1 WHITE PAPER Communities of Practice, Social Capital and Organizational Knowledge by Eric Lesser & Larry Prusak IBM Institute for Knowledge Management August 1999
2 INSTITUTE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Sponsored by IBM and Lotus, The Institute for Knowledge Management is devoted to basic and applied research on how organizations develop and use value-creating knowledge. IKM Executive Director: Laurence Prusak Editor: Don Cohen Editorial Assistant: Jonathan Kinghorn Design and Production: AARTPACK, Inc. (www.aartpack.com) Institute and Editorial Offices: 55 Cambridge Parkway Cambridge, MA Website: Accepted for publication in the Information Systems Review Not for reproduction without permission from the copyright holder Copyright 1999, IBM. All rights reserved.
3 Introduction Within all organizations, there exists a formal structure that is described by boxes, arrows, documented policies and procedures. This formal structure may be contrasted with a less formal environment that is more based on self-organized group interaction and individual relationships. Behind every organization chart lie informal clusters and networks of employees who work together sharing knowledge, solving common problems and exchanging insights, stories and frustrations. When appropriately supported by the formal organization these communities of practice, as they are often called, play a critical role: they are the major building blocks in creating, sharing and applying organizational knowledge. Organizations ranging from British Petroleum to the World Bank have begun to invest time, energy and money in supporting their communities of practice, viewing these communities as vehicles for managing their organizational knowledge. A common question asked by these organizations is How should we best allocate our resources to assist these informal communities, manage knowledge and ultimately derive value for the rest of the organization? Before this question can be answered, a prior question must be addressed: What are the mechanisms by which communities of practice impact knowledge creation, sharing and use? When we consider this question, we converge on a related topic emerging in the economic and sociological literatures: social capital. Social capital, as we will discuss later, refers to the social resources individuals within a community draw upon and provide value to themselves and their organizations. These social resources include common identity, familiarity, trust, and a degree of shared language and context among individuals. These resources manifest themselves in a variety of ways, including reducing the time it takes to locate an expert within an organization, minimizing the costs associated with validating expertise, and reducing the time and effort associated with developing and monitoring an agreement between individuals in an organization. All of these activities enable an organization to better manage its knowledge resources. Much like financial or human capital, social capital can be fostered and tapped as needed to enable individuals to perform their jobs more efficiently and effectively. In this paper, we hypothesize that communities of practice are valuable to organizations because they contribute to the development of social capital, which in turn is a necessary condition for knowledge creation, sharing and use. Drawing upon the literature, and our own experience, we will attempt to demonstrate the linkages between communities of practice, social capital and knowledge management. Also, we will explore implications for managers attempting to undertake knowledge management efforts and identify methods for leveraging communities within their own organization. Communities of Practice Communities of practice are defined as collections of individuals bound by
4 informal relationships that share similar work roles and a common context. 1 Each of the words in this definition merits close consideration. First, the term community highlights the personal basis upon which relationships are formed. The word further suggests that communities of practice are not constrained by typical geographic, business unit or functional boundaries, but rather by common tasks, contexts, and work interests. Second, the word practice implies knowledge in action. 2 The concept of practice as used here, is the representation of how individuals actually perform their jobs on a day-to-day basis, as opposed to more formal policies and procedures that reflect the way work should be performed. Further, the term practice refers to the dynamic process through which individuals learn how to do their jobs by actually performing tasks and interacting with others performing similar tasks. Etienne Wenger, an authority on the subject, states that, Learning reflects our participation in communities of practice. If learning is a matter of engagement in socially defined practices, the communities that share these practices play an important role in shaping learning. The communities that matter are not always the most easily identifiable, because they often remain informal. 