read to Reading to learn Oral language Phonemic Awareness Phonics Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension Primary Principals Association - A UDL technology environment can play a supportive role in each of these. with a planned approach involving modelling, guided and independent practice

19 Principles of Universal Design for Learning

20 Provide direct explanations of the comprehension strategies, modelling, guided practice using the strategy, and the application of the strategy in reading text A UDL environment is an enabling platform that offers scaffolding for independent participation in an appropriately challenging task

21 Comprehension sub-skills Identifying the main idea Predicting outcomes Locating important details Following directions Developing mental images Recognising author s organisation

22 Current ebook Publications What do they offer? Where is the gap? Connecting content to instruction

23 Cognitive Processing Strategies Self questioning Self monitoring Paraphrasing Paragraph re-statement Content Enhancement Instructional methods to enhance retention of knowledge Visual representations Mnemonic illustrations Graphic organisers Semantic feature matrix Summarisation

24 Developing comprehension skills Comprehension needs to be taught Variety of reading materials Active listening should be taught Readers need multiple strategies Teaching comprehension is really teaching thinking. It s a cognitive strategy to encourage meaningful interaction with text.

25 Comprehension instruction within a UDL environment Design econtent material that has a balance of text and content enhancements Present explanations of strategies, models of their use, guided practice Provide opportunities for students to apply and develop comprehension sub skills Cognitive processing strategies are the focus.

26 Why EPUB? facilitating accessible interaction Table of Contents Search, Define Accessibility options Supports enhancements of media Annotation and Note taking**

27 Designing Learning Supports Teacher is the SUBJECT MATTER Expert Teacher is also the LEARNING SUPPORTS Expert the range of strategies are not definitive the key lies in educators thinking flexibly and planning for potential misunderstandings, misconceptions, and areas where learners may meet barriers to learning Learning response to the content is visible and educators gain an insight to metacognition

28 Instructional Design of Digital Materials SUBJECT MATTER AND LEARNING SUPPORTS learning goals, big ideas, glossary and look up effective navigation text-to-speech support modified text anchored instruction, virtual coaches concept maps, illustrating concepts images, video, audio, screencasts hypermedia or multimedia enhancements embedded outlines or summaries support for notetaking in a number of modalities

29 Benchmarks for ebook Design Functionality Required ebook Reader Features Content Features Read, highlight and copy text Text resizing (and content reflow) or page zoom option and controls Font selector (serif and sans serif) Text reading w/ TTS with highlighting Search content for word or words Live and properly formatted text High contrast display Outline view of content Mind-map view of content Study and research supports Note taking (text and/or audio) Text color and background color Background brightness controls Display outline view of document, chapter and/or page Display mind-map view of document, chapter and/or page Collect and display highlighted text. Highlighter - 3 colors Positional note taking blocks or sidebar Use of recorded audio with position links. Could also be used for recording goals Live text on plain background Prepared outline view of content Access to outline view and connections Live text Flexible, reflowable content Display of saved note indicators

30 Benchmarks for ebook Design Functionality Required ebook Reader Features Content Features Location indicator where am I Progress bar (page and chapter) Page number display and selector Section / Page numbering Image text provided as text Brief image descriptions Show in place of images option, readable with TTS support Show in place of images option, readable with TTS support Include image text in alt text Alt text and/or image descriptions Includes charts, graphs, etc Voice control Speak to control application Speak to record digital text Video captions (closed captions) Explicit goals for reading Show/ hide feature for closed captions Support for display of pre-established and teacher authored goals/objectives Video captions Inclusion of goals established by the content author External resource support Support for external links to web Live web links

31 Benchmarks for ebook Design Functionality Required ebook Reader Features Content Features Vocabulary support Show definition of key words. Glossary (linked multimedia terms, concepts & definitions) Provide key word definitions in various modalities Semantic map of meaning Fluency support Support for voice recording Provide natural reading model of text Reading Coaches Support for metacognitive tasks in reading Provide prompting and modelling of comprehension strategies Response to questions /tasks Support for form fields, radio buttons, etc. Embedded assessment items or strategy tasks

