Acting Globally but Thinking Locally? The Influence of Local Communities on Organizations

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Acting Globally but Thinking Locally? The Influence of Local Communities on Organizations"

Transcription

1 Acting Globally but Thinking Locally? The Influence of Local Communities on Organizations Christopher Marquis Julie Battilana Copyright 2007 by Christopher Marquis and Julie Battilana Working papers are in draft form. This working paper is distributed for purposes of comment and discussion only. It may not be reproduced without permission of the copyright holder. Copies of working papers are available from the author.

2 Acting Globally but Thinking Locally? The Influence of Local Communities on Organizations Christopher Marquis Harvard Business School Boston, MA Julie Battilana Harvard Business School Boston, MA Prepared for Research in Organizational Behavior November 27, 2007 We thank Joe Galaskiewicz, Royston Greenwood, Arndt Sorge, and Jean-Claude Thoenig for their insightful comments and suggestions on a prior draft of this paper.

3 Acting Globally but Thinking Locally? The Influence of Local Communities on Organizations ABSTRACT We develop an institutional theory of how local communities continue to matter for organizations, and why community factors are particularly important in a global age. Since globalization has taken center stage in both practitioner and academic circles, research has shifted away from understanding effects of local factors. In this paper, our aim is to redirect theoretical and empirical attention back to understanding the determinants and importance of local influences. We review classical and contemporary research from organizational theory, sociology and economics that have focused on geographic influences on organizations. We adapt Scott s (2001) influential three pillars model, including regulative, social-normative and cultural-cognitive features to conceptualize an overarching model of how communities influence organizations. We suggest that because organizations are simultaneously embedded in communities and organizational fields, by accounting for both of these different levels, researchers will better understand isomorphism and change dynamics. Our approach thus runs counter the idea that globalization is a homogeneity-producing process, and the view that society is moving from particularism to universalism. With globalization, not only has the local remained important, but in many ways local particularities have become more visible and salient, and so understanding these dynamics will be helpful for researchers addressing institutional isomorphism and change. 2

4 Acting Globally but Thinking Locally? The Influence of Local Communities on Organizations It is a paradox of recent times that in a globalizing and boundaryless economy, factors associated with local communities are of central importance to understanding organizations and their actions (Bagnasco and Le Galès, 2000; Sorge, 2005; Marquis, Glynn and Davis, 2007). Recent studies have shown that embeddedness in communities has an enduring influence on organizational behavior and there are a number of mechanisms that mediate this relationship. For example, geographic proximity and local networks influence organizations non-profit giving (Galaskiewicz, 1997), board of director structure (Kono et. al, 1998; Marquis, 2003) and corporate governance practices (Davis and Greve, 1997). There is also evidence that different localities exhibit shared frames of references which influence outcomes as diverse as corporate social responsibility behaviors (Marquis, Glynn and Davis, 2007), corporate strategies (Lounsbury, 2007), governance processes (Abzug and Simonoff, 2004) and organizational foundings (Marquis and Lounsbury, 2007). Variation in local laws and tax rates also contribute to differences in organizational behavior across communities (Guthrie and McQuarrie, 2005; Guthrie et al, forthcoming; Marx, Strumsky and Fleming, 2006). Further, a growing stream of research focuses on how local competitive and market-based processes influence organizations (Audia, Freeman and Reynolds, 2006; Stuart and Sorensen, 2003; see Freeman and Audia, 2006 for a review). This diverse work suggests that even in spite of recent globalizing trends, there has been a revival of research accounting for the effect of geographic communities on organizational 3

5 behaviors. But there has not yet been a theoretical synthesis that delineates scope and boundary conditions as well as the underlying processes that drive these relationships. Our approach and review of how communities influence organizations will focus on how the tools and mechanisms of institutional theorizing (Scott, 2001; Davis and Marquis, 2005) can enhance our understanding of the influence of local forces in a global age. The primary underlying premise of institutional theory is that action and choice cannot be understood outside of the cultural and historical frameworks in which organizations are embedded, yet paradoxically, the theory has thus far mostly neglected the important influences that are associated with organizations local cultures, legal systems and social contexts. While early institutional works, such as Selznick s (1949) study of the Tennessee Valley Authority and Zald s (1970) study of Chicago YMCA were heavily influenced by local sources of power, as Powell and DiMaggio (1991) describe, institutional theory has more recently discarded the focus on local environments to more frequently focus on geography-independent organizational sectors, or fields. The organizational field (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983) has proven to be a powerful level of analysis which has shifted research attention and obscured the influence of geographic embeddedness. Our goal is to build on the social constructionist and cognitive tradition of institutional theory, but reorient the theory to focus more on community influences. Our review of this literature harks back to some of the earliest work in modern organizational theory that focused on documenting the importance of community in understanding organizational behavior. Early investigators such as Warren (1967), who, following upon Emery and Trist (1965), coined the concept of inter-organizational field, stressed the importance of community for understanding institutional influences 4

6 because it is within communities that diverse types of organizations come into contact. Other early research documented how social linkages develop among diverse organizations located within same community (Litwack and Hylton, 1962; Turk, 1977; Lincoln, 1979). Ironically, much of this early work sought to demonstrate that the American community was undergoing great change, which involved the increasing orientation of local communities units toward extra-community relations. In explaining why community studies had fallen out of favor after the 1980s, Scott (2001) describes that modern transportation and communication systems developed such that geographical boundaries became meaningless. More recently, globalization has come to occupy the center of the stage, further contributing to the neglect of the community level of analysis (Sorge, 2005). But the recent flurry of scholarship and research on community bases of organizational behavior suggests that Scott s (2001) assessment is not accurate. The most systematic of this research has been in the ecological tradition, building of Hawley s (1950) community ecology model, as adapted by Hannan and Freeman (1977, and see Freeman and Audia, 2006 for a review). These studies that highlight competitive and ecological factors of geographic communities are important and focus on how proximity defines market boundaries and as a result still drives some organizational decisions. As a counterpoint, our focus is on how communities are not just contexts for competition, but provide different institutional environments which influence organizations. We argue in this paper, that communities influence organizational behavior not only as local markets and resource environments, but also through a number of institutional pressures. While a stream of research in economic geography (e.g., Storper, 5

7 1997; Scott and Storper, 2003) has examined the influence of some institutional factors on the economic development of communities, it is striking to note that recent developments in institutional theory have tended to overlook the influence on organizational behavior of institutional pressures stemming from the community. As an analytic device to unpack the different institutional influences of communities, we follow Marquis, Glynn and Davis s (2007) research on the geography of corporate social responsibility and draw on Scott s (2001) three pillars model, including regulative, social-normative and cultural-cognitive features of communities. In doing so, we hope to reorient institutional theory from the current focus on organizations embeddedness in organizational fields to organizations simultaneous embeddedness in both geographical communities and organizational fields. Building on Warren s (1967) insight, we feel that accounting for community-level processes will draw the social and cultural underpinnings of organizational behavior into fuller relief by showing how even organizations with conflicting economic purposes are influenced by embeddeddess in similar geographic environments. By accounting for these different levels of analysis, we also believe that researchers will better understand isomorphism and change dynamics both within and across geographical communities and organizational fields. While communities may be a natural venue to understand isomorphism processes (Marquis, Glynn and Davis, 2007), there is evidence as well that as different local communities come closer together as a result of increased globalization, they may also demarcate the boundaries between them even more clearly (Scott and Storper, 2003; Sorge, 2005; Marquis and Lounsbury, 2007). Such an approach to the process of globalization runs counter the idea that one can view 6