3 Communities of practice differ notably from conventional units of organization, such as teams or work groups. Teams and groups have a task orientation, are often launched for a specific purpose, and have formal requirements for membership. Communities, by contrast, have an informal membership that is often fluid and self-organizing in nature. John Seely Brown from Xerox PARC and Paul Duguid at the University of California at Berkeley, two leading researchers in this field, state that, Group theory, in general, focuses on groups as canonical (reliant on formal rules and tasks), bounded entities that lie within an organization, and that are organized, or at least sanctioned by that organization and its view of tasks. The communities (of practice) that we discern, are by contrast, often noncanonical and not formally recognized by the organization. They are more fluid and interpenetrative than bounded...and significantly, communities are emergent. That is to say their share and membership emerges in the process of activity, as opposed to being created to carry out a task. 4 Communities of practice exist within all organizations. These range from the peer groups of drilling specialists within British Petroleum 5 to poverty specialists at the World Bank to the insurance claims processors documented in Etienne Wenger s recent book, Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. 6 They are formed over time by individuals with a need to associate themselves with others facing similar issues and challenges within an organization. In most organizations, they exist without formal charters or organizational mandates. However, many companies are beginning to recognize
5 that these communities can be supported and leveraged to benefit the membership of communities and the organization as a whole. Social Capital Social capital has recently gained acceptance in the eyes of both sociologists and economists. In the past, significant attention has been paid to the development of human capital how individuals obtain the education, skills and background necessary to be productive in a competitive labor market. However, sociologists such as James Coleman, Ron Burt and Mark Granovetter argue that there is much more to explaining the differences in individual success than individual characteristics alone. This school of thought argues that even in new institutional economics, there is a failure to recognize the importance of concrete personal relationships and networks of relations in generating trust, in establishing expectations, and in creating and enforcing norms. 7 To address these failures in standard economic theory, the concept of social capital, the web of social relationships that influences individual behavior and thereby affects economic growth, was developed. 8 Social capital theory has been used to explain a number of phenomena, ranging from social policy issues in inner city housing projects to economic development in Northern Italy. 9 In a recent article, Social Capital, Intellectual Capital, and the Organizational Advantage Janine Nahapiet at the University of Oxford and Sumantra Ghoshal at the London Business School have attempted to link social capital at the organizational level with the organization s ability to manage its knowledge resources. They define social capital as, the sum of the actual and potential resources embedded within, available through, and derived from the network of relationships possessed by an individual or social unit. 10 The authors further identify social capital as having three interrelated dimensions: structural, relational and cognitive. 11 The structural dimension refers to the formation of informal networks that enable individuals to identify others with potential resources. These networks include relationships with strong ties (those with multiple contacts on a regular basis) and weak ties (individuals whose contact occurs less frequently). Overall, the structural dimension of social capital reflects the need for individuals to reach out to others within an organization to seek out resources that they may not have at their own disposal. While having a network of individuals is a critical part in developing social capital, equally as important are the interpersonal dynamics between individuals within the network. This relational dimension addresses issues around trust, shared norms and values, obligations, expectations and identification that are critical in developing social capital among members of a group. Francis Fukuyama, in his recent book entitled Trust, states, Trust is the expectation that arrives within a community of regular,
6 honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms on the part of other members of that community Social capital is the capability that arises from the prevalence of trust in a society or in certain parts of it. It can be embodied in the smallest and most basic social group, the family, as well as the largest of all groups, the nation and in all the other groups in between. Social capital differs from other forms of human capital insofar as it is usually created and transmitted through cultural mechanisms like religion, tradition or historical habit. 12 This relational dimension recognizes that social capital is developed and fostered when individuals believe that their actions will be appropriately reciprocated, and that individuals will meet their expected obligations. The final dimension in the authors construct is the cognitive dimension. The cognitive dimension addresses the need for a common context and language to build social capital. Without a common understanding or vocabulary, it is difficult to construct the connections necessary to create and foster social capital. Building a common context can be done through two mechanisms. The first mechanism is the shared use of common objects and artifacts. These objects, such as documents, procedure manuals and memos provide a shared reference point that others can quickly understand. Another technique is the use of stories that convey a sense of shared history and context which is retransmitted and carried on by others in the organization. Nahapiet and Ghoshal developed a model that illustrates how these three dimensions influence four variables that mediate the creation and sharing of intellectual capital (what we refer to as organizational knowledge). These four variables include: access to parties for combining/exchanging intellectual capital, the anticipation of value through combining/exchanging intellectual capital, the motivation of individuals to combine/share intellectual capital and the ability of the organization to change according to the needs of its outside environment. 