ChE 344 Chemical Reaction Engineering Winter 1999 Exam I Part 1 (80%) Solution


 Hubert Shelton
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 ChE 344 Chemical Reaction Engineering Winter 1999 Exam I Part 1 (80%) Solution
2 (10 pts) 1) The trimerization 3A(g) A 3 (g,l) is carried out isothermally and without pressure drop in a PFR at 98 K and atm. As the concentration of A 3 increases down the reactor and A 3 begins to condense. The vapor pressure of A 3 at 98 K is 0.5 atm. If an equal molar mixture of A and inert, I, is fed to the reactor at what conversion of A will A 3 begin to condense? 1 A( g) 3 A 3( g,l ) Condensation begins at y = P V 0.5 atm = P T atm = 0.5 Species Entering Change Before Cond. After Cond. A( g) X F A = ( 1 X) F A = ( 1 X) I( g)  F I = F I = A 3 ( g,l)  X 3 F A 3 = X 3 F T = 3 X F A 3 = y A3,e F T y A3,e = F A 3 F T = X 3 3 X = 0.5 X 6 X = 1 4 4X = 6 X 6X = 6 X = 1 1
3 (30 pts) ) In order to study the photochemical decay of aqueous bromine in bright sunlight, a small quantity of liquid bromine was dissolved in water contained in a glass battery jar and placed in direct sunlight. The following data were obtained: Time (min) ppm Br a) Determine whether the reaction rate is zero, first, or secondorder in bromine, and calculate the reaction rate constant in units of your choice. b) Assuming identical exposure conditions, calculate the required hourly rate of injection of bromine (in pounds) into a sunlit body of water 5,000 gal in volume in order to maintain a sterilizing level of bromine of 1.0 ppm. (Note: ppm parts of bromine per million parts brominated water by weight. In dilute aqueous solutions, 1 ppm=1 milligram per liter, molecular weight of Br = 80 Daltons.) 1 gal liters Sunlight 1 lb 454 gms BR Products Rate law: r A = k C A α Experiment MB: dc A dt = r A ( batch) Experimental data provides C A vs. time, thus dc A dt can be calculated Combine: dc A dt = k C A α ln dc A dt = lnk +α lnc A See plot for y x vs. t Pick points:.45, at random and 0.88, 0.09 α = ( ) ln ( ) ( ) ln( 0.08) ln ln.45 α = pick 0.88, = lnk ( )( 0.178) lnk = k = min 1
4 Chart Estimate t (C A ) X y y x y/ x dy/dx Problem, part b FA M.B.: rate in rate out + gen. = accum dn A dt = F A + r A V since the Br concentration is constant at 1 ppm, a steady state assumption is valid. so dn A dt = 0 r A V = F A, r A = kc A F A = min ( 1 ppm ) 5,000 gal ppm gal 60 min F A = 85 miin 1 hr 3.785l 1 gal 1g 1000 mg lb 454g F A = 0.41 lb hr 3
5 4
6 (0pts) 3) The irreversible elementary gas phase reaction A B + C is currently carried out in a packed bed reactor containing 100 kg of catalyst. The entering pressure is 0 atm and the exit pressure is 4 atm. Currently 50% conversion is achieved. It is proposed to add a CSTR with 00 Kg of catalyst downstream of the PBR. There is no pressure drop in the CSTR. The flow rate and temperature remain unchanged. a) What would be the overall conversion in such an arrangement? b) Is there a better way to carry out the reaction, and if so what is it? Current P0 = KG P = 4 X = 0.5 Proposed = KG P = 4 X = KG X =? a) CSTR: r A out = MB RL ST dx PBR: r A = dw r A = kc A A C A = C A0 ( ) X out X in w Since ε = 0, P = ( 1 αw) 1 = 1 αw 1 P α = 0 = w 1 B + 1 C α = ( 1 X) 1+ εx ( ) 1 P T 0 T Combine: kc A ( 1 X) = dx dw 5
7 ε = y A0 δ, y A0 = 1, δ = 0 ε =0 C A = C A0 ( 1 X) P kc A0 dw = dx ( 1 X) kc A0 Integrate kc A0 ( 1 αw)dw = w α w 0 dx ( 1 X) 100 kc A0 ( ) = 1 kc A0 = 1 5 For CSTR kc A0 = ( 1 X) wkc A0 1 X 00 5 ( 0.04 ) 1 X ( 13 1 X + X ) = X X + 13 X = X X X = 0 X = ± X = ( 1 X) 0 ( ) = X 0.5 ( ) = X = b) Want higher conversion = ( X 0.5) w ± no = or ) reduce pressure drop use larger pellets increase temperature larger k ) Use CSTR followed by PFR. 6