8 the evolution of society as moving from particularism to universalism through homogeneity-producing trends (Robertson and Khondker, 1998; Sorge, 2005). In closing, the goal of our chapter will be to both review the emerging set of work that has considered communities effects on organizations and further to develop a theoretical synthesis that delineates scope and boundary conditions as well as the underlying mechanisms that drive these relationships in the context of a globalizing economy. After defining what we mean by community, we review some of the geographically-oriented work in organizational ecology and economics that focuses mainly on effects of proximity and studies communities as competitive environments. To complement this work and better account for institutional pressures stemming from the community, we then apply Scott s (2001) influential typology of institutional features to the community level of analysis. We conclude with some final thoughts about how understanding communities may be even more important in light of globalization and future research directions and extensions suggested by taking this approach. Focusing on communities as institutional environments provides fresh theoretical insights to organizational theory in addition to providing a more unified perspective on this diverse set of emerging community-oriented research. LOCAL COMMUNITIES: A NEGLECTED LEVEL OF ANALYSIS Many sociological and anthropological definitions of the concept of community exist, and most emphasize some combination of relative small-scale, boundedness, and strong ties among the members of the community (Oxford dictionary of social sciences, 2001). These qualities distinguish community from larger and more impersonal forms of relationship such as society, as emphasized in Tönnies's (1887) seminal distinction 7

9 between Gemeinschaft (community) and Gesellschaft (society) whereby community is about collective relationships between people focused on interpersonal and particularistic connections, and society is more universal, transparent and anonymous. In his influential work on economic geography, Storper (2005:34) draws on this distinction and defines community as referring to a wide variety of ways of grouping together with others with whom we share some part of our identity, expectations, and interests. Although the distinction between community and broader society is helpful, and it highlights many of the important components that comprise community, these definitions do not precisely delineate the boundaries of a local community. Such boundaries are hard to delineate in an abstract definition and need not necessarily coincide with any political or administrative boundaries. Warren (1967: 400) explains, the term community level does not imply a discretely identifiable level, except for purposes of analysis. Using the term community field, he thereby intertwined the concepts of field and community and showed how even organizations with conflicting economic purposes are influenced by embeddedness in similar geographic environments. In conceptualizing communities, we think it is important to highlight our focus on bounded geographic entities in order to effectively distinguish our meaning from definitions of geography-independent organizational fields that have emerged as the unit of analysis used in institutional studies to account for the wider institutional context in which actors are embedded (Davis and Marquis, 2005). Further, a focus on geographic boundaries serves as a counterpoint to recent institutional research that aims to understand the importance of transnational phenomena (e.g., Djelic and Quack, 2003; 8

10 Djelic and Sahlin-Andersson, 2006) in a world where organizations are more open to non-local events and ideas (Scott, 2005: 474). There is significant precedent for defining community as a metropolitan region. This is the approach taken by early American sociology and political science, in studies of Muncie, Indiana (Lynd and Lynd, 1929), Newburyport, Massachussetts (Warner and Lunt, 1941), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Baltzell, 1958), Atlanta, Georgia (Hunter, 1953) and New Haven, Connecticut (Dahl, 1961; Polsby, 1963). Recent research (e.g. Marquis, 2003; Stuart and Sorenson, 2003) has followed a similar approach. An early European tradition of research also addressed the importance of cities as essential social structures, which were local societies where groups and interests gathered and were represented (Weber, 1921). Weber proposed to analyze the city through its economy, its culture and its politics, which were interconnected. Anchoring itself in the Weberian tradition, a more recent stream of research has revived interest in European cities as local units of analysis, which paradoxically remain significant tiers of social and political organization, in the era of globalization (Bagnasco and Le Galès, 2000: 6). But we argue that the phenomena associated with communities need not be bound within a city-limit. Aldrich (1999: 300) for example, suggested that the geographic scope of a community is an empirical question. He stressed that what qualifies as a community is to some extent determined from the bottom-up based on relations between organizations. Thus, other geographic entities, for example clusters of cities or regions may also qualify as communities (Greenwood, Diaz, Li and Lorente, 2007). Economic geography has contributed to the resurgence of regions as units of analysis in social sciences over the last two decades by examining their role in economic development and 9

11 considering some of them as sites of the most advanced forms of economic development and innovation (Scott and Storper, 2003). Silicon Valley (Saxenian, 1994) is a good example of a region playing an active role in the development and the improvement of industrial products and processes. Recent research has focused on how industrial regions become identified by external audiences which results in a reinforcing process (Romanelli and Khessina, 2005). Industrial districts (the term was coined by Alfred Marshall (1920)), which are geographically localized industrial systems based on an extended division of labor between small and medium-sized firms that, although they often directly compete with each other, also cooperate with each other in a number of different ways (Piore and Sabel, 1984; Brusco, 1995), also qualify as local communities. They are industrial systems built on regional networks. More broadly, any local productive system defined as a system composed of three principal elements: the active businesses, the territory in which they are located and the people living in that territory, with their values and their history (Brusco, 1995: 63) qualifies a geographic community. We regard the community level of analysis as a local level of analysis corresponding to a the populations, organizations and markets located in a geographic territory and sharing, as a result of their common location, elements of local culture, norms and identity. We recognize that the delineation of the boundaries of such territory is not straightforward. The boundaries of local communities are not given; they are always partially constructed by researchers in the same way as organizational fields boundaries are. We, however, argue that the community level of analysis has to be revived in institutional theory as it is the only way to account for the fact that organizations are locally embedded. 10

12 In this paper, we focus on the underlying regulative, social and cultural mechanisms that influence organizations within local communities. By our definition, these could include cities, clusters of cities, regions, industrial districts or any type of local productive systems. After reviewing studies that focus on how geographic proximity and local markets influence organization behaviour, as a counterpoint, we highlight geographic communities influence from an institutional standpoint. We thereby suggest that communities are an essential level of analysis in understanding the interactions between organizations and their environment. COMMUNITIES AS LOCAL MARKETS The most developed streams of organizational research that has explicitly studied local effects on organizations are those that examine local competitive environments that provide differential levels of various types of resources for organizations. In this stream of research, investigators identify organizational communities based on geographic proximity and study the effects of local markets on organizations economic performance. We focus here on two influential streams of research. First, we review the contribution of the ecological tradition, which builds on the work of Hannan and Freeman s (1977), whose original population ecology model theorized the importance of communities for understanding the dynamics of organizational populations (see Freeman and Audia, (2006) for a review of this work). Secondly, we review the work on economic geography (Marshall, 1920), which examines how geographic collocation of industries provide positive externalities, such as spillovers and labor training. Some researchers, for example Sorensen and Audia (e.g. Sorensen and Audia, 2000; Audia, 11