13 They hypothesize that increasing the amount of social capital within an organization will positively influence the intermediate variables and subsequently impact the creation and sharing of organizational knowledge. In a follow-up study, Ghoshal and Wenpin Tsai test this theoretical construct in a large multinational electronics company. 14 Using product innovation as a proxy for knowledge creation and sharing, the authors found that social capital had significant effects on the levels of resource exchange and combination within the organization. While this study was limited to the results of one organization, it further reinforced the concept that social capital has a significant impact on the way organizations create and share knowledge. Linking Social Capital and Communities of Practice If we assume that the presence of social capital has a positive impact on knowledge creation, sharing and use, then how do communities of practice serve as a vehicle for building social capital? Using the three dimensions described previously (structural, relational and cognitive) we can illustrate how communities play a critical role in
7 fostering the development of social capital. Structural dimension Communities of practice provide the opportunity for individuals to develop a network of individuals who have similar interests. This manifests itself in several ways. First, the community serves as an intra-network clearinghouse by identifying those with relevant knowledge and helping individuals within the community make connections with one another. This is particularly valuable as the organization grows and goes virtual and individuals find it increasingly difficult to know who knows what. Second, the community acts as a reference mechanism, quickly enabling individuals to evaluate the knowledge of other members without having to contact each individual within the network. Lastly, the community of practice can help connect individuals from outside the network to those who are already identified as community members. This function can be critical, especially for new employees who are looking to identify individuals who hold the firm-specific knowledge needed to be successful in their new roles. Relational dimension Communities of practice foster the interpersonal interactions necessary to build a sense of trust and obligations critical to building social capital. By being able to bring people together to create and share relevant knowledge, the community creates the condition where individuals can test the trustworthiness and commitment of other community members. Through this process, the community builds its own form of informal currency, with norms and values that are commonly held and terms and conditions of payment that are generally accepted. It is through these repeated interactions that individuals can develop empathy for the situations of others and can develop the rapport with individuals in the community. Cognitive dimension Because they tend to be organized around a common issue or theme, communities of practice are instrumental in maintaining the shared vernacular used by their members. First, communities of practice help shape the actual terminology used by group members in everyday work conversations. In addition, they generate and share the knowledge objects or artifacts that are used by community members. Equally as important, communities generate stories that communicate the norms and values of the community and of the organization as a whole. These stories enable new members to take cues from more experienced personnel and allow the development of a community memory that perpetuates itself long after the original community members have departed. Implications for managers Communities of practice play an instrumental role in developing the structural, relational and cognitive dimensions of social capital. These dimensions, in turn, lead to an increased ability to manage organizational knowledge. Managers seeking to increase the level of social capital via these communities of practice should consider the following rules of thumb: Identify communities of practice that influence critical goals within the organization.
8 Within a given organization, there may be a large number of communities. Many of these will exist independently. When identifying communities to which resources should be applied, the organization should select those that have a direct impact on the organization s strategic objectives. In a pharmaceutical company, for example, a community of practice focused on regulatory approval issues might be a primary target for initial community assistance. In a software development company, a community of Java developers might be a likely candidate. Provide communities with the means to meet face-to-face. In many geographically dispersed organizations, communities of practice are challenged and constrained by the lack of opportunity to make the direct connections that foster each of the three dimensions of social capital. Allowing people to meet each other enables them to more quickly build the network of contacts within the community, foster interactions that allow for trust building, and share knowledge artifacts and stories that build a common context among participants. Without these face-to-face