Doctoral studies in global time and change female doctoral student and individual lifecourse in Finland

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1 Doctoral studies in global time and change female doctoral student and individual lifecourse in Finland Minna Maunula Jyväskylä University Kokkola University Consortium Finland ABSTRACT Multiple global changes in the form of knowledge and the change in the doctoral education create the need to examine the current practices of doctoral degree. The change forces discussion about the future of doctoral education and the future of the prospective doctors. The doctoral education has to answer the demands set for it. Forming a comprehensive understanding requires an examination at the micro and macro level. In this article I examine the lifecourse of the under 40-year-old female doctoral student with a family and the significance of doctoral studies at the individual level. I concentrate on the personal lifecourse experiences of the women and on the chronological stories which are based on them. It is interesting to examine the meeting of the public and individual lifecourse and their constant dialogue. The article is based on my doctoral thesis research in education. Keywords:00 0 INTRODUCTION0 InthisarticleIexaminethelifecourseoftheunder40MyearMoldfemaledoctoralstudentwithafamilyandthesignificance ofdoctoralstudiesattheindividuallevel.inthearticleiconcentrateonthepersonallifecourseexperiencesoftheunder40m yearmoldwomenwithafamilywhostudyforthedoctoraldegree,andonthechronologicalstorieswhicharebasedonthem.in theexaminationtemporality,continuityandcomprehensivenessofthelifecoursestagesareemphasized.withmydefinitioni direct attention to the lifecourse of women who are living the busy years and to their thoughts concentrating on a family, doctoralstudiesandwork.itisespeciallyinterestingtoexaminethemeetingofthepublicandindividuallifecourseandtheir constantdialogue.theoldtraditionsandnormsarenolongersuitableforalifecoursethatisindividualandcolouredbychoices. Theeverydayofthefemaledoctoralstudentisconstantchoicesaccordingtotheindividualvalues. Thearticleisbasedonmydoctoralthesisresearchinpedagogy,"Theeverydaylife,lifecourseandfuturethinkingofthe female doctoral student with a family". 12 under 40MyearMold female doctoral students with a family from three Finnish universities participated in the study. The material is acquired through narrative theme interviews and the analysis of the materialisthematiccontentanalysis. Doctoral0studies0in0time0and0change0 ThedoctoralstudentsinFinlandandeveninternationallyformaheterogeneousgroup.Thegraduatingdoctorsmeeta verydifferentrealityandfuturecomparedtohowtheywereinearlierdecades.theincreaseinthenumberofdoctors,the changeintheformofinformationandknowledgeandthechangeinthedoctoraleducationcreatetheneedtoexaminethe currentpracticesandgroundsofgainingadoctoraldegree.thechangeforcesdiscussionaboutthefutureofdoctoraleducation andthefutureoftheprospectivedoctors.thedoctoraleducationhastoanswerthedemandsandexpectationssetforit,these beingsetalsobythefuturedoctors.(boud&lee20091m4.)thesubjectofthestudyisratheratopicaloneinternationallyand nationally. Often the studies examine doctor education from the macro level with the emphasis on the internationality, financing,effectivenessorthefieldofscience.doctoraleducationisapartofthesociety'soperation,whichisaffectedbyother development.formingacomprehensiveunderstandingalsorequiresanexaminationatthemicrolevelandmakingvisiblethe 59