13 Freeman and Reynolds, 2006) are increasingly integrating insights from both of these approaches. The ecological research stream mostly focuses on how organizational density in a population influences the vital rates of other organizations, i.e., organizations die and are founded as a function of the existing stock of similar organizations. The key theoretical advancements of this approach, density dependence and resource partitioning, both have been shown to be geographically contingent and in some cases more dependent on local market processes than those of the entire field (Freeman and Audia, 2006). For example, Carroll and Wade (1991), in a study of how local and national densities in the brewing industry influence population dynamics find that local competition matters more than national competition. The most developed theoretical consideration of local environments is Greve s (2000, 2002) spatial density dependence model, which posits that localized competition is more central than field-level characteristics to organizational decision making. Markets have bounds, and some types of organizations, in Greve s case, Tokyo banks, live within those bounds. Further, Baum in a number of studies (Baum and Singh, 1994; Baum and Mezias, 1992) has also shown how localized competition and crowding within local communities led to greater levels of failure rates for community day care centers in Toronto and Manhattan hotels. This line of work has shown that collocation and proximity are important to defining organizational ecologies and sites of market competition. The ecological model of resource partitioning theorizes a relationship between the consolidation of markets and founding of new firms. As a market consolidates into a fewer number of generalist firms, specialist firms arise to capitalize on market niches 12

14 abandoned by the larger competitors. Traditionally, the explanation has focused on proximate location: an organization s location in the resource space accounts almost entirely for the partitioning of industries (Carroll and Swaminathan, 2000). McPherson (1983) proposes a similar model whereby overlap of member characteristics defines niches and competition between voluntary organizations. In most cases, the site of resource competition in these studies is cities. For example, Carroll s (1985) original statement of resource partitioning studied newspapers in seven US cities because they were the autonomous units of competition for newspapers. Marquis and Lounsbury (2007) also find support for resource partitioning as a community process in their study of how local bank acquisitions lead to new bank foundings. Further supporting the effects of local mergers on organizational founding, Stuart and Sorenson (2003) found that organizational liquidity events such as IPOs and acquisitions within focal or adjacent communities leads to the foundings of technology firms. These effects of density dependence and partitioning of local markets, which focus on some of the negative effects of crowded or consolidated markets, are to some extent in conflict with other research in the economic geography area that study how industries agglomerate and how close geographic proximity with competitors can be beneficial (Marshall, 1920; Krugman, 1991). Ecology suggests there are negative effects of crowding as resources become scarcer. But work in economic geography suggests an opposite relationship. Focusing more on the local accumulation of knowledge, and trained labor, which leads to information spillovers, it shows that there is a substantial benefit to all local firms from the agglomeration of industries. For example, Silicon Valley became the center of the technology industry as a result of tight networks of local 13

15 firms (Saxenian, 1994), Detroit became the capital of the auto industry by having fertile early training grounds such as the Olds company that spawned many spin-offs (see Klepper, 2002 for summary of his other research) and Akron was fertile soil for tire research leading to benefits for firms located and founded there (Sull, 2001; Buenstorf and Klepper, 2005). These studies begin accounting for some more of the social dynamics that are boundary conditions for a strict ecological approach. For example entrepreneurs are not necessarily randomly distributed, and individuals typically start businesses in close proximity to their current places of residence (Marquis and Lounsbury, 2007; Sorenson and Audia, 2000; Thornton and Flynn, 2003), sometimes founding a company to compete with a former employer (Burton, Sorenson and Beckman, 2002; Romanelli and Schoonhoven, 2001). Networks also have been found to lead to increased founding rates in communities (Audia, Freeman and Reynolds, 2006). In a particularly influential study, Saxenian (1994) described how the characteristics of two technology communities, Boston and Silicon Valley influenced innovation and production within these regions. Local factors such as universities, business associations, clubs and professional organizations sustained the region s culture of embeddedness. While competition and market processes are important mechanisms to understand the effects of proximity and collocation, studies such as Saxenian s suggest that local systems and organization behavior within them may in fact be better characterized by institutional explanations. 14

16 COMMUNITIES AS INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENTS We believe that while the above studies have been influential, they are in many ways only a starting point in understanding how embeddedness (Dacin, Ventresca, and Beal, 1999) in communities influences firm behaviors. As noted, their conception of community is mainly about proximity and local markets. There are still significant open questions with regard to how embeddedness in a community influences organizational behavior and characteristics beyond organization performance, foundings and death. A further distinction between our approach and the community ecology approach is that while they are examining dynamics of populations, we are interested in understanding organizational behavior at a more micro-level, including how the specific behaviors and strategies of organizations are influenced by their communities. Following Marquis, Glynn and Davis s (2007) research on corporate social responsibility in drawing on Scott s (2001) influential typology of institutional processes, we argue that communities influence organizational behavior through three primary mechanisms. We start with coercive pressures, which stem from the regulative structures of the community (i.e., the formal rules and incentives constructed by empowered agents of the collective good) that may force organizations to adopt specific managerial practices or organizational forms. This is consistent with the diverse research across levels of analysis that has suggested the political boundaries are important for understanding organizations (e.g. Dobbin, 1994; Wade, Swaminathan and Saxon, 1998, Guthrie, 2003). But we also argue that organizational practices or forms may be influenced by social-normative processes, in which organizations conform to other actors expectations to obtain their approval. Finally, cultural-cognitive processes may 15

17 influence organizational behavior within communities by imposing abstract rules associated with the structure of cognitive distinctions and taken-for-granted understandings. We see the cultural-cognitive influences as distinct from the socialnormative in that the cultural-cognitive gives actors a deeply shared frame of reference that does not need action to maintain or recreate (Douglas, 1986; Berger and Luckmann, 1966). In contrast, the social-normative is more about how consensus about what is appropriate arises out of the action of collectives and from one s peers. Thus, while the cultural-cognitive is about how things are done around here, the normative has more of an evaluative tone what is appropriate to do around here. We use these three categories of processes below to review the existing community-oriented literature and unpack the various mechanisms that connect organizational behavior to community-level processes. Regulative Influence of Communities Communities exert a regulative influence on organizations. In Scott s formulation (2001: 35),...regulative processes involve the capacity to establish rules, inspect or review others conformity to them, and, as necessary, manipulate sanctions rewards or punishments in an attempt to influence future behavior. In translating this to the community level, we focus on how local politics and government mandates can influence organizational behavior within communities. First, we highlight that regulative pressures vary across communities by providing examples of such variation. Second, we analyze how different kinds of local public policies may have a determining influence on organizational behavior within communities. Finally, we show how local public 16