8 (10 pts) 4) The following reactions were found to occur while trying to make a desired product B (1) A B r A1 = k 1A C A A X A + X Y Species X and Y are both foul pollutants r A = k A C A r A3 = k 3A C A C X a) What is the instantaneous selectivity of B with respect to the foul pollutants X and Y? b) How would you carry out this reaction to maximize the formation of B? Additional Information k 1A =.5 e 10,000/T min 1, T in degrees Kelvin k A = 50 e 0,000/T min 1, T in degrees Kelvin k 3A = 100 e 5,000/T min 1, T in degrees Kelvin a) r B = r A1 r x = r A + r A3 r y = r A3 Selectivity of B with respect to x and y S BXY = r B r x + r y = r A1 r A = k 1A k A C A = 0.01 exp[ 10,000 /T] C A b) In order to maximize the formation of B, S BXY should be maximized. High C A use PFR Low Temperature 7
9 (10 pts) 5) The catalytic reaction A B to be carried out in a flow reaction system has the following rate law, kc r A = A ( 1+ K A C A ) where k = 1 min 1 K A = 1 dm 3 /mol The entering concentration of A is mol/dm 3. What type of reactor or combination of reactors would have the smallest volume to a) achieve 50% conversion? b) achieve 80% conversion? C A = C A0 ( 1 X) ( ) 1 = 1+ K A C A r A kc A [ ( )] ( ) = X 1 X a) CSTR 8
10 b) CSTR followed by a PFR 9
k 2f, k 2r C 2 H 5 + H C 2 H 6
hemical Engineering HE 33 F pplied Reaction Kinetics Fall 04 Problem Set 4 Solution Problem. The following elementary steps are proposed for a gas phase reaction: Elementary Steps Rate constants H H f,
More informationCh 3. Rate Laws and Stoichiometry
Ch 3. Rate Laws and Stoichiometry How do we obtain r A = f(x)? We do this in two steps 1. Rate Law Find the rate as a function of concentration, r A = k fn (C A, C B ). Stoichiometry Find the concentration
More informationPhysical Chemistry. Lecture 4 Introduction to chemical kinetics
Physical Chemistry Lecture 4 Introduction to chemical kinetics Thermodynamics and kinetics Thermodynamics Observe relative stability of states Energy differences Static comparisons of states Kinetics Observe
More informationChemistry 212 EXAM 1 January 27, 2004
1 Chemistry 212 EXAM 1 January 27, 2004 _100 (of 100) KEY Name Part 1: Multiple Choice. (1 point each, circle only one answer, 1. Consider the following rate law: Rate = k[a] n [B] m How are the exponents
More informationvap H = RT 1T 2 = 30.850 kj mol 1 100 kpa = 341 K
Thermodynamics: Examples for chapter 6. 1. The boiling point of hexane at 1 atm is 68.7 C. What is the boiling point at 1 bar? The vapor pressure of hexane at 49.6 C is 53.32 kpa. Assume that the vapor
More informationTentamen i Kemisk Reaktionsteknik Del A (KMT 007)
Tentamen i Kemisk Reaktionsteknik Del (KMT 007) 20010108 Lärare: Jonas Hedlund (tel: 72105) Skrivtid: 09001500 Resultatet anslås: 010119 Totala antalet uppgifter: 5st Maxpoäng: 55 För godkänd krävs:
More information(1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion  negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 162. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion
GS106 Chemical Bonds and Chemistry of Water c:wou:gs106:sp2002:chem.wpd I. Introduction A. Hierarchy of chemical substances 1. atoms of elements  smallest particles of matter with unique physical and
More informationLafayette College Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Lafayette College Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering CE 321: Introduction to Environmental Engineering Fall 2010 Homework #4 SOLUTIONS Due: Monday, 9/27/10 SOLUTIONS 1. A completely mixed
More informationDefine conversion and space time. Write the mole balances in terms of conversion for a batch reactor, CSTR, PFR, and PBR.
