FOOD SECURITY AND LIVELIHOODS IN FIRST PHASE EMERGENCY 48 HOUR ASSESSMENT TOOL OBJECTIVE AND GUIDANCE NOTES

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1 48-Hour Assessment Tool Objective and Guidance tes FOOD SECURITY AND LIVELIHOODS IN FIRST PHASE EMERGENCY 48 HOUR ASSESSMENT TOOL OBJECTIVE AND GUIDANCE NOTES OBJECTIVE The purpose of this tool is to obtain a quick understanding of the emergency food security and livelihood situation within the first few days after a rapid-onset disaster. This tool is independent of other inter-agency multi-sectoral assessments such as the MIRA and collects information only on food security and livelihoods. However, this tool can be used alongside processes such as the MIRA to complement them with more detailed food security and livelihoods information necessary for rapid response design. The results of this initial assessment are aimed to inform the design of first phase responses, for the first 6 to 8 weeks after the disaster occurred. A more detailed assessment is expected to take place at a later date, led by food security and livelihood specialists. This tool has been developed specifically for (i) humanitarian staff with no or limited technical skills (e.g.: humanitarian programme managers) and/or (ii) food security and livelihoods technical staff with little experience of rapid-onset disasters in urban and rural contexts (e.g.: staff usually involved in long-term livelihood programming). Initially developed by Oxfam, this tool aims to support response teams to gather a good enough picture of the food security and livelihoods situation in order to design rapid responses that can meet immediate needs and protect livelihoods in the context of practical constraints that usually follow a rapid-onset crisis. GENERAL GUIDANCE NOTES - HOW TO ORGANISE THE ASSESSMENT Before starting the assessment in the field or simultaneously, you will gather secondary information to complement and triangulate the information collected in the field. (see Before starting - Collecting secondary information section below). Structure of assessment tool The questionnaire is divided into 4 main sections: 1. Community & Household Focus Group Discussion Section (this main section takes between 1 and 2 hours per focus group) 2. Markets and Traders Status After the Disaster Questions for Traders 3. Cash Delivery Structures Questions for Money Transfer Agents 4. Coordination and Other Actors Response Plans The assessment form contains all of these sections. However, if there are enough resources to split up the assessment team, these sections could be printed separately to allow team members to continue with parts 2, 3 and 4 of the assessment after some initial information has been gathered from the affected communities in section 1. How many forms do I use? Use at least 1 assessment form for a given community in a defined affected area. This will usually mean 1 assessment form per focus group discussion. (In the instance of the assessment taking place with IDPs / Refugees staying with host families, see comment below). You have to feel comfortable with the information you gather and have a sense of confidence in what people are telling you. If it does not make sense to you at all, or if the focus group participants are disagreeing a lot, stop and change group. Try and triangulate the information you are hearing with observations and also secondary data. The total number of communities visited / assessment forms filled will depend on the context (extent of the affected area, level of similarities between population in the affected areas, practical considerations for the organisation of the assessment, etc.). As an indication, you should aim to visit and assess at least 3 communities. What do I ask? Follow the questions as they are laid out in the Assessment Form. The questions will take you step by step through the main topics that need to be asked. The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 1

2 48-Hour Assessment Tool Objective and Guidance tes Throughout the assessment use your observation skills to double check what people are telling you and to gather new information. There is space in the 48-Hour Reporting Format for your observations. Who do I speak to? Form a focus group of 5-8 members (women and men) of affected households that can give you information on the majority of the affected population. In contexts where women may not be able to speak openly in the presence of men organise separate groups for women and men. If it is not possible to organise a focus group, interview 2-3 key informants ensuring a proportion of these are women (these may include community representatives, chiefs, teachers, nurses, local partners if any exist, etc. try to understand if they represent the whole population in the assessed area or only a portion of it). Whenever possible, always cross-check information with women to assess if women's needs are covered and to ensure the information you have reflects women s specific views and needs. If women have different views from the rest of the community, record them using the other observations section. If you meet a particularly good informant, and they have contact details, take them down as you may need to re-contact that person at a later date. In focus groups try and reach a group consensus about the situation wherever you can. Ask key informants / affected