18 authorities may also mobilize other local actors to indirectly influence organizational behavior within a community. Variation in regulative pressures. Following Weber s definition, states are usually defined as having the monopoly of the legitimate use of violence within the national territory, thereby being the source of most regulative pressures. States, however, vary in their degree of centralization. The more decentralized states are, the more room for agency local public authorities have. Hence, the influence of local public policies on organizational behavior will vary from one country to another depending on the degree of political decentralization (Zeitlin, 1995). For example, examining the conditions that facilitate the development of industrial districts, scholars (Trigilia, 1992; Benton, 1992; Ganne, 1995) have found that in countries where political decentralization has enhanced the autonomy and powers of regional governments, such as in Italy in the 1970s and in Spain in the 1980s, local public policies may contribute to the development of industrial districts. In contrast, where the financial and political independence of local authorities are sapped by central government controls, as in contemporary Britain, industrial districts cannot flourish (Zeitlin, 1995). Types of local public policies. Local public authorities may influence organizational behavior through a variety of regulative pressures, including legal regulations as well as the creation of incentives and administrative bodies in charge of supporting different types of organizations. Local public policies based on incentives that are likely to influence organizational behavior include, among others, subsidies to industry, tax breaks, infrastructure provision, and labor training program. For example, when local governments control tax laws, they may use them to influence organizations 17

Network Theory: The Basics. Jason Owen-Smith University of Michigan jdos@umich.edu

Network Theory: The Basics. Jason Owen-Smith University of Michigan jdos@umich.edu Network Theory: The Basics Jason Owen-Smith University of Michigan jdos@umich.edu Roadmap 10 big claims for networks What is a network What do networks do Some examples for innovation 10 big claims 1.

More information

Giving to local schools: Corporate philanthropy, tax incentives, and the ecology of need q

Giving to local schools: Corporate philanthropy, tax incentives, and the ecology of need q Social Science Research xxx (2007) xxx xxx www.elsevier.com/locate/ssresearch Giving to local schools: Corporate philanthropy, tax incentives, and the ecology of need q Doug Guthrie a, *, Richard Arum

More information

Serving Two Masters: Industry Fields, Geographic Communities, and Institutional Pluralism*

Serving Two Masters: Industry Fields, Geographic Communities, and Institutional Pluralism* 1 Serving Two Masters: Industry Fields, Geographic Communities, and Institutional Pluralism* Christopher Marquis Harvard University 333 Morgan Hall Boston, MA 02163 cmarquis@hbs.edu András Tilcsik University

More information

Cover Page. The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/33081 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation.

Cover Page. The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/33081 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation. Cover Page The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/33081 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation. Author: Stettina, Christoph Johann Title: Governance of innovation project management

More information

Social Network Analysis and Systems Change Roberta M. Snow, Ph.D. and Evan A. Leach, Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania and West Chester University

Social Network Analysis and Systems Change Roberta M. Snow, Ph.D. and Evan A. Leach, Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania and West Chester University Social Network Analysis and Systems Change Roberta M. Snow, Ph.D. and Evan A. Leach, Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania and West Chester University Contact: Roberta M. Snow @ snowrm@sas.upenn.edu Abstract

More information

ACADEMIC DIRECTOR: Barbara Walters Email Contact: URL THE PROGRAM Career and Academic Advancement Prospects Program Requirements Required Courses

ACADEMIC DIRECTOR: Barbara Walters Email Contact: URL THE PROGRAM Career and Academic Advancement Prospects Program Requirements Required Courses Sociology (BA) ACADEMIC DIRECTOR: Barbara Walters CUNY School of Professional Studies 101 West 31st Street, 7 th Floor New York, NY 10001 Email Contact: Barbara Walters, barbara.walters@cuny.edu URL: http://sps.cuny.edu/programs/ba_sociology

More information

STANDARDS FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE WITH GROUPS. Second Edition

STANDARDS FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE WITH GROUPS. Second Edition STANDARDS FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE WITH GROUPS Second Edition ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SOCIAL WORK WITH GROUPS, INC. An International Professional Organization (AASWG, Inc.) First edition Adopted

More information

University of Caen research workshop, April 4-5

University of Caen research workshop, April 4-5 High tech entrepreneurship from a regional and individual perspective 1 (Entrepreneurship: des déterminants régionaux des créations d entreprises dans le secteur des ICT aux déterminants de l entrepreneuriat

More information

Center for Effective Organizations

Center for Effective Organizations Center for Effective Organizations WHO NEEDS MBAS IN HR? USC'S STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT MBA CONCENTRATION CEO Publication G 98-10 (338) PAUL S. ADLER Marshall School of Business EDWARD E. LAWLER

More information

Australian ssociation

Australian ssociation Australian ssociation Practice Standards for Social Workers: Achieving Outcomes of Social Workers Australian Association of Social Workers September 2003 Contents Page Introduction... 3 Format of the Standards...

More information

When policy meets practice - colliding logics and new forms of knowledge production. Jacky Swan, Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, UK**

When policy meets practice - colliding logics and new forms of knowledge production. Jacky Swan, Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, UK** When policy meets practice - colliding logics and new forms of knowledge production Jacky Swan, Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, UK** Mike Bresnen, Manchester Business School, University

More information

Baldrige Core Values and Concepts Customer-Driven Excellence Visionary Leadership

Baldrige Core Values and Concepts Customer-Driven Excellence Visionary Leadership Baldrige Core Values and Concepts These beliefs and behaviors are embedded in high-performing organizations. They are the foundation for integrating key performance and operational requirements within

More information

Center for Effective Organizations

Center for Effective Organizations Center for Effective Organizations WHAT MAKES HR A STRATEGIC PARTNER? CEO PUBLICATION G 09-01 (555) EDWARD E. LAWLER III Center for Effective Organizations Marshall School of Business University of Southern

More information

Special Issue on: Designing Internal Organization for External Knowledge Sourcing. Call for papers Submission deadline: 30 th June 2010

Special Issue on: Designing Internal Organization for External Knowledge Sourcing. Call for papers Submission deadline: 30 th June 2010 Special Issue on: Designing Internal Organization for External Knowledge Sourcing Call for papers Submission deadline: 30 th June 2010 Purpose The aim of this Special Issue is to shed light on the relationship

More information

Economic Brief. Explaining an Industry Cluster: The Case of U.S. Car Makers from 1895 1969

Economic Brief. Explaining an Industry Cluster: The Case of U.S. Car Makers from 1895 1969 Economic Brief October 12, EB12-10 Explaining an Industry Cluster: The Case of U.S. Car Makers from 1895 1969 By David A. Price and Zhu Wang The geographic clustering of companies within an industry is

More information

Considering knowledge management in outsourcing decisions

Considering knowledge management in outsourcing decisions Considering knowledge management in outsourcing decisions Brian Lewis December 1, 2005 INF 385Q Knowledge Management Systems Introduction Trends toward a decentralized business model have led to the common

More information

College of Arts and Sciences: Social Science and Humanities Outcomes

College of Arts and Sciences: Social Science and Humanities Outcomes College of Arts and Sciences: Social Science and Humanities Outcomes Communication Information Mgt/ Quantitative Skills Valuing/Ethics/ Integrity Critical Thinking Content Knowledge Application/ Internship

More information

Information Flow and the Locus of Influence in Online User Networks: The Case of ios Jailbreak *

Information Flow and the Locus of Influence in Online User Networks: The Case of ios Jailbreak * Information Flow and the Locus of Influence in Online User Networks: The Case of ios Jailbreak * Nitin Mayande & Charles Weber Department of Engineering and Technology Management Portland State University