CONERSION ND RECTOR SIZING Objectives: Deine conversion and space time. Write the mole balances in terms o conversion or a batch reactor, CSTR, PR, and PBR. Size reactors either alone or in series once
More informationThe Material Balance for Chemical Reactors. Copyright c 2016 by Nob Hill Publishing, LLC
The Material Balance for Chemical Reactors Copyright c 2016 by Nob Hill Publishing, LLC 1 General Mole Balance V R j Q 0 c j0 Q 1 c j1 Conservation of mass rate of accumulation of component j = + { rate
More informationCHAPTER 12. Gases and the KineticMolecular Theory
CHAPTER 12 Gases and the KineticMolecular Theory 1 Gases vs. Liquids & Solids Gases Weak interactions between molecules Molecules move rapidly Fast diffusion rates Low densities Easy to compress Liquids
More informationIntroduction to the course Chemical Reaction Engineering I
Introduction to the course Chemical Reaction Engineering I Gabriele Pannocchia First Year course, MS in Chemical Engineering, University of Pisa Academic Year 2014 2015 Department of Civil and Industrial
More informationReaction Rates and Chemical Kinetics. Factors Affecting Reaction Rate [O 2. CHAPTER 13 Page 1
CHAPTER 13 Page 1 Reaction Rates and Chemical Kinetics Several factors affect the rate at which a reaction occurs. Some reactions are instantaneous while others are extremely slow. Whether a commercial
More informationThermodynamics of Mixing
Thermodynamics of Mixing Dependence of Gibbs energy on mixture composition is G = n A µ A + n B µ B and at constant T and p, systems tend towards a lower Gibbs energy The simplest example of mixing: What
More informationa) Use the following equation from the lecture notes: = ( 8.314 J K 1 mol 1) ( ) 10 L
hermodynamics: Examples for chapter 4. 1. One mole of nitrogen gas is allowed to expand from 0.5 to 10 L reversible and isothermal process at 300 K. Calculate the change in molar entropy using a the ideal
More informationChapter 12 IVP Practice Problems
PRACTICE PROBLEMS 43 Chapter IVP Practice Problems Use Excel and VBA to solve the following problems. Document your solutions using the Expert Problem Solving steps outlined in Table... Find an approximate
More information= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm
Chapter 13 Gases 1. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. Gases have volumes that depend on their conditions, and can be compressed or expanded by
More informationEXERCISES. 16. What is the ionic strength in a solution containing NaCl in c=0.14 mol/dm 3 concentration and Na 3 PO 4 in 0.21 mol/dm 3 concentration?
EXERISES 1. The standard enthalpy of reaction is 512 kj/mol and the standard entropy of reaction is 1.60 kj/(k mol) for the denaturalization of a certain protein. Determine the temperature range where
More information= 800 kg/m 3 (note that old units cancel out) 4.184 J 1000 g = 4184 J/kg o C
Units and Dimensions Basic properties such as length, mass, time and temperature that can be measured are called dimensions. Any quantity that can be measured has a value and a unit associated with it.