2 doctoralstudent'sexperience.attentionoughttobepaidtotheeverydayandconcreteleveloftheoperation. Thelifecourseoftheunder40MyearMoldfemaledoctoralstudentwithafamilyshouldbeexaminedandanattempthasto bemadetounderstanditasawholeandtemporallycontinuousone,combiningthepast,thepresentandfuturestages.inthe lifecourse, individual factors and ones representing the continuity, of which one significant one is the doctoral studies, are construed.thedoctoralstudieshavebecomemoreordinaryandwithinthereachofanincreasinglywidergroup.thedoctoral studiesareamultimdimensionalprocessinwhichthedifferentstartingpoints,contextsandobjectivesbuilddifferententities, everydaylifeandexpertise.inthelifecourseofthefemaledoctoralstudentwithafamily,thedoctoralstudiesareindividually placedintheordinaryentity.thedoctoralstudiesarenotseparatefromotherlifeandcontexts,buttheyprojecttheirwide reflectionsbothontotheordinarylifecourseofanindividualandtothefuture.attheindividuallevel,thedoctoralstudies standforatargetmorientedandlongmtermeffort.theexpertisethatisachievedthroughthedoctoralstudiesisvaluabletothe individual,businessandsociety. ThehighMqualityskillsandthecentralityofknowledgeareemphasizedinmanywaysinthelifeofanindividualandatthe sametimealsoonalargerscale,suchasintheglobaleconomy.globalandsocialchangesarereflectedintheuniversitiesandin thedoctoraleducation.theproductivityofuniversitiesismeasuredinthedegrees,publications,quality,internationalityand eventually in the money. In Europe the higher education has been unified, along with others, with the help of the Bologna processandlisbonstrategyandbothhaveasignificantroleinthedoctoraleducation(bitusikova2009,200). Expectations which grow internationally are continuously set for the doctoral education. The objective alongside the comparabilityofdegreesisthepromotionofmobility,theshorteningofgraduatingtimesandtheeducationwhichisofhigher qualitythanbeforeandwhichmeetsthedemandsofdifferentemploymentquarters.thestartingpointisanimprovementof theappealandcompetitivenessofeuropeanscienceinrelationtotheothercontinents.inspiteofthecommonaspirations,the doctoraleducationisstillheterogeneousnationally,accordingtotheuniversityandevenaccordingtothefield.theobjectiveof theuniversitiesandthesociety'sinterestistoproduceevenyoungerdoctors,whichtheuniversitiesaredirectedtowardsby financingaccordingtotheresultsandbyintensifyingthepracticesinsupervision(julkunen2004). ThechangesalsotouchFinnishscienceandthedoctoraleducationisinacentralpositioninitsdevelopment.InFinland thedoctoraleducationhasbecomemorecommonandithasbecomefeminizedduringthelastdecades.infinlandabout1600 doctorsgraduateeveryyear,ofwhommorethanhalfhavebeenwomensince2007,however,differentfieldshavethemajority of men or a majority of women (Hiltunen & Pasanen 2006). Systematized effectiveness and even better relevance to the working life are sought after for the doctoral education. Free doctoral education is arranged in each of the 16 Finnish universitiesandinprincipleitisavailableforeverybody,however,theselectionfordoctoraleducationisbasedontheearlier academicperformanceandonmeritoriousresearchplan(stubb,pyhältö,soini,nummenmaa&lonka2010).inspiteofthe aimsforequalitytheheritabilityofthelevelofeducationisstillstrong.accordingtotheoecdreport(2012)68%ofthefinnish universitystudents'parentsarehighlyeducated. Thedoctoraldegreequalifiesthedoctortothedifferentspecialisttasksofworkinglifebetterthanbeforeandalsothe demands of working life towards the doctors increase continuously (Dill, Mitra, Jensen, Lehtinen, Mäkelä, Parpala, Pohjola, Ritter&Saari2006).Theworkisoftencreativespecialistwork,inwhichlearningnewthingsandatthesametimemodifying theirownskillsandoccupationalidentityareanaturalandacontinuousprocess.ofthefuturedoctorsonlyafractioncontinues theirworkingcareerinacademictasks,themajoritymovestoorcontinuestobeemployedinotherlinesofwork(boud&lee 2009;Baker&Lattuca2010).AccordingtoJulkunen(2004b,80),leavingthesafecontextofuniversityfortheactuallabour marketmayrequiremorecourageandcreativitythanstayinginthefamiliarenvironmentoftheuniversity.theworkinglife