More information

Designing Law Enforcement: Adaptive Strategies for the Complex Environment

Designing Law Enforcement: Adaptive Strategies for the Complex Environment Designing Law Enforcement: Adaptive Strategies for the Complex Environment John A. Bertetto, Police Officer, Chicago Police Department Crime Control Strategies As law enforcement professionals, we often

More information

Promoting hi-tech entrepreneurship through university -based technology incubatorssome thoughts coming from experience

Promoting hi-tech entrepreneurship through university -based technology incubatorssome thoughts coming from experience Trade and Development Board Investment, Enterprise and Development Commission Multi-year expert meeting on enterprise development policies and capacity-building in science, technology and innovation Geneva,

More information

Make a Major difference to your degree. Flexible Learning at Southampton

Make a Major difference to your degree. Flexible Learning at Southampton Make a Major difference to your degree. Flexible Learning at Southampton 2 Studying a Minor subject allows you to broaden your educational experience Make a Major difference to your degree by choosing

More information

Organizational Behavior and Development. Michael Beer. Harvard University

Organizational Behavior and Development. Michael Beer. Harvard University Organizational Behavior and Development Michael Beer Harvard University Organizational studies is a fragmented field. Its foundations are the disciplines of Psychology, Sociology, and Economics and applied

More information

Using an Instructional Systems Development Model as a Framework for Research on Scale Up 1

Using an Instructional Systems Development Model as a Framework for Research on Scale Up 1 Using an Instructional Systems Development Model as a Framework for Research on Scale Up 1 Michael R. Vitale East Carolina University Nancy R. Romance Florida Atlantic University Abstract This paper presents

More information

How Firms Learn From the Uses of Different

How Firms Learn From the Uses of Different How Firms Learn From the Uses of Different Types of Management Control Systems Michael T. Lee, Boise State University Sally K. Widener, Rice University We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of

More information

Center for Effective Organizations

Center for Effective Organizations Center for Effective Organizations TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT: SIMILARITIES, DIFFERENCES, AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS CEO PUBLICATION G 92-16 (219) EDWARD E. LAWLER III University of Southern

More information

Building the Capacity of BMOs: Guiding Principles for Project Managers

Building the Capacity of BMOs: Guiding Principles for Project Managers Paris, 1-2 February 2006 www.publicprivatedialogue.org RESOURCE BUILDING AND MAINTAINING BUSINESS MEMBERSHIP ORGANIZATIONS Building the Capacity of BMOs: Guiding Principles for Project Managers Andrei

More information

International Trade and Corporate Social Responsibility

International Trade and Corporate Social Responsibility International Trade and Corporate Social Responsibility Professor Kevin Kolben Rutgers Business School, Newark and New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA Testimony Before the Committee on International Trade European

More information

Kansas Board of Regents Precollege Curriculum Courses Approved for University Admissions

Kansas Board of Regents Precollege Curriculum Courses Approved for University Admissions Kansas Board of Regents Precollege Curriculum Courses Approved for University Admissions Original Publication April 6, 2011 Revision Dates June 13, 2011 May 23, 2012 Kansas Board of Regents Precollege

More information

Normative Interfaces of Globalization and High-Tech Capitalism: Legal Pluralism and the Neo-Liberal Turn

Normative Interfaces of Globalization and High-Tech Capitalism: Legal Pluralism and the Neo-Liberal Turn International Conference of the Commission on Legal Pluralism in collaboration with the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Normative Interfaces of Globalization

More information

APPROVED VERSION. Centro de Estudios Estratégicos de la Defensa Consejo de Defensa Suramericano Unión de Naciones Suramericanas.

APPROVED VERSION. Centro de Estudios Estratégicos de la Defensa Consejo de Defensa Suramericano Unión de Naciones Suramericanas. CEED S PRELIMINARY REPORT TO THE SOUTH AMERICAN DEFENSE COUNCIL ON THE TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR THE CONCEPTS OF SECURITY AND DEFENSE IN THE SOUTH AMERICAN REGION The Centre for Strategic Defense Studies

More information

Council on Social Work Education. Curriculum Policy Statement for Baccalaureate Degree Programs in Social Work Education

Council on Social Work Education. Curriculum Policy Statement for Baccalaureate Degree Programs in Social Work Education Council on Social Work Education Curriculum Policy Statement for Baccalaureate Degree Programs in Social Work Education B1.0 SCOPE AND INTENT OF THE CURRICULUM POLICY STATEMENT B1.1 This document sets

More information

Abstract number: 020-0564. Knowledge management between companies and local governance in industrial. clusters. Department of Production Engineering

Abstract number: 020-0564. Knowledge management between companies and local governance in industrial. clusters. Department of Production Engineering Abstract number: 020-0564 Knowledge management between companies and local governance in industrial clusters Rafael Henrique Palma Lima 1 and Luiz Cesar Ribeiro Carpinetti 2 Department of Production Engineering

More information

EXECUTIVE MASTER IN. Increasing corporate value in today s complex digital world through reputation management and communication with stakeholders.

EXECUTIVE MASTER IN. Increasing corporate value in today s complex digital world through reputation management and communication with stakeholders. EXECUTIVE MASTER IN CORPORATE COMMUNICATION Increasing corporate value in today s complex digital world through reputation management and communication with stakeholders. COURSE DESCRIPTION At a Glance

More information

Teaching Notes for the Case Study Insurance Broker Network (InBroNet): Selecting Partners, Evaluating Practices

Teaching Notes for the Case Study Insurance Broker Network (InBroNet): Selecting Partners, Evaluating Practices Teaching Notes for the Case Study Insurance Broker Network (InBroNet): Selecting Partners, Evaluating Practices in: Sydow, Schüßler, Müller-Seitz (2016): Managing Inter-Organizational Relations. Debates

More information

CHAOS, COMPLEXITY, AND FLOCKING BEHAVIOR: METAPHORS FOR LEARNING

CHAOS, COMPLEXITY, AND FLOCKING BEHAVIOR: METAPHORS FOR LEARNING GIVING WINGS TO NEW IDEAS Wingspread Journal, Summer 1996 CHAOS, COMPLEXITY, AND FLOCKING BEHAVIOR: METAPHORS FOR LEARNING by Stephanie Pace Marshall Sir Isaac Newton saw the universe as an orderly clock.