More informationChapter 13. Chemical Kinetics
Chemistry 102(060) Summer 2012 CTH 328 11:3012:45 am Instructor: Dr. Upali Siriwardane email: upali@latech.edu Office: CTH 311 Phone 2574941 Office Hours: M,W 8:009:00 & 11:0012:00 am; Tu,Th,F 8:0010:00
More informationEffects of mass transfer processes in designing a heterogeneous catalytic reactor
Project Report 2013 MVK160 Heat and Mass Transport May 13, 2013, Lund, Sweden Effects of mass transfer processes in designing a heterogeneous catalytic reactor Maryneth de Roxas Dept. of Energy Sciences,
More informationGas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion.
Name Period Gas Laws Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of molecules. Gas state of matter made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Each atom or molecule is very far from other atoms or molecules.
More information(amount of salt in) (amount of salt out),
MATH 222 (Lectures 1,2,4) Worksheet 8.5 Solutions Please inform your TA if you find any errors in the solutions. 1. A 100 gallon tank is full of pure water. Let pure water run into the tank at the rate
More informationLecture 9 Solving Material Balances Problems Involving NonReactive Processes
CHE 31. INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS Lecture 9 Solving Material Balances Problems Involving NonReactive Processes Component and Overall Material Balances Consider a steadystate distillation
More informationChemistry 13: States of Matter
Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties
More informationGas Laws. E k = ½ (mass)(speed) 2. v101613_10am
Gas Laws v101613_10am Objective: In this lab you will become familiar with the Ideal Gas Law and Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures. You will be able to use the information collected along with stoichiometry
More information1) What is the overall order of the following reaction, given the rate law?
PRACTICE PROBLEMS FOR TEST 2 (March 11, 2009) 1) What is the overall order of the following reaction, given the rate law? A) 1st order B) 2nd order C) 3rd order D) 4th order E) 0th order 2NO(g) + H 2(g)
More informationReservoir Fluids PETE 310
Reservoir Fluids PETE 31 Lab 2: Determination of the Vapor Pressure of Propane Learning Objectives When you complete this laboratory, you should be able to: Use closedcell and sightglass methods for
More informationF321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 1023 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 1023 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7.
Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance (mol) the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (N A ) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.02 x 10 23 mol 1.
More informationChapter 3 Process Variables. Mass and Volume
Chapter 3 Process Variables Process: to a chemical engineer, the set of tasks or operations that accomplish a chemical or material transformation to produce a product Feed or inputs: raw materials and
More informationChapter 18 Homework Answers
Chapter 18 Homework Answers 18.22. 18.24. 18.26. a. Since G RT lnk, as long as the temperature remains constant, the value of G also remains constant. b. In this case, G G + RT lnq. Since the reaction
More informationEntropy Changes & Processes
Entropy Changes & Processes Chapter 4 of Atkins: he Second Law: he Concepts Section 4.3, 7th edition; 3.3, 8th edition Entropy of Phase ransition at the ransition emperature Expansion of the Perfect Gas
More informationCHEM 1332 CHAPTER 14
CHEM 1332 CHAPTER 14 1. Which is a proper description of chemical equilibrium? The frequencies of reactant and of product collisions are identical. The concentrations of products and reactants are identical.
More informationCHEM 43303. The Oxidation of Formic Acid by Bromine
CHEM 43303 Experiment No. 01 The Oxidation of Formic Acid by Bromine 1. Introduction Bromine oxidises formic (methanoic) acid to carbon dioxide according to the following stoichiometric equation HCOOH
More informationThe first law: transformation of energy into heat and work. Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work.
The first law: transformation of energy into heat and work Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work. Compare fuel value of different compounds. What drives these reactions to proceed
More informationFORM A is EXAM II, VERSION 1 (v1) Name
FORM A is EXAM II, VERSION 1 (v1) Name 1. DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL DIRECTED TO DO SO. 2. These tests are machine graded; therefore, be sure to use a No. 1 or 2 pencil for marking the answer sheets.