doesnottotallyrealizethedoctors'potentialyet,nordothedoctoralstudentsanddoctorsthemselvesfullycomprehendtheir widepossibilities.theuniversitieshavebecomeawareofthechallengeandhavetakenactiontoimprovethedoctoralstudents' readiness for working life. The cooperation of the universities and economic life is a good option for both the different operatorsandthestudents(aittola2002,128m129).accordingtoageneraltrendthepositionofresearchknowledgeandskillsis emphasized,ofwhichexamplesaretheincreasedknowledgerequirementsandtheimportanceofinnovations. Extensiveglobalandsocialchangesbecomewidelyrealisedinthedifferentcontextsoflife,suchasinthewomen'sstatus intheuniversity,workinglifeandinfamilies.withthedevelopmentinequality,bothmenandwomenearntheappreciation equally at home as well as in the working life (Kiianmaa 2012). The change requires wide adaptation and comprehensive examination.inthefamiliesoftwocareersthechallengeis,forexample,theinsufficiencyoftimeandtheconstantnegotiation for the use of the little time that there is (Julkunen 2004, 116M118; Tammelin 2009.) Nowadays, having a family does not automaticallyweakenthewoman'scareeropportunitiesbecausetheindividualarrangementsarepossible.thefamilyisformed oftheindividualsandofthedynamicsoftheirchoicesandagreements. Alongside the changes and objectives, an individual, the doctoral student needs to be considered. In an individual lifecoursethedoctoralstudiesareasignificantpartofthewhole.thediversifiedlifecourseisstronglyapersonalproject,which consistsofdifferenttraining,relations,networksandfamily.thediversifiedlifecourseandtheexpandedpossibilitiesrequire 60

3 matterstobeexaminedasawhole.orientationtothefuturebycombiningthedifferentareasoflifeopensawiderperspective tolifeandtoadulthood.thedifferentlifechoicesanddecisionsaretheeverydaycombiningofthedifferentareasofthelife. (Puhakka1998,204M205.)Eachdecisionopensorclosesdoors,ontheotherhandtheopportunitiestoreconsiderthedecisions reducerisksandprovidetheopportunityfordifferentexperiments.eveniftheplansdonotevencometrueassuch,anattempt is made to adapt to the prevailing conditions and to experience the matters as proceeding according to their own plans (Nummenmaa1996,103).Beck(1992,92M94)emphasizesthattheegocentricityistypicalwhendesigningone'sownlife.People wanttodeveloptheirlifeastheonetheydesireandtooperatewithintheirowninterestsandobjectives. Under40MyearMoldfemaledoctoralstudentsinparticularhavesimultaneouslyseveralprojectswhichrequiretimeand inputintheirlives.combiningworkandfamilylifeaswellasthechallengeswithtimeusagearecurrentandsignificantsubjects fromboththeindividualandfromsociety'spointofview.bigandsignificantchoicesbecomeconcreteineverydaylifeandtell moreindetailaboutthevaluechoicesthathavebeenmadethanthecelebratoryspeeches,visionsandstrategies.theunstable education and labour markets as well as globalization have promoted the modernization and the weakening of traditional values.theearliersetsofnormsandthecommontraditionshavebecomelooser,inwhichcaseindividualityisemphasized.the rapidlychangingsituationsrequireincreasinglyflexiblemethodsofadaptation.(aittola1998,172m173.)infigure1,ipresentthe centralstartingpointsandconceptsforthestudy. FIGURE1.Centralstartingpointsandconceptsforthestudy. Methods0and0procedures0 Theresearchmaterialconsistedof12narrativethemeinterviews.Thefemaledoctoralstudentsintheresearchcarried out their studies in three different Finnish universities and were at different stages in their studies in different fields. The analysisofthematerialwasthecontentanalysisofthemeswhichdevelophermeneuticallyaswellasnarrativeclassification stemmingfromthethemesandconstructingoftypesofstories.thestudyisplacedintheareaofthepedagogicsandrepresents theoreticallyandmethodologicallythepedagogicalmsociologicallifecourseresearchexaminedinahermeneuticalmanneraswell asapplyingaphenomenologicalandnarrativeapproach. 0 Doctoral0studies0as0a0part0of0the0wholeness0of0the0lifecourse Theoperatorwhoiscentralinthedoctoralstudiesisahumanbeing,anindividual.Oftendoctoralstudentsareperceived asahomogeneousgroup:theirroleismarginalandnarrowedtothecontextofstudying.inrealitythedoctoralstudentscome 61