More information

The Construction of Organizational Structure : Connections with Autopoietic Systems Theory

The Construction of Organizational Structure : Connections with Autopoietic Systems Theory Contemporary Management Research Pages 105-116,Vol.2, No.2, September 2006 The Construction of Organizational Structure : Connections with Autopoietic Systems Theory Kumudinei Dissanayake Meiji University

More information

1.1 The subject displays a good level of craftsmanship and a significant focus on technical expertise.

1.1 The subject displays a good level of craftsmanship and a significant focus on technical expertise. Recommendations to the Higher Arts Education Institutions, the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education and the Ministry of education and Science, Lithuania Overview Report of the Applied Arts Accreditation

More information

WHITE PAPER Communities of Practice, Social Capital and Organizational Knowledge

WHITE PAPER Communities of Practice, Social Capital and Organizational Knowledge WHITE PAPER Communities of Practice, Social Capital and Organizational Knowledge by Eric Lesser & Larry Prusak IBM Institute for Knowledge Management August 1999 INSTITUTE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Sponsored

More information

Bridging Micro and Macro Domains: Workforce Differentiation and Strategic Human Resource Management

Bridging Micro and Macro Domains: Workforce Differentiation and Strategic Human Resource Management Special Issue: Bridging Micro and Macro Domains Journal of Management Vol. 37 No. 2, March 2011 421-428 DOI: 10.1177/0149206310373400 The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permission: http://www. sagepub.com/journalspermissions.nav

More information

STRATEGIC HR REVIEW FROM SHARED SERVICES TO PROFESSIONAL SERVICES

STRATEGIC HR REVIEW FROM SHARED SERVICES TO PROFESSIONAL SERVICES STRATEGIC HR REVIEW FROM SHARED SERVICES TO PROFESSIONAL SERVICES Dave Ulrich Professor,, University of Michigan and Partner, the RBL Group Joe Grochowski Managing Director, the RBL Group Copyright the

More information

12 Interorganizational Networks Among Community-Based Organizations

12 Interorganizational Networks Among Community-Based Organizations 12 Interorganizational Networks Among Community-Based Organizations Héctor R. Cordero-Guzmán Baruch College CUNY In recent years there has been growing interest among communitybased organizations (CBOs),

More information

A CULTURAL APPROACH TO STUDY CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM) SYSTEMS

A CULTURAL APPROACH TO STUDY CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM) SYSTEMS A CULTURAL APPROACH TO STUDY CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM) SYSTEMS Maged A. A. Ali Information Systems and Computing Department Brunel University, UK Maged.Abdelsalam@brunel.ac.uk Sarmad Alshawi

More information

Knowledge dynamics, firm specificities and sources for innovation

Knowledge dynamics, firm specificities and sources for innovation Knowledge dynamics, firm specificities and sources for innovation Jerker Moodysson CIRCLE, Lund University Presentation at the seminar Regional innovation in a global economy, University of Stavanger,

More information

The primary goal of this thesis was to understand how the spatial dependence of

The primary goal of this thesis was to understand how the spatial dependence of 5 General discussion 5.1 Introduction The primary goal of this thesis was to understand how the spatial dependence of consumer attitudes can be modeled, what additional benefits the recovering of spatial

More information

M.S. IN BUSINESS: REAL ESTATE & URBAN LAND ECONOMICS PROPOSED NEW NAMED OPTION: GLOBAL REAL ESTATE

M.S. IN BUSINESS: REAL ESTATE & URBAN LAND ECONOMICS PROPOSED NEW NAMED OPTION: GLOBAL REAL ESTATE M.S. IN BUSINESS: REAL ESTATE & URBAN LAND ECONOMICS PROPOSED NEW NAMED OPTION: GLOBAL REAL ESTATE This proposal addresses adding a named option to the major Business: Real Estate and Urban Land Economics

More information

7 Conclusions and suggestions for further research

7 Conclusions and suggestions for further research 7 Conclusions and suggestions for further research This research has devised an approach to analyzing system-level coordination from the point of view of product architecture. The analysis was conducted

More information

MASTER IN. Increasing corporate value in today s complex digital world through reputation management and communication with stakeholders.

MASTER IN. Increasing corporate value in today s complex digital world through reputation management and communication with stakeholders. MASTER IN CORPORATE COMMUNICATION Increasing corporate value in today s complex digital world through reputation management and communication with stakeholders. COURSE DESCRIPTION At a Glance COURSES ANALYTICAL

More information

Meeting the degree requirements is the student s responsibility.

Meeting the degree requirements is the student s responsibility. ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS Please note that these requirements apply to students entering Vesalius College during the academic year 2014/15. Students who entered in previous years are bound by the requirements

More information

Programme Study Plan

Programme Study Plan Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT Programme Study Plan Master Programme in Global Media Studies Programme Code: Programme Title: Programme Approval SAGMS Master Programme in Global Media

More information

UNDERSTANDING EXPLORATORY USE

UNDERSTANDING EXPLORATORY USE UNDERSTANDING EXPLORATORY USE OF ERP SYSTEMS 1 Rui D. Sousa Terry College of Business University of Georgia rsousa@uga.edu Dale L. Goodhue Terry College of Business University of Georgia dgoodhue@terry.uga.edu

More information

2015 COES Annual Conference Urban and Territorial Conflicts: Contesting Social Cohesion? (Santiago de Chile, November 17-20, 2015)

2015 COES Annual Conference Urban and Territorial Conflicts: Contesting Social Cohesion? (Santiago de Chile, November 17-20, 2015) 2015 COES Annual Conference Urban and Territorial Conflicts: Contesting Social Cohesion? (Santiago de Chile, November 17-20, 2015) Following the 2014 COES Annual Conference on Social Movements in Latin

More information

Description of the program

Description of the program Study program Faculty Cycle Public Administration Public Administration and Political Sciences Undergraduate ECTS 180 Offered in Tetovo and Skopje Description of the program The program for Public Administration

More information

An Oracle White Paper September 2009. Generation Y: The Builders of Tomorrow s Business

An Oracle White Paper September 2009. Generation Y: The Builders of Tomorrow s Business An Oracle White Paper September 2009 Generation Y: The Builders of Tomorrow s Business Introduction... 1 Who are Digital Natives?... 3 Generation Y and Loyalty... 4 Going Beyond Generational Shifts...

More information

On the Relationship between Empowerment, Social Capital and Community-Driven Development. by Christiaan Grootaert

On the Relationship between Empowerment, Social Capital and Community-Driven Development. by Christiaan Grootaert August 11, 2003 On the Relationship between Empowerment, Social Capital and Community-Driven Development by Christiaan Grootaert The purpose of this brief note is to provide some thoughts on the conceptual

More information

Chapter 2 Study on Functional Mechanism and Effectiveness of Land Ticket System in the Process of New-Type Urbanization

Chapter 2 Study on Functional Mechanism and Effectiveness of Land Ticket System in the Process of New-Type Urbanization Chapter 2 Study on Functional Mechanism and Effectiveness of Land Ticket System in the Process of New-Type Urbanization Jiangtao Fang Abstract Most districts of China have already taken measurements in

More information

Governance as Stewardship: Decentralization and Sustainable Human Development

Governance as Stewardship: Decentralization and Sustainable Human Development Governance as Stewardship: Decentralization and Sustainable Human Development by Jerry VanSant Research Triangle Institute USA EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Introduction The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

More information

Chapter 2 The Control System of the Firm

Chapter 2 The Control System of the Firm Chapter 2 The Control System of the Firm Abstract Purpose: The aim of this chapter is to review the arguments for internal control systems. This will be done by providing an account of theories that explain

More information

Programme Regulations 2015 16 Business Administration with pathways in Human Resource Management, International Business and Marketing.