More informationAnswers: Given: No. [COCl 2 ] = K c [CO][Cl 2 ], but there are many possible values for [CO]=[Cl 2 ]
Chemical Equilibrium What are the concentrations of reactants and products at equilibrium? How do changes in pressure, volume, temperature, concentration and the use of catalysts affect the equilibrium
More informationAP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER REVIEW CHAPTER 11: RATE OF REACTION
AP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER REVIEW CHAPTER 11: RATE OF REACTION You should understand the definition of reaction rate, as well as how rates might be measured in a laboratory setting. You should know the difference
More informationThermodynamics and Equilibrium
Chapter 19 Thermodynamics and Equilibrium Concept Check 19.1 You have a sample of 1.0 mg of solid iodine at room temperature. Later, you notice that the iodine has sublimed (passed into the vapor state).
More informationChemical Kinetics. Reaction Rate: The change in the concentration of a reactant or a product with time (M/s). Reactant Products A B
Reaction Rates: Chemical Kinetics Reaction Rate: The change in the concentration of a reactant or a product with time (M/s). Reactant Products A B change in number of moles of B Average rate = change in
More informationIMPORTANT INFORMATION: S for liquid water is 4.184 J/g degree C
FORM A is EXAM II, VERSION 2 (v2) Name 1. DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL DIRECTED TO DO SO. 2. These tests are machine graded; therefore, be sure to use a No. 1 or 2 pencil for marking the answer sheets.
More informationEquilibrium Notes Ch 14:
Equilibrium Notes Ch 14: Homework: E q u i l i b r i u m P a g e 1 Read Chapter 14 Work out sample/practice exercises in the sections, Bonus Chapter 14: 23, 27, 29, 31, 39, 41, 45, 51, 57, 63, 77, 83,
More informationGases. Macroscopic Properties. Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapter 6
Gases Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapter 6 CHEM 1000A 3.0 Gases 1 We will be looking at Macroscopic and Microscopic properties: Macroscopic Properties of bulk gases Observable Pressure, volume, mass,
More informationA k 1. At equilibrium there is no net change in [A] or [B], namely d[a] dt
Chapter 15: Chemical Equilibrium Key topics: Equilibrium Constant Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations The Concept of Equilibrium Consider the reaction A k 1 k 1 B At equilibrium there is no net change
More informationAS1 MOLES. oxygen molecules have the formula O 2 the relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 so the molar mass will be 32g mol 1
Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (L) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.023 x 10 23 mol 1. Example
More informationCHEMISTRY. Matter and Change. Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3. The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry
CHEMISTRY Matter and Change 13 Table Of Contents Chapter 13: Gases Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3 The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry State the relationships among pressure, temperature,
More informationLECTURE IUNITS OF CONCENTRATION
LECTURE IUNITS OF CONCENTRATION Chemical concentration is one of the most important determinants in almost all aspects of chemical fate, transport and treatment in both environmental and engineered systems.
More informationk is change in kinetic energy and E
Energy Balances on Closed Systems A system is closed if mass does not cross the system boundary during the period of time covered by energy balance. Energy balance for a closed system written between two
More information) g /mol = 3.86!10"3 moles
Chem01, Winter 006 Midterm N1 01/6/06 Name Answer key SID 1. A solution is prepared by dissolving 5.8 grams on magnesium chloride (MgCl ) in water to produce 50.0 ml of solution. Molecular weight of the
More informationConcentration Units The concentration of a dissolved salt in water refers to the amount of salt (solute) that is dissolved in water (solvent).