encounters, the process of community building becomes less effective and less likely to benefit the organization as a whole. Provide tools that enable the community to identify new members and maintain contact with existing members. Technology can play an important role in supporting communities of practice. Tools such as personal web pages, directories of expertise and knowledge maps can help individuals locate others with similar interests and experiences, fostering the network component of social capital. Same-time collaborative tools such as chat rooms and videoconferences can help community members maintain connections, and foster interactions that lead to increased trust and context sharing. In addition, knowledge repositories can play an important role in helping community members maintain and refine their stock of knowledge artifacts, and can enable community members to quickly and easily access representations of the community memory. Identify key experts within the community and enable them to provide support to the larger group. Within most communities, there often exists a select group of individuals whom others in the community seek out for their expertise. These experts play a critical role in the community. Not only do they provide organizational wisdom, but they function as intermediaries, directing individuals to others in the network who may have even more relevant knowledge. These experts are often not recognized within the formal organization performing this function in parallel with their normal day-to-day work. We have seen leading organizations begin to identify these individuals, and give them time and resources to more efficiently create and share community knowledge with others in the organization. Remember that the capital, in social capital, implies an investment model with an expected return. Communities of practice are naturally present in all organizations. However, for these communities to exploit the type of social capital required to effectively create, share and use organizational knowledge, they often require outside investment from the formal organization as a whole. Such investments can enable existing communities to be more effective, efficient and/or innovative. Investment may take many forms, ranging from money for face-to-face meetings, technology to support
9 distributed communities, to enabling experts to spend time providing assistance to others in the network. These are all tangible investments and, when focused appropriately, can pay dividends in terms of stronger, more vibrant communities. Conclusion Communities of practice play a critical role in the day-to-day activities of organizations. One of their key functions is to build social capital among organization members, which in turn enables community members to more effectively manage their organizational knowledge. In this paper, we have attempted to illustrate the important linkages between communities of practice and social capital. Further, we have provided managers with some guidelines on how to best support the growth of social capital within communities. We hope that these insights will help organizations further their ability to manage their knowledge and lead to improved organizational performance. Endnotes 1 Snyder, William M., Communities of Practice: Combining Organizational Learning and Strategy Insights to Create a Bridge to the 21 st Century, Presented at the 1997 Academy of Management Conference, p Ibid, p Wenger, Etienne, Communities of Practice: The Social Fabric of a Learning Organization, Healthcare Forum Journal (39:4) July/August, 1996, p Brown, John S. and Paul Duguid, Organizational learning and Communities of practice: Toward A Unified View of Working, Learning and Innovation, Organizing Science (2:1), February, 1991, p Prokesh, Steven, Unleashing the Powers of Learning: An Interview With British Petroleum s John Browne, Harvard Business Review (75:5), September-October, 1997, pp Wenger, Etienne, Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identify, (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998). 7 Coleman, James, Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital, American Journal of Sociology, (94 Supplement), p Pennar, Karen, The Ties That Lead to prosperity, Business Week, December 15, 1997, p Ibid, p. 154.
10 10 Nahapiet, Janine and Ghoshal, Sumantra, Social Capital, Intellectual Capital and the organizational Advantage, Academy of Management Review (23:2), April, 1998, p Ibid, p Fukuyama, Francis, Trust: The Social Virtues and The Creation of Prosperity, (New York: Penguin Books, 1995),p Op. Cit., Nahapiet and Ghoshal, p Tsai, Wenpin and Ghoshal, Sumantra, Social Capital and Value Creation: The Role of Intrafirm Networks, Academy of Management Review (41:4), August, 1998, p. 464.
Communities of practice and organizational performance by E. L. Lesser J. Storck As organizations grow in size, geographical scope, and complexity, it is increasingly apparent that sponsorship and support
Communities of Practice An Overview Fred Nickols Fred Nickols 2003 All rights reserved www.nickols.us firstname.lastname@example.org Introduction This overview lays out some basic information about Communities of Practice
Michael Beitler, Ph.D. A community of practice (CP) is a group of peers who share a passion for a particular field of knowledge. They are informally bound, and meet together faceto-face or electronically.
Evolving communities of practice: IBM Global Services experience by P. Gongla C. R. Rizzuto In 1995, IBM Global Services began implementing a business model that included support for the growth and development