households for quantities where it is requested and try and get concrete yes/no answers where it is requested. Questions relating to markets and financial services are divided between the questions you ask the households (Part A), and those that you have to ask the service provider (e.g.: the trader or remittance company representative) (Part B). For the market related questions for service providers (Part B) try to talk to at least 2-3 traders if you can but do not organize trader focus group discussions as it is unlikely you will obtain correct information. For questions relating to financial services in the area (Part B), try and involve a finance officer. Depending on the human resources you have available, you can split your assessment team so that once you have information on the location of local markets used by communities from question 11 (table 3), some team members can go directly to these markets and start conducting interviews with traders. With all people interviewed, try not to create expectations of any assistance you are in the phase of collecting data. There are so many affected people how can I understand what is happening? I do not know much about food security and livelihoods. In order to get a reasonable understanding of the situation of most people after the shock, we need to ask about the majority / most of affected households and typical or representative households. At this stage of information collection, it is too complicated to collect and analyse detailed information on social inclusion issues such as ethnicity, religion, caste etc. and the assessment findings should be cross-checked with secondary data and personnel with good local knowledge in order to assist in context and response analysis. Of course, this means that we need to make assumptions and generalisations and these should be recorded (there is an observation section in the report for that). If required, a more detailed assessment will be made later to pick up on the wealth differences between households and their livelihoods. Make sure you keep reminding the people you interview that you would like to talk about the typical household and most of the affected population to keep them focused. Questions have been gender disaggregated where this information is feasible to collect and directly useful for programme design. 1 A more experienced technical member of staff (either from the country or regional office or headquarters) will assist you in understanding the data you have collected and in finalising the response plans. What do I do if there are a large number of IDPs or refugees staying with host families? In this instance, it is important that an assessment is carried out for the host families as well as the IDPs and refugees. Supporting the host families in this instance can be very important to ensure that their food security and livelihood status is not compromised. What happens if it is an urban context or a location with high population density? In areas (such as urban contexts) where there can be high population density, people of different socioeconomic level living side by side, and multiple infrastructures, try to: 1 For more guidance on referring to typical households please see the Technical Rationale. The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 2

3 48-Hour Assessment Tool Objective and Guidance tes a. Choose an area where households of similar wealth live (a neighbourhood) so that it is easier to talk about typical or representative households, b. Be clear about the boundary of the assessment area (use an existing name for the area) or construct one (using well known geographical features / landmarks or sites), and c. Remind the focus group / key informants of the area you are discussing to ensure the information is correct for these people in this area. With regards to wealth levels and trying to capture the differences between households, in many instances, in the first weeks of a disaster, households tend to have similar basic need requirements (food, water, shelter, etc.). The situation is changing so quickly. What do I do if there are questions for which the interviewees cannot answer? In the immediate aftermath of a disaster, the situation is changing very quickly (roads can be reopened, prices on markets can vary on a daily basis, the affected population could move from one location to another, etc.). In such a context, it might be difficult to get some clear answer to some parts of the questionnaire (e.g.: start or re-start of livelihood activities, some aspects of functioning markets). This is understandable, and should be recorded. The assessment team should make assumptions where they can, based on observations or other (maybe less reliable) sources. It is crucial to document those assumptions clearly on the assessment form, and in the report. When assumptions are not possible, it is possible to leave the questionnaire and report blank, justifying why these questions could not be answered to. Aspects that need more information, either to check the assumptions or to complete the existing information, should be carefully listed, to be assessed at a later date or to be included in the situation monitoring. Where do I include any direct observation I have made while conducting the assessment (including protection and cross-cutting observations)? At the end of each assessment section, there