Programme Regulations 2015 16 Business Administration with pathways in Human Resource Management, International Business and Marketing. Programme Regulations 2015 16 Business Administration with pathways in Human Resource Management, International Business and Marketing BSc Important document please read This document contains important

More information

Innovation and Impact: Renewing the Promise of the Public Research University

Innovation and Impact: Renewing the Promise of the Public Research University Innovation and Impact: Renewing the Promise of the Public Research University I. Context and Vision Innovation and Impact: An Enduring Mission UMass Amherst is a great public research university, with

More information

LOCAL FOOD CONSUMERS: HOW MOTIVATIONS AND PERCEPTIONS TRANSLATE TO BUYING BEHAVIOR

LOCAL FOOD CONSUMERS: HOW MOTIVATIONS AND PERCEPTIONS TRANSLATE TO BUYING BEHAVIOR 1st Quarter 2010 25(1) LOCAL FOOD CONSUMERS: HOW MOTIVATIONS AND PERCEPTIONS TRANSLATE TO BUYING BEHAVIOR Yuko Onozaka, Gretchen Nurse, and Dawn Thilmany McFadden Emerging market demand for local foods

More information

Social Science A Common Core of Standards [27.200]

Social Science A Common Core of Standards [27.200] Social Science A Common Core of Standards [27.200] All social science teachers shall be required to demonstrate competence in the common core of social science standards. In addition, each social science

More information

Students Association of Mount Royal University Strategic Plan 2014-18

Students Association of Mount Royal University Strategic Plan 2014-18 Students Association of Mount Royal University Strategic Plan 2014-18 Contents Purpose... 3 Background... 3 Process & Methodology... 3 Mission, Vision, Values, Beliefs... 4 SAMRU Values & Beliefs... 5

More information

Sridhar P Nerur University of Texas at Arlington snerur@uta.edu

Sridhar P Nerur University of Texas at Arlington snerur@uta.edu ADOPTION OF NEWER SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES: AN INSTITUTIONAL THEORY PERSPECTIVE George A Mangalaraj University of Texas at Arlington mangalaraj@uta.edu Sridhar P Nerur University of Texas at

More information

ICC 105 19 Rev. 1. 16 October 2012 Original: English. International Coffee Council 109 th Session 24 28 September 2012 London, United Kingdom

ICC 105 19 Rev. 1. 16 October 2012 Original: English. International Coffee Council 109 th Session 24 28 September 2012 London, United Kingdom ICC 105 19 Rev. 1 16 October 2012 Original: English E International Coffee Council 109 th Session 24 28 September 2012 London, United Kingdom Strategic action plan for the International Coffee Organization

More information

What we have learned: Managing Invention and Innovation. Edward B.Roberts

What we have learned: Managing Invention and Innovation. Edward B.Roberts What we have learned: Managing Invention and Innovation Edward B.Roberts Agenda Invention and Innovation Staffing Considerations Organization Structure Strategy Conclusion Is this an invention or innovation?

More information

Preface. A Plea for Cultural Histories of Migration as Seen from a So-called Euro-region

Preface. A Plea for Cultural Histories of Migration as Seen from a So-called Euro-region Preface A Plea for Cultural Histories of Migration as Seen from a So-called Euro-region The Centre for the History of Intercultural Relations (CHIR), which organised the conference of which this book is

More information

THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES POLITICAL SCIENCE PROGRAM HANDBOOK

THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES POLITICAL SCIENCE PROGRAM HANDBOOK THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES POLITICAL SCIENCE PROGRAM HANDBOOK MAY 2015 Political Science Objectives 1. To study the structure and functions of government. 2. To understand political

More information

Framework. Australia s Aid Program to Papua New Guinea

Framework. Australia s Aid Program to Papua New Guinea Framework Australia s Aid Program to Papua New Guinea 21 October 2002 Our Unique Development Partnership our close bilateral ties are reflected in our aid program Enduring ties bind Papua New Guinea with

More information

Comparison of Change Theories

Comparison of Change Theories VOLUME 8 NUMBER 1 2004-2005 Comparison of Change Theories Alicia Kritsonis MBA Graduate Student California State University, Dominquez Hills ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to summarize several

More information

Introducing Social Psychology

Introducing Social Psychology Introducing Social Psychology Theories and Methods in Social Psychology 27 Feb 2012, Banu Cingöz Ulu What is social psychology? A field within psychology that strives to understand the social dynamics

More information

THEME 9: GROWTH STRATEGIES

THEME 9: GROWTH STRATEGIES THEME 9: GROWTH STRATEGIES 1st Part: Vertical integration and Scope of the Firm 2nd Part: Internal and external growth 1st Part: Vertical Integration and The Scope of the Firm Vertical Integration and

More information

Health Policy and Management Course Descriptions

Health Policy and Management Course Descriptions Health Policy and Management Course Descriptions HPM 500 (2) Introduction to the US Health Care System Fall, spring. Required for all MPH students. Introduces students to the US health care system, both

More information

DRAFT THE CONTEXT: NORTHEASTERN 2015

DRAFT THE CONTEXT: NORTHEASTERN 2015 DRAFT NORTHEASTERN 2025: THE GLOBAL UNIVERSITY THE CONTEXT: NORTHEASTERN 2015 Northeastern University attracts students and faculty from around the world who value experiential learning as a cornerstone

More information

Greta Hsu. Graduate School of Management Phone 530 754-6942 University of California, Davis Fax 530 752-2924

Greta Hsu. Graduate School of Management Phone 530 754-6942 University of California, Davis Fax 530 752-2924 Greta Hsu Graduate School of Management Phone 530 754-6942 University of California, Davis Fax 530 752-2924 Davis, CA 95616 e-mail: grhsu@ucdavis.edu Education Stanford University Ph.D., Organizational

More information

Improving Distance Education: Perceptions of Program Administrators

Improving Distance Education: Perceptions of Program Administrators 1 of 5 Improving Distance Education: Perceptions of Program Administrators Dann E. Husmann Assistant Professor Department of Agricultural Leadership, Education and Communication University of Nebraska-Lincoln

More information

EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON BUSINESS SCHOOLS INTENTIONS TO OFFER E-COMMERCE DEGREE PROGRAMS

EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON BUSINESS SCHOOLS INTENTIONS TO OFFER E-COMMERCE DEGREE PROGRAMS EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON BUSINESS SCHOOLS INTENTIONS TO OFFER E-COMMERCE DEGREE PROGRAMS Dharam S. Rana College of Business Jackson State University E-mail: dsrana@jsums.edu Phone: 601-979-2973

More information

Clusters Models, Factors and Characteristics

Clusters Models, Factors and Characteristics Clusters Models, Factors and Characteristics by Catalin Boja Economic Informatics and Cybernetics Department The Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies catalin.boja@ie.ase.ro Abstract. The industrial cluster

More information

Industrial Districts of Italy: Local-Network Economies in a Global-Market Web. T o E n i o B e n e d e t t i

Industrial Districts of Italy: Local-Network Economies in a Global-Market Web. T o E n i o B e n e d e t t i Industrial Districts of Italy: Local-Network Economies in a Global-Market Web T o E n i o B e n e d e t t i Industrial districts, flexible specialization or Third Italy represent a well known phenomenon

More information

WARSAW SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS

WARSAW SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS WARSAW SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS mgr Ewelina Florczak The summary of doctoral dissertation THE TITLE SOCIAL ENTERPRISE IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENT 1 Rationale topic A social enterprise as a business entity is subject