SOA policy management White paper April 2009 Realizing business flexibility through integrated How integrated management supports business flexibility, consistency and accountability John Falkl, distinguished
44 SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS OF TEAM DYNAMICS AND INTRA-ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN AN AEROSPACE FIRM Kristie Ogilvie and Dimitris Assimakopoulos Grenoble Ecole de Management Europole, 12 rue Pierre Semard,
Leveraging Capital INTRODUCTION Leveraging knowledge capital in the Federal Government is increasingly critical today because: Reductions in staffing create a need to replace informal methods for sharing
ISO 27001: Information Security and the Road to Certification White paper Abstract An information security management system (ISMS) is an essential part of an organization s defense against cyberattacks
IBM Institute for Knowledge-Based Organizations Trust and knowledge sharing: A critical combination Recently, the IBM Institute for Knowledge-Based Organizations (IKO) studied the role of trust in knowledge
IBM Institute for Knowledge-Based Organizations Challenges in managing organizational knowledge The term knowledge management (KM) conjures up a number of images: a customer service representative accessing
The Effect of Virtual Community Participation on Online Purchase Intention: A Conceptual Model Hazliza Haron, Mohammed A. Razzaque, The University of New South Wales Abstract Online social networking refers
Professional Development Coordinator Competencies and Sample Indicators for the Improvement of Adult Education Programs A Publication of Building Professional Development Partnerships for Adult Educators
pm4dev, 2007 management for development series Introduction to Project Management PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS A methodology to manage
Global Co-Operation in the New Millennium The 9th European Conference on Information Systems Bled, Slovenia, June 27-29, 2001 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE REAL ESTATE INDUSTRY: RESULTS
BENCHMARK REPORT 2011 Social Marketing New research and insights on the monetization of social marketing for ROI sponsored by EXCERPT 2011 Social Marketing Benchmark Report New research and insights on
GLOBAL SUPPLY MANAGEMENT: Selecting the 'Right' Source Countries As shown on the next page: This study aims to help the reader decide on where to locate ones business by helping identify sourcing strategy,
Innovation Toolbox Networking PREPARED BY: Australian Institute for Commercialisation Queensland Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation and Jan 2010 Version 1.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS
IFAC Board Exposure Draft December 2013 Comments due: April 17, 2014 Proposed International Education Standard (IES) 8 Professional Competence for Engagement Partners Responsible for Audits of Financial
Knowledge Management through Communities of Practice Daniel M. Eveleth Professor of Management and Human Resources, University of Idaho 875 Perimeter Drive, Moscow, Idaho, 83844-3161, USA E-mail: email@example.com
Knowledge Management: A tool for Improving Government Performance Page 1 of 5 Knowledge Management: A tool for Improving Government Performance by Brian D. Murrow and Victoria Adams What is Knowledge Management?
A Blueprint for 21st Century Nursing Ethics: Report of the National Nursing Summit Executive Summary November 18, 2014 A Blueprint for 21st Century Nursing Ethics: Report of the National Nursing Summit
Governing Boards: Understanding the Expectations of the Middle States Commission on Higher Education Middle States Commission on Higher Education Governing Boards: Understanding the Expectations of the
The People Factor in Change Management Content Introduction... 3 Know your audience... 3 Address your audience...4 Train your audience... 5 Support your audience... 7 Future trends...8 2 Introduction Have
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND COOPERATION TECHNOLOGY G. De Michelis Dept. of Informatics, Systems and Communication, University of Milano Bicocca, Italy Keywords: Knowledge Management, Cooperation Technologies,
124 Pawel Korzynski The Role of Online Social Networks in Human Resources and Career Management,, pp. 124-133. The Role of Online Social Networks in Human Resources and Career Management Pawel Korzynski
Social Capital on Entrepreneurial Opportunity Recognition 1 Fatemeh Mohebi, 2 Ali Rabiee 1 Master of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran, 2 Assistant Professor, Communication and Media Dep, Payamenoor
Assessing the Opportunities Presented by the Modern Enterprise Archive Published: November 2015 Analysts: James Haight, Research Analyst; David Houlihan, Principal Analyst Report Number: A0193 Share This
Photo copyright 2012 Michael Krigsman. Business Transformation with Cloud ERP Prepared by Michael Krigsman February 2012 NetSuite sponsored this independent white paper; Asuret does not endorse any vendor
Special Issue on: Designing Internal Organization for External Knowledge Sourcing Call for papers Submission deadline: 30 th June 2010 Purpose The aim of this Special Issue is to shed light on the relationship
Knowledge Management Process: The Care and Feeding of Knowledge Workers Anna E. Flynn, Ph.D., C.P.M., Associate Professor and Research Associate ISM and CAPS Research 480-752-6276 Ext 3140; firstname.lastname@example.org
: Evaluator and Planning Team Job Descriptions I. Overview II. Sample Evaluator Job Description III. Evaluator Competencies IV. Recruiting members of your strategic evaluation planning team V. Recruiting
This is the author s version of a work that was submitted/accepted for publication in the following source: Gable, Guy (2006) The internet, globalization, and IT professional services. Journal of Global