is a part of the questionnaire dedicated to recording any other observations gathered. While there are no specific questions referring to cross-cutting issues such as social inclusion and protection due to the rapid response nature of the tool, relevant observations can be recorded that could assist general context understanding and response design. Examples could be information on discrimination against minority groups, specific vulnerabilities observed, conflict and protection issues such as presence of armed groups affecting access to markets for communities (including traders) or access to livelihoods and specific dangers encountered by women. It may also include some coping strategies that may be noted by personnel with local knowledge such as women trading sex for essential goods. What do I do after the assessment? Do not forget to thank the people who have given you their time and information. Try not to create expectations of any assistance you are in the phase of collecting data. After completing the questionnaire please use: a. The 48hr Decision Tree, a tool to assist the identification of potential responses. Should be read with the 48hr Response Menu b. The 48hr Response Menu that outlines the responses in more detail c. The 48hr Reporting Format to complete a basic report with a 2 page executive summary. Use these questions with the Decision Tree to assist you in designing the first phase EFSL response with input if required from your technical food security and livelihood advisers. BEFORE STARTING COLLECTING SECONDARY INFORMATION Where can I get them from? Secondary data should be used where possible. It can be collected from coordination meetings, Oxfam and other agency archives (if they have worked in the area) or online (for example past assessments are available on the WFP website and from other agencies working in the area. FEWS (Famine Early Warning Network is also a good source of information (on line or via their office). In some countries there are Food Security Coordination groups, some of whom use the Integrated Phase Classification ( which can also be a good source of data. The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 3

4 48-Hour Assessment Tool Objective and Guidance tes What type of information can I get from secondary data? Areas and population (total and affected), including numbers. Magnitude of disaster and impact on infrastructures. Typical livelihoods and seasonal calendar. GUIDANCE NOTES ON KEY QUESTIONS FROM THE ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE Introduction Assessment Area / Boundary: all information in the questionnaire (especially quantitative information) must be valid for this assessment area. Remind regularly the focus group / key informants of the area you are discussing to ensure the information is correct for these people in this area. Population figures (total population in area; % of population affected): It is likely that this will be obtained though secondary information and/or through key informants. Typical household food security now and for the next 2 months 1. Number of affected households: See definition of affected population and household in the definition part below. 5. Percentage of food sources: The percentage of food from a given source after the shock is estimated compared to the total quantity of food prior to the shock. The objective of the questions on food sources is to identify the current gap to the sources compared to the pre-disaster situation. For all questions involving percentages, you can use proportional pilling to help households answer the question. Ask focus group participants where they got their food pre-disaster using a set of 20 stones or seeds or any other small item. Tell them this represents all the food they eat and ask households to allocate a portion of stones to each food source. Make sure that piles are labelled or referred to in order to ensure everybody is clear what pile represents what source, and record the information. Each stone will represent 5%, hence you can translate the number of stones allocated to each source in an estimated percentage. Ensure that all stones are used and the total percentage pre-disaster will add up to 100%. 6. Change in percentage of food sources: The objective now is to identify the potential gap in the overall quantity of food consumed and the changes in food sources post disaster. An example of how to do this is as follows: tell the participants to take the 20 stones and show you if they are now eating less than before. If they are eating less than before, they should remove some of the 20 stones proportionally to the decrease in food intake. Each stone still representing 5%, the removed stones will show you the food gap that you can record in the table in the Gap row. From the stones remaining, ask them to show you from which source they now get this food. Each stone should still represent 5%. Therefore the percentage for each food source plus the food gap will equal 100%. Livelihoods now and in the next 2 months 18. Percentage of households engaging in livelihoods activities: the information collected here does not have to add up to 100% as it is likely at least some households will have more than one livelihood activity. For example, 30% of households might engage in fishing, 50% might engage in paddy farming and 40% might engage in petty trading. 