4 fromindividualstartingpointsandtheyhaveindividualobjectives.themissionofthisarticlewhichisbasedonmydoctoral thesisisindeedtobringouttheexperiencesofafemaledoctoralstudentwithafamilymorecomprehensively,theindividuals haveseveralsignificantrolessimultaneously,thedoctoralstudent'sroleisonlyoneroleamongstmanyothers.theexperiences ofanindividualconsistofdifferentstartingpoints,ofeverydaylifeandofexpectationsforthefuture.intheexaminationof doctoraleducationattentionmustbepaidsimultaneouslytothedifferentlevelsofoperation:theinternationalcooperation andtheuniformobjectivescreatealargeframeworkforthedevelopment,thenationaloperationcombineslongertermmajor definitions of policy and the levels of everyday operation. At the individual level carrying out the major lines is eventually everydayactions.theconcretelevelanditsdevelopmentarethedialogueofbothmajorandsmallerlines. The core objective of my study is to understand the continuity of the lifecourse and future thinking of the female doctoralstudentwithafamily.theresultsofthestudyconveyedthecomprehensivenessandcontinuityofthelifecoursetoldby the female doctoral students with a family. The female doctoral students constructed their life actively as directed by their family and their doctoral studies. The lifecourse is temporally continuous and comprehensive, the different factors and wholeness are in the interaction among themselves, which took shape creating both likenesses and individual features of lifecourseastoldpersonallybythewomen. Thepartstagesoflifecourseforthewomenstudyingforadoctoraldegreewerefairlyhomogeneous.Familiesoftheir childhoodandearlyschoolyearsweredescribedmostoftenasordinary.theacademiccareersbeganvaryinglyindividuallyand theearlystageswerereflectedinthefuturestagesofacademicandotherlife.acomprehensivestyleofoperationandawayof organizingeverydaylifethatwereadoptedduringthemaster'sdegreestudiesbecamefairlystatic.inthewholelifecoursethe time of establishing a family in relation to the stage in the studies was also reflected. The ones who started a family early adoptedintheircircumstancesanefficientorganizationanddiverseactivity.thesignificantseparatingfactorsprovedtobethe startingmotivesofdoctoralstudiesandunderstandingthedemandsoftheprocessofgainingadoctoraldegree.themotivesof examined female doctoral students for starting the doctoral studies were fairly light: over half started the doctoral studies directedbyexternalmotivationfactors,suchasinordertoavoidunemploymentorbecauseofthelackofotheralternatives. Thedifferentfactorsweretightlyconnectedandformedadynamicwholenessoflifecourse.Thepaststagesofthelifecourse hadsignificanceinthepresentandfutureofthelifecourse. Accordingtotheresults,reflectingonthestartingmotiveofdoctoralstudieswasusefulandwhenthedoctoralstudies proceeded,itsdevelopmentdeepenedtheexperiencedmeaningfulnessandcommitmenttothestudies.thesuperficialmotive was associated with the serious considerations of discontinuing the doctoral studies and with difficulties in everyday organization.ifthedoctorstudieswereregardedasmeaningful,thentheeverydayorganizationalsoranwell.allthefemale doctoralstudentsexperiencedeverydaychallengesandoverhalfhadconsidereddiscontinuingtheirstudiesatsomestage. Themethodofundertakingthedoctoralstudiesdeterminedtheprocessofgainingadoctoraldegree,theformingofthe everydaylife'sconditionsoflifecourseandalsopartlythefutureforfemaledoctoralstudentswithafamily.thedoctoralstudies