Volunteer Management Capacity in America s Charities and Congregations A BRIEFING REPORT February 2004 The Urban Institute Citation: Urban Institute. 2004. Volunteer Management Capacity in America s Charities
Bridgework: An Effective Approach to Transition from Risk Assessment to Enterprise Risk Management @Copyright Cura Software. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be transmitted or copied without
Building a Transformative Network: IBM Virtual Learning Community Case Study Group Jazz supports the work of groups, whether they meet face-to-face, online, or both. We bring together the best tools, technologies,
INFORMATION PAPER Social Capital August 2003 CBS Network Services Limited Princes House 5 Shandwick Place Edinburgh EH2 4RG Tel: 0131 229 7257 Fax: 0131 221 9798 email: email@example.com website:
Case Study Using Knowledge: Advances in Expertise Location and Social Networking Best practices from IBM Global Business Services IBM provides business insight and IT solutions to help its clients become
Guidelines for Best Practices in Data Management Roles and Responsibilities September 2010 Data Architecture Advisory Committee A subcommittee of Information Architecture & Standards Branch Table of Contents
Guidance on applying for Corporate Chartered Status Chartered Financial Planners Please read these notes before completing the application form. They contain important instructions relating to any application
Activity: A specific action or process undertaken over a specific period of time by an organization to convert resources to products or services to achieve results. Related term: Project. Appraisal: An
APPLICATION NOTE Business Application Solutions Collaborating the way you want Overview Video collaboration is transforming from a conference room application with pre-defined use cases into a critical
Catherine Truss, David Mankin & Clare Kelliher Oxford University Press (2012) ISBN: 978-0199583065 Theme of the Book What makes a good HR strategy and how does one develop it? These are just two of the
Feature The Six Keys to Globally Strategic Payroll The Journey of High-Performing Companies in Efficiency and Innovation By John M. Gibbons, Jeitosa Group International The phrase globally strategic payroll
Analysis of Resilience in Offshore Logistics and Emergency Response Using a Theoretically Based Tool Ose G. O. 1, Ramstad L. S. 1 and Steiro T. J. 2 1 MARINTEK, Trondheim, Norway Grethe.Ose@marintek.sintef.no
Baker & McKenzie LLP is a member firm of Baker & McKenzie International, a Swiss Verein with member law firms around the world. In accordance with the common terminology used in professional service organizations,
Our Alma Mater: The AMS Strategic Framework Purpose The Alma Mater Society exists to serve the aspirations of UBC students. Being a UBC student is harder than ever before. The costs of school and living,
Copyright Rational Software 2003 http://www.therationaledge.com/content/jan_03/f_cmmi_rr.jsp Using Rational Software Solutions to Achieve CMMI Level 2 by Rolf W. Reitzig Founder, Cognence, Inc. Over the
CRITICAL AND CREATIVE THINKING RUBRIC GRADUATE PROGRAMS Adapted from the AACU LEAP rubrics, the Bases of Competence skills, Ontario Council of Academic Vice-Presidents Graduate Degree Level Expectations,
Solution Brief IBM WebSphere Operational Decision Management Improve business outcomes with real-time, intelligent decision automation Highlights Simplify decision governance and visibility with a unified
Kate Ehrlich 1 and Inga Carboni 2 Introduction A management consulting firm hopes to win a lucrative contract with a large international financial institution. After weeks of intense preparation, the team
CREATING OPEN ACCESS JOURNALS WORKSHOP AT THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL PKP SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING CONFERENCE David J Solomon, PhD Michigan State University Caroline Sutton, MSSc, PhD Co-Action Publishing Workshop
Journal of Intercultural Management Vol. 2, No. 1, March 2010, pp. 49 56 Monika Chutnik Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny we Wrocławiu Katarzyna Grzesik Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny we Wrocławiu Performance Through Relationships.
Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine & Dentistry Programme Specification Postgraduate Certificate Healthcare Management, Leadership & Innovation January 2015 Date of approval: January 2015
SOCIAL CAPITAL AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORKS Eila Järvenpää a Stina Immonen b a,b Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland a
01 Executive Summary At the end of the twentieth century and into the twenty-first, higher education has invested, by a conservative estimate, $5 billion in administrative and enterprise resource planning
Self Study and Training for Members and Staff of Agricultural Cooperatives A Guidance Manual for Advisers and Trainers This manual offers guidance to field workers involved in advising and providing training
Version : 1.01 Date : 16 September 2009 IT Governance Network South Africa USA UK Switzerland www.itgovernance.co.za firstname.lastname@example.org 0825588732 IT Governance Network, Copyright 2009 Page 1 1 Terms
THE SECURED LENDER Magazine of the Asset-Based Financial Services by Gary Samson t is common in commercial lending transactions for the lender to require the borrower to make various representations and
Open Innovation and Intellectual Property Rights The Two-edged Sword 1 Bronwyn H. Hall 2 A paradox? Open innovation implies an innovation ecosystem where ideas and knowledge flow across firm boundaries.