Concentration Units The concentration of a dissolved salt in water refers to the amount of salt (solute) that is dissolved in water (solvent). Chemists use the term solute to describe the substance of
More informationDispersed flow reactor response to spike input
Dispersed flow reactor response to spike input Pe = c c t/t R Fraction remaining 1..9.8.7.6.5.4.3.2.1. Dispersedflow reactor performance for k =.5/day Pe = (FMT) Pe = 1 Pe = 2 Pe = 1 Pe = (PFR) 2 4 6
More informationNet ionic equation: 2I (aq) + 2H (aq) + H O (aq) I (s) + 2H O(l)
Experiment 5 Goals To determine the differential rate law for the reaction between iodide and hydrogen peroxide in an acidic environment. To determine the activation energy and preexponential factor for
More informationCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND CHEMICAL PROCESS TECHNOLOGY  Vol. I  Interphase Mass Transfer  A. Burghardt
INTERPHASE MASS TRANSFER A. Burghardt Institute of Chemical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland Keywords: Turbulent flow, turbulent mass flux, eddy viscosity, eddy diffusivity, Prandtl mixing
More informationReacting System Examples
Reacting System Examples Here are six examples of the chemical systems. The goal of this handout is to show you how to formulate a model of a chemical system, but some of the examples include solutions
More information31 Copyright Richard M. Felder, Lisa G. Bullard, and Michael D. Dickey (2014)
EQUATIONS OF STATE FOR GASES Questions A gas enters a reactor at a rate of 255 SCMH. What does that mean? An orifice meter mounted in a process gas line indicates a flow rate of 24 ft 3 /min. The gas temperature
More informationExergy: the quality of energy N. Woudstra
Exergy: the quality of energy N. Woudstra Introduction Characteristic for our society is a massive consumption of goods and energy. Continuation of this way of life in the long term is only possible if
More informationPHASE CHEMISTRY AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES
PHASE CHEMISTRY AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES Phase Diagrams Solutions Solution Concentrations Colligative Properties Brown et al., Chapter 10, 385 394, Chapter 11, 423437 CHEM120 Lecture Series Two : 2011/01
More informationExam 4 Practice Problems false false
Exam 4 Practice Problems 1 1. Which of the following statements is false? a. Condensed states have much higher densities than gases. b. Molecules are very far apart in gases and closer together in liquids
More informationChapter 2 Chemical and Physical Properties of Sulphur Dioxide and Sulphur Trioxide
Chapter 2 Chemical and Physical Properties of Sulphur Dioxide and Sulphur Trioxide 2.1 Introduction In order to appreciate the impact of the properties of liquid sulphur dioxide and liquid sulphur trioxide
More informationCalculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions
Molar Mass Molar mass = Mass in grams of one mole of any element, numerically equal to its atomic weight Molar mass of molecules can be determined from the chemical formula and molar masses of elements
More informationLecture 12 Recycle, Bypass, & Purge Calculations
CHE 31. INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS Lecture 12 Recycle, Bypass, & Purge Calculations Recycle Stream Recycle stream is a term denoting a process stream that returns material from downstream
More informationThe Mole Concept. A. Atomic Masses and Avogadro s Hypothesis
The Mole Concept A. Atomic Masses and Avogadro s Hypothesis 1. We have learned that compounds are made up of two or more different elements and that elements are composed of atoms. Therefore, compounds
More informationCOMPARISON OF PROCESS FLOWS: FLUID BED COMBUSTOR AND GLASSPACK
COMPARISON OF PROCESS FLOWS: FLUID BED COMBUSTOR AND GLASSPACK PURPOSE The purpose of this document is to present the assumptions and calculations used to prepare Minergy Drawing 1000204PP00 (attached).
More informationC.4 Applications of Differential Equations
APPENDIX C Differential Equations A39 C.4 Applications of Differential Equations Use differential equations to model and solve reallife problems. EXAMPLE 1 Modeling Advertising Awareness The new cereal
More informationName AP CHEM / / Collected AP Exam Essay Answers for Chapter 16
Name AP CHEM / / Collected AP Exam Essay Answers for Chapter 16 1980  #7 (a) State the physical significance of entropy. Entropy (S) is a measure of randomness or disorder in a system. (b) From each of
More information7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790.
CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,
More informationEntropy and The Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics (SL) Entropy and The Second Law of Thermodynamics Explain and manipulate the second law State and illustrate by example the second law of thermodynamics Write both the
More informationOxygenTransfer Measurement in Clean Water
OxygenTransfer Measurement in Clean Water Zhen He*, Anurak Petiraksakul** and Warawitya Meesapya** Abstract This paper presents the experiments on measurement of oxygen transfer capacity in clean water
More informationChemical Kinetics. 2. Using the kinetics of a given reaction a possible reaction mechanism
1. Kinetics is the study of the rates of reaction. Chemical Kinetics 2. Using the kinetics of a given reaction a possible reaction mechanism 3. What is a reaction mechanism? Why is it important? A reaction
More informationStatistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas. 8.01t Nov 22, 2004
Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas 8.01t Nov 22, 2004 Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Old & Fundamental Understanding of Heat (I.e. Steam) Engines Part of Physics Einstein
More informationCHEM 116 Rates of Reaction
UMass Boston, Chem 6 CHEM 6 Rates of Reaction FSG is cancelled Lecture Prof. Sevian today (Oct 4) in order to keep both FSG sections at the same pace (since there was no school yesterday) Today s agenda
More informationUnit 5 Practice Test. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Name: Class: Date: Unit 5 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The internal energy of a system is always increased by. A) adding
More informationChemistry 212 VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Chemistry 212 VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER LEARNING OBJECTIVES The learning objectives of this experiment are to explore the relationship between the temperature and vapor pressure of water. determine the molar
More informationChapter 4 Material Balances
Chapter 4 Material Balances Note: Be sure to read carefully through all the examples in this chapter. The key concepts are best learned by problem solving. Material balances: material balances express
More informationChapter 14 Solutions
Chapter 14 Solutions 1 14.1 General properties of solutions solution a system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance two components in a solution: solute
More information11 Richard M. Felder, Lisa G. Bullard, and Michael D. Dickey (2014)
Air Conditioner Sizing Exercise On an uncomfortable summer day, the air is at 87 o F and 80% relative humidity. A laboratory air conditioner is to deliver 1000 ft 3 /min of air at 55 o F in order to maintain
More informationReading. Spontaneity. Monday, January 30 CHEM 102H T. Hughbanks
Thermo Notes #3 Entropy and 2nd Law of Thermodynamics Monday, January 30 CHEM 102H T. Hughbanks Reading You should reading Chapter 7. Some of this material is quite challenging, be sure to read this material
More informationPart B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part.
Part B 2 Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. 51 [1] Allow 1 credit for 3 Mg(s) N 2 (g) Mg 3 N 2 (s). Allow credit even if the coefficient 1 is
More informationChapter 11. Homework #3. Electrochemistry. Chapter 4 73. a) Oxidation ½ Reaction Fe + HCl HFeCl 4 Fe + 4HCl HFeCl 4 Fe + 4HCl HFeCl 4 + 3H +
hapter 4 73. a) Oxidation ½ Reaction Fe + HlHFel 4 Fe + 4HlHFel 4 Fe + 4HlHFel 4 + 3H + Homework #3 hapter 11 Electrochemistry Fe + 4HlHFel 4 + 3H + + 3e  Reduction ½ Reaction H H + H H + + e H Balanced
More informationApplied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Applied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture  7 Ideal Gas Laws, Different Processes Let us continue
More informationChapter 2 Measurement and Problem Solving
Introductory Chemistry, 3 rd Edition Nivaldo Tro Measurement and Problem Solving Graph of global Temperature rise in 20 th Century. Cover page Opposite page 11. Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community
More informationR = J/mol K R = L atm/mol K
version: master Exam 1  VDB/LaB/Spk This MC portion of the exam should have 19 questions. The point values are given with each question. Bubble in your answer choices on the bubblehseet provided. Your
More informationWelcome to the World of Chemistry
Welcome to the World of Chemistry The Language of Chemistry CHEMICAL ELEMENTS  pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. Aluminum Bromine Sodium The Language of
More informationThermodynamics. Chapter 13 Phase Diagrams. NC State University
Thermodynamics Chapter 13 Phase Diagrams NC State University Pressure (atm) Definition of a phase diagram A phase diagram is a representation of the states of matter, solid, liquid, or gas as a function
More informationINSTRUCTIONS FOR REGRADES:
Chemical Engineering 140 November 21, 2005 Midterm #3 INSTRUCTIONS FOR REGRADES: Requests for regrades must be submitted in writing to one of the GSI s by FRIDAY, DECEMBER 2. Please photocopy your exam
More information2. Infrared Meter Check with pure air and the available 8% CO 2 /air mixture. Normally the meter does not require any adjustment.