thatwereundertakenasworkfittedwellintofamilyandotherlife.studyingalongsideotherlifethrewtheeverydaylifeinto busyperformingandintoconstantorganizing.thestudyshowedthatthetimeofstartingthefamilyinrelationtothestagein studies was significant: the ones who had begun the family early carried out doctoral studies partmtime and drifted to the marginsalsoinworkinglife.allthefemaledoctoralstudentsorganizedtheireverydaylifetotheadvantageofthefamilybutdid notsacrificethemselves.thefamilysupportedaswellaschallengedthedoctoralstudies. Theresultsshowedthatgainingadoctoraldegreewasanintermediatestoppingpointinthelifecourseofawomen withafamily.aftergraduatingasadoctornewchallengeswoulddawn.thefuturewomendoctorswereespeciallyworried about their employment in the uncertain labour market of temporary employment. None of the women in my study had permanentemployment.totheoneswhohadstudiedinadditiontoworking,gettingemployedwasaconstantchallengeanda primaryobjective.gainingadoctoraldegreeisabigthresholdtotheoneswhohadundertakendoctoralstudiesastheirwork: the work and the studies would end simultaneously. The women appreciated the work experience they had gained and regardeditasusefulfromthepointofviewoffutureemployment.onedidnotwanttoexpandtheproportionofworkinthe lifecourseandeverydaylifeinthefuture,theirotherlifealsowasvaluableaccordingtothefemaledoctoralstudents.other challengesforthefutureforthewomenwithafamilywereinternationalization,competitivenessandtheconflictstodowith use of time. Meaningfulness, versatility and peacefulness were expected for the future. The opportunities for independent choiceswereregardedasimportant. The0prospective0doctor s0individual0lifecourse Basedonthefindingsofthestudy,itisimportanttopersonallyunderstandthelifecoursecontinuity.Comprehensive processofgainingadoctoraldegreeconsistsofindividualconditions,motivesandobjectives.thepaststagesofthelifecourse, 62

5 such as the formed idea of the demands of the studying, the nature of the acquired work experience and vision of the developmentoftheirowncareerarereflectedinthechoicesinthepresentandinthepossibilitiesperceptibleinthefuture.the hopesandobjectivesforthefuturedirecttheoperationoffemaledoctoralstudentinthepresent. Thedoctoralstudiesandthefamilyareinasignificantpositionintheconstructionofthelifecourseandeverydaylifeof thefemaledoctoralstudentwithafamily.thefamilyanddoctoralstudiesdeterminetheoverallcontextoflifecourseasmost centralandbecomeattachedtothechronologicalcontinuum:topast,presentandfuture.thedoctoralstudiesandgraduating asadoctorarenotonlyaseparatedegreebuttheyhavethewidereffectsofwhichadoctoralstudentmustbeawareoffrom thebeginningoftheprocess. It is beneficial for the one considering the doctoral studies to clarify the stages of doctoral process, advantages and disadvantagesbeforehand.studyingcomprehensivelybothindependentlyandwithsupervisionhelpstoformacomprehensive understanding.thefemaledoctoralstudentsofthestudyweresatisfiedwiththesupervisiontheyhadreceived.however,they perceived the supervision to be connected narrowly only to the doctoral thesis. With wider supervision, the mentoring and closer working relationships could be used to strengthen the development of expert identity, reduce the experienced uncertainty regarding employment and relevance of their own skills in working life. Tighter forms of cooperation between economiclifeandtheuniversitywouldreduceprevailinguncertaintybetweendifferentquarters.thewiderawarenessofthe commonobjectivesandofthecurrentstateisanadvantageforallinvolvedindoctoraleducation,economiclife,universityand anindividual. Studying for the doctoral degree is, in spite of its farmreaching framework and its high objectives, operation at the individuallevelwhichhasindividualstartingpoints,objectivesandcontexts.doctoralstudiesareundertakeninanumberof