19. Engaging or re-engaging in livelihood activities after the shock: This question, as well as some others in this questionnaire, might be difficult to answer in the timeframe this questionnaire is designed for (i.e. 48 hours after a rapid-onset disaster). If it is not possible to gather this information or to feel confident about the degree of accuracy of the information collected, please make a note of it and point this out in the report under the relevant section. 22. New livelihood activities after the shock: this question aims at identifying potential new activities that are not usually practiced in a given community. This can reflect coping mechanisms (hence the extent of the economic stress) or innovative activities (that could potentially be supported or provide ideas for programming). The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 4

5 48-Hour Assessment Tool Objective and Guidance tes Health, water and sanitation in the affected community households This is not designed to be a comprehensive WASH assessment but is intended to alert teams to key health, water and sanitation issues that need further attention. Market and Traders status after the disaster Part A Questions for households This section aims to gather a quick picture of the status of markets from the households perspective i.e. how households connect to and access markets. The aim is to try to rapidly understand whether the markets are working sufficiently and whether affected households are sufficiently well connected to them to work through those markets in our food security and livelihoods responses. 1/ In this part we want to understand how people access markets and what determines that access, in particular: - if there are blockages that limit or could limit their access to markets; - or enabling factors that could ease their access to markets. One of the key underlying questions is: 'if people receive cash to increase their purchasing power, will they be able to reach markets and traders safely and in good conditions. In a case where physical (roads, transport etc) or social (certain groups are prevented from travelling to certain destinations) accessibility, for example, is limited or denied to the target group, even if markets and traders are operational, cash transfers alone will not guarantee access to basic needs for those groups. 2/ We also want to understand if markets are functioning sufficiently well. In this section, we are looking for the affected households' observations and perception on the degree of availability of food and non-food items, as well as the livelihood inputs and resources, of markets and their capacity to keep providing them. This will later be cross-checked when traders in the markets identified by the communities are interviewed in part B. Questions 30 and 31 aim at understanding if products are physically available in the markets. We are focusing on observations and perceptions from the affected households (and not from traders): do they see enough products on the market, do they find those items when they go to the market or are they scarce or even absent from the markets? Do they see those items being easily replenished by traders or not? Cash Delivery Structures Part A Questions for households n.a. Market and Traders status after the disaster Part B Questions for traders of working shops / markets The objective of this section is to try and triangulate information received from the communities on the status of markets after a rapid-onset disaster to support response design. The aim is to rapidly understand whether there are any major changes as a result of the disaster and to understand more about trader capacity to work with agencies in their responses. In particular, we want to know if traders are able to replenish their stocks with acceptable speed (7 days) to cover the needs of the affected population, if people had or received the purchasing power to procure what they need. When discussing with traders on their capacity to get supplies, we need to check their transport, storage and capital capacity (do they have the capital to restock? would they access transport capacity to bring those stocks? where would they store them?). Ultimately we seek at determining if the most limiting factor for people is access to their needs (physical access, purchasing power, etc...) or the availability on the markets (traders capacity to bring and replenish the goods). This section will also help us understand whether traders will require any direct support themselves in order to be actively integrated in food security and livelihoods responses: if traders are operational and able to replenish their stocks, but only in a limited manner - and insufficient to cover people's needs, we will consider supporting them to reach that additional capacity. Understanding the factors that limit their capacity will guide us in designing market support where and where relevant. The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 5