GAS ABSORPTION EXPERIMENT Objectives: The educational objectives of this experiment are many; a few of the most obvious are to review mass transfer for twophase systems, and to gain experience with a
More informationAtomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu)
Micro World atoms & molecules Laboratory scale measurements Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) By definition: 1 atom 12 C weighs 12 amu On this scale 1 H = 1.008 amu 16 O = 16.00
More informationABSORPTION WITH CHEMICAL REACTION MODEL DEVELOPMENT. Theoretical model for a pseudofirst order irreversible chemical reaction, General Case:
ppendix B BSORPTION WITH CHEMIC RECTION MOE EVEOPMENT Theoretical model for a pseudofirst order irreversible chemical reaction, General Case: In 193, Hatta (193) presented analytical solution for the
More informationThe concept of concentration exists to answer the question: How much of the stuff is there?
Concentrations and Other Units of Measure (Nazaroff & AlvarezCohen, Section 1.C.1) The concept of concentration exists to answer the question: How much of the stuff is there? Definition: The concentration
More informationGas Laws. vacuum. 760 mm. air pressure. mercury
Gas Laws Some chemical reactions take place in the gas phase and others produce products that are gases. We need a way to measure the quantity of compounds in a given volume of gas and relate that to moles.
More informationChapter 14 Chemical Equilibrium
Chapter 14 Chemical Equilibrium Forward reaction H 2 (g) + I 2 (g) 2HI(g) Reverse reaction 2HI(g) H 2 (g) + I 2 (g) At equilibrium H 2 (g) + I 2 (g) 2HI(g) Chemical equilibrium is reached when reactants
More informationHonors Chemistry. Chapter 11: Gas Law Worksheet Answer Key Date / / Period
Honors Chemistry Name Chapter 11: Gas Law Worksheet Answer Key Date / / Period Complete the following calculation by list the given information, rewriting the formula to solve for the unknown, and plugging
More informationCOLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES:
COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES: A colligative property is a property that depends only on the number of solute particles present, not their identity. The properties we will look at are: lowering of vapor pressure;
More informationChapter 13 Gases. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop
Chapter 13 Gases An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Gas Gas Model Gases are composed of tiny, widelyspaced particles. For a typical gas, the average distance between particles is
More informationChE 182 Major #1 Acrylic Acid Process
ChE 182 Major #1 Acrylic Acid Process Background The plant at which you are employed currently manufactures acrylic acid in Unit 300 by the catalytic oxidation of propylene. Plant capacity is on the order
More informationLecture 10 Solving Material Balances Problems Involving Reactive Processes
CHE 31. INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS Lecture 10 Solving Material Balances Problems Involving Reactive Processes Material Balances on Reactive Processes Material balances on processes
More informationLecture 36 (Walker 18.8,18.56,)
Lecture 36 (Walker 18.8,18.56,) Entropy 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics Dec. 11, 2009 Help Session: Today, 3:104:00, TH230 Review Session: Monday, 3:104:00, TH230 Solutions to practice Lecture 36 final on
More informationSteady Heat Conduction
Steady Heat Conduction In thermodynamics, we considered the amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium state to another. hermodynamics gives no indication of how long
More informationChapter 20. Thermodynamics p. 811 842. Spontaneity. What have we learned about spontaneity during this course?
Chapter 20 p. 811 842 Spontaneous process: Ex. Nonspontaneous process: Ex. Spontaneity What have we learned about spontaneity during this course? 1) Q vs. K? 2) So.. Spontaneous process occurs when a system
More informationDimensional Analysis is a simple method for changing from one unit of measure to another. How many yards are in 49 ft?
HFCC Math Lab NAT 05 Dimensional Analysis Dimensional Analysis is a simple method for changing from one unit of measure to another. Can you answer these questions? How many feet are in 3.5 yards? Revised
More information