differentways.itisadvantageousforthedoctoralstudenttorealizethedemandsoftheprocess,theavailableresources,the opportunitiesandchallengesunfoldinginthefutureandtoclarifytheirownobjectives.forreachingtheobjectivesandthe effectivenessofthedoctorproductionthesupervisionhasriseninacentralposition(amongothers;lautamatti&nummenmaa 2008;Soini2008;Sainio2010;Pasanen&Hiltunen2006,36)Simultaneouslytheeffectivenessofthedoctoralstudies,quality andthesignificanceofsupervisionarebeingquestionedbythesporadic,uncertainandmeagrefinancingofdoctoralstudies. The future of the female doctoral students of my study appears partly steady and continuous, partly changing and uncertain.thefamilyrepresentsthecontinuity,thestudiesandworkarethechangingfactors.thefemaledoctoralstudents' attitudetowardsthefutureismainlytrusting,itisbelievedthatthingswillworkoutonewayoranother.thefemaledoctoral studentsdeterminedasturningpointsofthelifecourseestablishingthefamily,andgraduatingasadoctorinthefuture,aswell asthefutureemployment. Conclusion0 Thedoctoralstudieshaveadeepsignificancefortheindividualaswellasforsocietyandeconomiclife.Acquiringthe doctoralskillsinefficient,meaningfulandproductiveuseisacommonadvantageandobjective.thechangingcontextsneedto bepaidattentiontoalsointhedoctoraleducation.onepossibilitycouldbeincreasingthetransparencyofdifferentpathsof gainingadoctoraldegree.youngpeopleaimingforacareerinresearchcouldcontinueintheeducationpipelinetothedoctoral degreeandgraduatetotheresearcher'stasks.anotherroutetobecomeadoctoralexpertdirectedtoadultswouldcontaina strongercontactwiththeworkinglife.thegraduatingexpertdoctoroftheworkinglifewouldhaveastronglinktoworkinglife duringtheprocessofgainingadoctoraldegreeandafterit,anawarenessofitsdemandsandexpectations.inpracticethiskind oftrendcanalreadybeperceived,butintheeducationandalsogenerally,differentdoctorsarenotyetidentified.thecriteria oftheselectionforthedoctoraleducationcanbetightenedandincludetheclaimforamoreprofoundunderstanding.the doctoraleducationmustnotbeachoicetofillalackofchoices. Thedoctoralstudiesoverlapcomprehensivelywiththelifecourse.Thefemaledoctoralstudentswithafamilyarrange andorganizetheireverydaylifeactivelyandindividuallywithintheconditionsthatprevail.theeverydaylifeconditionsformthe wholenessinwhichthefamily,doctoralstudiesandworkareatthecentre.theorganizationofeverydaylifewasdetermined essentiallywhetherthedoctoralstudieswereundertakenasworkorinadditiontootherlife.thedoctoralstudiesthatwere undertaken as work facilitate everyday life, but being paid for the work does not automatically guarantee experienced meaningfulness.internalmotivationtowardsthedoctoralstudiesandthepositivefuturewhichistakingshapethroughthem are reflected positively in the everyday organization. In the individual lifecourse the different factors and stages weave into wholeness. The surprises and unpredictability are part of the lifecourse but rapid changes require continuous planning and spontaneousactivity.inthelifecourseofthefemaledoctoralstudentwithafamilythereareboththefactorswhichrepresent thecontinuityandtheonesrepresentingtheanticipatedandunpredictablebreaks. Inthedifferentlifecoursesthedoctoralstudiesareinanycaseademandingproject,wherethecommitmenttothemis 63