More information

Facilitator Agencies in Higher Education: Present Status and Prospects

Facilitator Agencies in Higher Education: Present Status and Prospects Facilitator Agencies in Higher Education: Present Status and Prospects Motohisa KANEKO Center for National University Finance and Management Helping Universities to be Effective and Viable: Missions of

More information

The Role of Reputation in Professional Service Firms. Novak druce centre insights No. 6

The Role of Reputation in Professional Service Firms. Novak druce centre insights No. 6 The Role of Reputation in Professional Service Firms Novak druce centre insights No. 6 contents 01 Introduction 02 the Relationship between Reputation & Quality in Professional Service Firms (PSFs) 04

More information

Philadelphia County. Land Use and Growth Management Profile

Philadelphia County. Land Use and Growth Management Profile Philadelphia County is located in the southeastern corner of Pennsylvania and is bordered by the Pennsylvania counties of Delaware, Montgomery, and Bucks, and the New Jersey counties of Burlington, Camden,

More information

The Open University s repository of research publications and other research outputs

The Open University s repository of research publications and other research outputs Open Research Online The Open University s repository of research publications and other research outputs The search of a new logic of public administration reforms: the case of metropolitan areas in Italy

More information

INTRODUCTION THE 2ND EUROPEAN YOUTH WORK CONVENTION

INTRODUCTION THE 2ND EUROPEAN YOUTH WORK CONVENTION INTRODUCTION This Declaration, prepared within the framework of the Belgian Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, is addressed to the Member States of the Council of Europe,

More information

BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE MATURITY AND THE QUEST FOR BETTER PERFORMANCE

BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE MATURITY AND THE QUEST FOR BETTER PERFORMANCE WHITE PAPER BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE MATURITY AND THE QUEST FOR BETTER PERFORMANCE Why most organizations aren t realizing the full potential of BI and what successful organizations do differently Research

More information

ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE. Students what do you all think Organizational Culture is? Can you all define it in your own way.

ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE. Students what do you all think Organizational Culture is? Can you all define it in your own way. Lesson:-35 ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE Students what do you all think Organizational Culture is? Can you all define it in your own way. In the 1980's, we saw an increase in the attention paid to organizational

More information

Selznick, P. (1948). Foundations of the Theory of Organization.

Selznick, P. (1948). Foundations of the Theory of Organization. Topic Theorists & Theories Integration Classical Henri Fayol, - General Principles of Management Frederick Winslow Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management Max Weber, Conceptualization of Bureaucracy

More information

Declining Business Dynamism in the United States: A Look at States and Metros

Declining Business Dynamism in the United States: A Look at States and Metros May 2014 Declining Business Dynamism in the United : A Look at and Ian Hathaway* (Ennsyte Economics) Robert E. Litan () Abstract Business dynamism is the process by which firms continually are born, fail,

More information

Werte lernen und leben

Werte lernen und leben Bertelsmann Stiftung (Hrsg.) Werte lernen und leben Theorie und Praxis der Wertebildung in Deutschland Abstract Values play an important part in our lives. As a representation of what is desirable, they

More information

Training Professionals in Trade Policy Development Advocacy and Negotiation - The Training Challenge in Commercial Diplomacy

Training Professionals in Trade Policy Development Advocacy and Negotiation - The Training Challenge in Commercial Diplomacy Training Professionals in Trade Policy Development Advocacy and Negotiation - The Training Challenge in Commercial Diplomacy Geza Feketekuty The expansion of trade brought about by the reduction of trade

More information

WHITE PAPER: ANALYSIS OF SUCCESSFUL SUPPLY CHAIN ORGANIZATION MODELS

WHITE PAPER: ANALYSIS OF SUCCESSFUL SUPPLY CHAIN ORGANIZATION MODELS WHITE PAPER: ANALYSIS OF SUCCESSFUL SUPPLY CHAIN ORGANIZATION MODELS Enporion, Inc. March, 2009 www.enporion.com SUPPLY CHAIN ORGANIZATION MODELS THAT DRIVE SUCCESS To ensure success in your supply chain

More information

1 INTRODUCTION: HEALTH SEEKING ACTIONS THE FOCUS AND ITS RELEVANCE

1 INTRODUCTION: HEALTH SEEKING ACTIONS THE FOCUS AND ITS RELEVANCE 1 INTRODUCTION: HEALTH SEEKING ACTIONS THE FOCUS AND ITS RELEVANCE 1.1 RESEARCH FOCUS, RESEARCH QUESTIONS, OBJECTIVES, AND STRUCTURE Research on health seeking is dominated by empirical studies in developed

More information

Asking Essential Questions

Asking Essential Questions The Miniature Guide to The Art of Asking Essential Questions by Dr. Linda Elder and Dr. Richard Paul Based on Critical Thinking Concepts and Socratic Principles The Foundation for Critical Thinking The

More information

The Strategic Operating Plan of The Internet Society. Part I Strategy

The Strategic Operating Plan of The Internet Society. Part I Strategy The Strategic Operating Plan of The Internet Society Part I Strategy Our Vision The Internet Society believes that the Internet is for everyone. From its inception the purpose of the Internet Society has

More information

Community Policing. Defined

Community Policing. Defined Community Policing Defined The Primary Elements of Community Policing Nonprof its / Service Providers Using the Crime Triangle Community policing is a philosophy that promotes organizational strategies

More information

Mapping a Social Foundation of HRD: A Framework for Theoretical Development. Russell Korte. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Mapping a Social Foundation of HRD: A Framework for Theoretical Development. Russell Korte. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1 Running head: SOCIAL FOUNDATION OF HRD Mapping a Social Foundation of HRD: A Framework for Theoretical Development Russell Korte University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Copyright 2010 Russell Korte

More information

Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC) and Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy Standards and Accreditation Standards (CSWE-EPAS)

Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC) and Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy Standards and Accreditation Standards (CSWE-EPAS) (CTC) and Educational Policy Standards and Accreditation Standards (CSWE-) Standards Crosswalk June 2013 An institution that is offering a nationally accredited Pupil Personnel Services: School Social

More information

LEADERSHIP IN THE DIGITAL AGE

LEADERSHIP IN THE DIGITAL AGE LEADERSHIP IN THE DIGITAL AGE Ernest J. Wilson III To Appear in The Encyclopedia of Leadership George R. Goethals, Georgia Sorenson, James MacGregor Burns INTRODUCTION New Social Structures Are Generating

More information

Program Competency & Learning Objectives Rubric (Student Version)

Program Competency & Learning Objectives Rubric (Student Version) Program Competency & Learning Objectives Rubric (Student Version) Program Competency #1 Prepare Community Data for Public Health Analyses and Assessments - Student 1A1. Identifies the health status of

More information

DevelopingLeaders. Building Towers of Babel? Roland Deiser Considers Corporate University Structures. Executive Education in Practice

DevelopingLeaders. Building Towers of Babel? Roland Deiser Considers Corporate University Structures. Executive Education in Practice DevelopingLeaders Issue 9: 2012 Executive Education in Practice Leadership + Strategy Lonza and St. Gallen Find the Formula Choosing the Right CEO Hay Group All Change at Vlerick Dean Philip Haspeslagh

More information