6 48-Hour Assessment Tool Objective and Guidance tes Try to speak to more than one trader but do not include traders in a focus group discussion as it is likely that you will not receive correct information. For inexperienced assessment teams, run through this section in more detail before the questionnaire is used on the field so that the objective is clear and they feel more confident in gathering the necessary information. For example, teams may have no prior experience of working with and supporting traders so it may be necessary to provide them with some information on the kinds of indirect responses agencies can use cash grants or loans to enable them to re-stock more quickly for example. Price information will also support the design and calculation of cash transfers in the case that cash responses seem the most appropriate. 48. Trader ability to re-stock within 7 days: 7 days is considered to be the threshold at which it would be feasible to work with traders. If it would take traders longer than 7 days to re-stock their goods, the likelihood is that a cash-based response would not be feasible. Cash Delivery Structures Part B Questions for money transfer company agents n.a. Coordination and other actors response plans n.a. DEFINITION OF KEY CONCEPTS AND TERMS Food security: Food security exists when all people at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food for a healthy active life. Livelihoods: Livelihoods comprise the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living linked to survival and future well-being. Seasonal analysis: All aspects of a household are influenced by seasonality. Understanding seasonal variations is essential in order to understand the seasonality of crop and livestock production activities (e.g.: when crops are planted, harvested and sold), etc. Situation analysis: Process by which essential information is gathered on the causes and consequences of a crisis, to understand whether a response is required, and if so, setting out the magnitude and scope of the response. Response analysis: Process by which a set of appropriate actions is identified in an emergency. Household: A group of people, each with different abilities and needs, who live together most of the time and contribute to a common economy, and share the food and other income from this. (Source: The Practitioners Guide to HEA, RHVP, Save the Children and FEG). Basic needs: Basic needs are all the items that people need to survive. This can include services such as food, water, shelter, clothing, health care, sanitation and education. Coping strategies: Coping strategies are the means which people use to obtain food, income and/ or services when their normal means of livelihood are disrupted. This can include resorting to damaging behaviors to survive such as selling productive assets. Market: A market is a place where goods and services are traded, purchased and sold. Cash delivery structure: A structure that enables the safe and reliable delivery of cash into the hands of the recipient (the beneficiary) banks, micro-finance organizations, post offices, mobile phone companies, local money transfer and remittance companies, local money transfer agents (traders etc). Malnutrition: Malnutrition encompasses a range of conditions, including acute malnutrition, chronic malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. - Acute malnutrition refers to wasting and / or nutritional oedema. - Chronic malnutrition refers to stunting. The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 6

7 48-Hour Assessment Tool Objective and Guidance tes Focus group discussion: Focus group discussions are organized dialogues with a selected group of knowledgeable individuals in a community to gain information about their views and experiences of a topic. They are particularly suited for obtaining several perspectives about the same topic. Proportional piling: Proportional piling allows participants to score or weight the value of an item, activity, or resource against a pre-determined aspect. It uses percentages, and although it does not provide accurate quantification, it illustrates the relative importance of more than one variable (e.g.: the relative importance of growing tomatoes and onions as cash crops in terms of household income). Triangulation: Triangulation indicates that more than two methods are used in a study with a view to double (or triple) checking results. By examining information collected by different methods, by different groups and in different populations, findings can be corroborated across data sets, reducing the impact of potential biases that can exist in a single study. Blanket targeting: Providing assistance to all individuals or households in the geographical area where the disaster occurred without targeting specific individuals or sub-groups. The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 7

8 48-Hour Assessment Tool Questionnaire FOOD SECURITY AND LIVELIHOODS IN FIRST PHASE EMERGENCY THE 48 HOUR ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE This questionnaire is part of the 48-Hour Assessment Tool, which includes the 6 following documents: 1 The 48hr Objectives and Guidance tes: Quick guidance notes for the users of the assessment tool. 2 The 48hr Assessment Questionnaire 3 The 48hr Decision Tree; to assist the identification of potential responses. It should be read with the 48hr Response Menu. 4 The 48hr Response Menu: outlining the responses in more detail. 5 The 48hr Reporting Format: to complete a basic report with a 2 page executive summary. 