6 a precondition for success. The female doctoral students experience enthusiasm and commitment towards their doctoral studies even though the future is open and new challenges arising. The doctoral degree makes the participation in the competitionpossibleandguaranteesthatthecompetitionstepsup.(saarinen2003,16,86.)theprocessofgainingadoctoral degreeisatargetmorientedsystematicoperationwhichisdirectedtothefuture(lautamatti&nummenmaa2008,107m108).the individual doctoral student needs to realize wider lines of development, to perceive oneself realistically as a part of the wholeness,todrawuptheobjectivesandtheplansofthefuture.ifonedoesnotperceivetheprevailingtrendsorknowone's own direction, they may be faced by an unclear jungle of demands, the conflicting ideas and lack of clarity of the future possibilities.(boud&lee2009,1m3.)thedoctoralstudents'thoughtswhichprojecttoeverydaylifeortothefuturehavenot beenreallystudied,theirvoicesareinthebackgroundandintheadaptableroleinthestudies(leonard&becker2009,71). However,themajorlinesandthesmallimplementorsshouldformadialogicalwholenessandpayattentionbothinthenameof meaningfulnessandeffectiveness. REFERENCES00 Aittola, T Nuorten arkipäivän oppimisympäristöt. Teoksessa L. Laurinen (toim.) Koti kasvattajana, elämä opettajana.porvoo:wsoy,172m189. Aittola,H.2002.Mitätohtorinpitääosata?TeoksessaA.Eteläpelto&P.Tynjälä(toim.)Oppiminenjaasiantuntijuus. Työelämänjakoulutuksennäkökulmia.Porvoo:WSOY,125M144. Baker, V. & Lattuca, L Developmental networks and learning: towards an interdisciplinary perspective on identitydevelopmentduringdoctoralstudy.studiesinhighereducation35:7,807m827. Beck,U.1992.Risksociety.Towardsanewmodernity.Käänt.MarkRitter.London:Sage. Bitusikova, A New challenges in doctoral education in Europe. Teoksessa D. Boud & A. Lee (toim.) Changing practicesofdoctoraleducation.200m210. Boud, D. & Lee, A Introduction. Teoksessa D. Boud & A. Lee (toim.) Changign practices of doctoral education. London:Routledge.1M9. Buchmann, M The script of life in modern society: entry into adulthood in a changing world. Chicago: The UniversityofChicago. Dill,D.,Mitra,S.,Jensen,H.,Lehtinen,E.,Mäkelä,T.,Parpala,A.,Pohjola,H.,Ritter,M.&Saari,S.2006.PhDTrainingand the knowledge based society: An evaluation of doctoral education in Finland. Finnish Higher Education Evaluation Council. InternationalPostgraduateStudentsMirror2006.Högskolverketreport2006:29R. Julkunen,R.2004a.Hulluarakkauttajasopimustohtoreita.Jyväskylä:Minerva. Julkunen, R. 2004b. Harvinaisesta moninaiseksi väittelevät naiset. Teoksessa L. Harjula & M.ML. Hyvönen (toim.) Harvinaisestamoninaiseksi.62M104. Kiianmaa,N.2012.TasaMarvobarometri2012.SosiaaliMjaterveysministeriönjulkaisuja2012:23. Lautamatti,L.&Nummenmaa,A.R.2008.JatkoMopiskeluntyöprosessienohjaus.TeoksessaA.R.Nummenmaa,K.Pyhältö &T.Soini(toim.)HyvätohtoriTampereUniversityPress.107M126. Leonard,D.&Becker,R.2009.Enhancingthedoctoralexperienceatthelocallevel.TeoksessaD.Boud&A.Lee(toim.) Changingpracticesofdoctoraleducation.London:Routledge.71M86. Nummenmaa, A. R Koulutus, sukupuoli ja elämänkulku. Nuoruudesta aikuisuuteen yhteiskunnallisessa muutoksessa.työministeriö.työpoliittisiatutkimuksia149.helsinki:hakapaino. Hiltunen, K. & Pasanen, H.MM Tulevat tohtorit. JatkoMopiskelijoiden kokemukset ja arviot tohtorikoulutuksesta 2005.Opetusministeriönjulkaisuja2006:48. Puhakka, H Naisten elämänkulku nuoruudesta aikuisuuteen M koulutuksen merkitys elämän kulussa. Joensuun yliopisto.kasvatustieteellisiäjulkaisujan:o42. Saarinen,J.2003.Naistutkijattiedemaailmassa.Kertomuksiatutkimusprosesseista.Lapinyliopisto.ActaUniversitatis Lapponiensis57. Sainio,J.2010.Asiantuntijanatyömarkkinoille.Vuosina2006ja2007tohtorintutkinnonsuorittaneidentyöllistyminenja heidän mielipiteitään tohtorikoulutuksesta. Aarresaari verkosto ja OKM. Soini, H Vertaisohjaus akateemisen ohjauksen työtapana. Teoksessa A.R. Nummenmaa, K. Pyhältö & T. Soini 64

7 (toim.)hyvätohtoritampereuniversitypress.127m136. Stubb, J., Pyhältö, K., Soini, T., Nummenmaa, A.R. & Lonka, K Osallisuus ja hyvinvointi tiedeyhteisöissä tohtoriopiskelijoidenkokemuksia.aikuiskasvatus30(2),106m119. Tammelin,M.2009.Workingtimeandfamilytime:experiencesoftheworkandfamilyinterfaceamongdualMearning couplesinfinland.jyväskylänyliopisto. 65

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