32 Purposeful Annotations Monitoring understanding means being an active reader. The reader is aware of their thought processes and their use of reading strategies. Strategies Analyze story structure Answer questions Generate questions Summarizing Cooperative learning Description Understand story elements sequence, setting, characters, events Questions set by teacher to guide understanding Students ask who, what, where, when, why, how Identify main ideas and supporting details Group/pair students to practice a specific strategy *Use the same short passage to rehearse various strategies

33 The 5 S Formula The 5 S Formula process assists in gaining a broad overview of reading matter. Scan Skim Select Slurp Summarise cover, contents, introduction, captions, blurb, chapter headings, diagrams/pics introduction, first and last sentence of each paragraph, conclusion the sections that require in depth reading, review key words, concepts, questions check through marked sections, note in own words, write keywords in notes margins, review keywords. Do they provide answers to initial questions? referring to key words, questions and notes, summarize what has been read

34 Reading Strategy Activities BEFORE Cueing students in to text DURING Monitoring & Reflecting Anticipation Guide Concept Maps Exit Slips AFTER Demonstrating Understandings Mindmap Jigsaw Question the Author Possible Sentences Paragraph Shrinking Retell/Sequencing Frayer Model Partner Reading 5 S Formula Question Matrix Summarising Additional strategy activities at Adolescent Literacy -

35 Before reading strategies Activating prior knowledge is important Students need to make meaningful connections between the text and their previous knowledge To retain and generalize knowledge

36 Anticipation Guide Aim: To encourage students to discuss ideas and concepts that they will find in the text they read. Procedure: Identify the major ideas in the text Discuss students beliefs/thoughts Write general statements that challenge your students' beliefs Ask students to respond to the statements with either a positive or negative statement Complete the anticipation guide before reading individually, pairs, small groups Students discuss and debate their reactions to the statements after they have completed the activity Ask them to justify their comments Students read the text and underline text that supports their comments Class discussion.

37 Anticipation Guide

38 Possible Sentences Aim: To activate students' prior knowledge about content area vocabulary and concepts Procedure: Before reading a text students are provided with a short list of vocabulary words from their reading Students are asked to create meaningful sentences or write a short story using the vocabulary After writing, students read their sentences/story to each other and compare what they have written The original text is read and students possible sentences are compared with the actual sentences within the text.

39 Possible Sentences

40 During reading strategies

41 After reading strategies The 5 S Formula process assists in gaining a broad overview of reading matter. Scan Skim Select Slurp Summarise cover, contents, introduction, captions, blurb, chapter headings, diagrams/pics introduction, first and last sentence of each paragraph, conclusion the sections that require in depth reading, review key words, concepts, questions check through marked sections, note in own words, write keywords in notes margins, review keywords. Do they provide answers to initial questions? referring to key words, questions and notes, summarize what has been read

42 Exit Slips Aim: For students to reflect on what they have learned and express what or how they are thinking about the new information. Procedure: At the end of the lesson or five minutes before the end of class ask students to respond to a prompt you pose to the class The prompt can be oral or in writing Students write/record their responses Randomly share response or share in circle time.

43 Creative Book Builder let s take a peek inside

44 What about PDF? facilitating content accessibility Claro PDF Offers reading support tools with Australian text to speech voices. Array of annotation tools including ability to annotate with images and audio/video recordings. Form support. Export to computer for further editing.

45 Wrap Up Educators have at their disposal the tools required to design and create econtent that: 1. Offers students information in multiple formats and media 2. Provides scaffolds and multiple pathways for students to: utilise reading strategies that support comprehension rehearse cognitive processing strategies demonstrate their knowledge and understandings A PARTING THOUGHT Bilingual books for mother tongue language support

46 Thank you for your time Jim Sprialis shares his research on Subscribe Sprialis Consulting Facebook Page SPRIALIS CONSULTING

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