An Assessment of Capacity Building in Washington State The Nonprofit Ecosystem Framework Executive Summary prepared by The Giving Practice A consulting service of Philanthropy Northwest February 2012 About
Big Data at DST Bill Nixon, Matt Crouch 2013 DST Systems, Inc. 2013 All rights DST Systems, reserved. Inc. All rights reserved. The enclosed materials are highly sensitive, proprietary and confidential.
Annual Performance Evaluations will be considered in promotion and tenure reviews. Criteria for tenure and promotion include (a) superior teaching, (b) scholarship and professional development, and (c)
Expert Reference Series of White Papers Successfully Managing Remote Teams 1-800-COURSES www.globalknowledge.com Successfully Managing Remote Teams Steve Lemmex, Global Knowledge Instructor, PMP Introduction
SIMULATION GAMES ARE POWERFUL PLAYFUL INTERVENTIONS. WE COME ACROSS SIMULATIONS OFTEN, IN ALL FORMS AND SHAPES. IVO WENZLER, SENIOR EXECUTIVE (PARTNER) AT ACCENTURE AND ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR AT THE DELFT
University of Canberra Faculty of Information Sciences and Engineering The Knowledge Management Systems Concept in the case study of the commonwealth government agency s human resources Omar Sultan Al-Kadi
Reputation management: Building trust among virtual strangers September 2006 Executive summary Trust is essential to efficient business activities, but it doesn t come naturally in an online environment.
Safety Net Analytics Program Request for Applications August 2014 Sponsored by CCI in partnership with the California HealthCare Foundation IMPORTANT DATES Informational Webinar: 10:00am, August 27, 2014
Board of Commissioners SELF-STUDY HANDBOOK CHAPTER TWO Guidelines for Conducting an Institutional Self-Study TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 1 Purpose of the Self-Study 1 Institutional Evaluation 1 Institutional
Bocconi University Ph.D. School Social Network Analysis Doctoral Seminar Fall 2015 Instructor : Prof. Giuseppe (Beppe) Soda Office Hours: email@example.com Overview Organizational social network
CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, SACRAMENTO Division of Criminal Justice Assessment Plan Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice The faculty of the Division of Criminal Justice are committed to providing criminal
BAI 2005 Roundtable 1 BAI 2005 Roundtable Summary Linking Socio-Cultural Theories of Learning with an Institutional Theory of Organizations: Implications for Theory, Practice and Collaboration Rodney T.
THE CULTURE OF INNOVATION AND THE BUILDING OF KNOWLEDGE SOCIETIES - Issue Paper - UNESCO, Bureau of Strategic Planning September 2003 1 I. The past and present scope of innovation During the last two decades,
ISA Master s Degree in Management & Marketing Degree Title Master of Science in International Management with Finance University University of Roehampton University Overview In recent i-graduate surveys,
Crosswalk of the New Colorado Principal Standards (proposed by State Council on Educator Effectiveness) with the Equivalent in the Performance Based Principal Licensure Standards (current principal standards)
January 2016 Brand and Campaigns Executive: Information for Candidates Thank you for expressing interest in the role of Brand and Campaigns Executive. We have compiled this information pack to tell you
FEM - Executive Management Program Atlas Copco, Ericsson, Saab, Sandvik, Scania, SEB, Stora Enso and SSAB. FEM - EXECUTIVE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Keeping ahead in a constantly changing business environment
Developing Developing ure ure Skills Skills In this session we will explore the architecture role and skills of Enterprise ure the TOGAF Skills Framework and varieties of s Is your organisation up to the
Knowledge Management in Post-Merger Integration 1 Chen Jian 2 Jia Jun 3 School of Management Xi an Jiaotong University, P. R. China, 710049 Abstract Nowadays, knowledge has become an important resource
The role of business intelligence in knowledge sharing: a Case Study at Al-Hikma Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Company Samer Barakat 1* Hasan Ali Al-Zu bi 2 Hanadi Al-Zegaier 3 1. Management Information
LCCI International Qualifications Level 3 Certificate in Advertising Syllabus Effective from: September 2009 First examinations to be held in Series 3, 2010 For further information contact us: Tel. +44
13 s about Communicating Policies & Procedures Information and How to Avoid Them Written by and a courtesy of Raymond E. Urgo Policies & Procedures Communication Consultant Urgo & Associates Los Angeles,
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.