6 Annex The 48hr Technical Rationale: notes intended for technical staff and outlining the rationale behind the document and how key decisions were taken (in particular some key areas usually included in assessment tools are not included here. The reasons are outlined in this document). The purpose of the 48-Hour Assessment Tool is to get a quick understanding of the emergency food security and livelihood situation within the first few days after a rapid-onset disaster. The results of this initial assessment are aimed to inform the design of first phase responses, for the first 6 to 8 weeks after the disaster occurred. The use of this questionnaire (document 2) should be done in conjunction with the other documents contained in the tool. In particular, the assessment team is invited to read carefully the guidance notes (document 1) before starting the assessment. During the analysis of the data collected, the assessment team is invited to use the decision-tree and response menu (documents 3 and 4) and can use the report format (document 5) to record the findings of the analysis. STRUCTURE OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE Focus Group Discussion with Community women and men: Community & Households Food Security & Livelihood Status after the disaster... 2 Typical household food security now and for the next two months... 2 Livelihoods now and in the next two months... 4 Markets and Traders Status after the disaster from the Households perspective... 7 Money Transfer Systems from the Households perspective... 8 Health, Water and Sanitation in the Affected Community Questions for the traders of working shops / markets: Markets and Traders Status after the disaster Questions for money transfer company agents: Money transfer Systems Status after the disaster Coordination and other actors response plans The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 1

9 48-Hour Assessment Tool Questionnaire FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION WITH COMMUNITY WOMEN AND MEN: COMMUNITY & HOUSEHOLDS FOOD SECURITY & LIVELIHOOD STATUS AFTER THE DISASTER This part of the questionnaire should be administered in communities that are representative of the area affected by the disaster. The questions will be asked to one or more focus groups, that should represent the views of all parts of the population. Assessment Area / Boundary: Type of shock: Date of assessment: Total population in affected area: HH / individuals % of population affected in the area: % Urban / Rural? Where is the affected population located? e.g.: house, camp, host family Interviewer(s): DETAILS OF KEY INFORMANTS AND COMMUNITY REPRESENTATIVES FOR FURTHER COMMUNICATION: Name: Role/Organisation/Tel #: Name: Role/Organisation/Tel #: TYPICAL HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY NOW AND FOR THE NEXT TWO MONTHS BY THE END OF THIS SECTION, YOU SHOULD KNOW: The GAP in food needs based on the disruption to their food sources, and assuming that these are not being replaced. Where households normally got their food and the impact of the shock on these sources. The range of foods a typical household eats (that is a reflection on their diet diversity). How much it costs to feed a typical household for a week eating 3 meals a day. If you are unable to collect all or most of the information requested in this section, tick this box and record the reasons why and/or the assumptions made in the other observations section. 1. Approximately how many households have been affected in the area (as defined in the box above)? On average how many people are there in each household? Number of households: Average household size: 2. rmally, at this time of year, what different types of food do most households eat in 1 day (i.e. a typical 24 hour period that does not include a festival or special celebration)? Tick () the box in Table 1 below and add them up. 3. rmally, at this time of year, if most households eat cereals / roots and tubers / pulses, what is the name of the type of cereals / roots and tubers / pulses that households typically eat? Put answers in Table 1 below. 4. w, after the disaster, what different types of food are most households eating in 1 day (i.e. the last 24 hours)? Tick () the box in Table 1 below and add them up. The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 2

10 48-Hour Assessment Tool Questionnaire Table 1 (Questions 2 to 4): Dietary Diversity Food type CEREALS ROOTS AND TUBERS PULSES, LEGUMES, NUTS VEGETABLES FRUITS MEAT / POULTRY, OFFAL EGGS FISH, SEAFOOD MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS OIL / FAT SUGAR / HONEY OTHER(specify) Q2. IF food type consumed in 1 day (24 hours) tick the box () Pre-Shock Q3. Typical type of food eaten Q4. IF food type consumed in 1 day (24 hours) tick the box () Post-Shock (NOW) TOTAL NUMBER OF 5. rmally, at this time of year, what percentage of food for household use comes from the food sources listed in the table below? Put an approximate answer in percentages in Table 2 below. e.g.: 20% of food is purchased. This should add up to 100%. You can use proportional pilling to help households answer this question. 6. w, after the disaster, what percentage of food can households get from the same food sources they used before the shock compared to the overall quantity they were getting before the shock? Put an approximate answer in percentages in Table 2 below. You can use proportional pilling to asset the approximate percentages. e.g.: pre-disaster own production in agriculture = 60%, now = 10%. This does not have to add up to 100% as households may have A GAP in their food needs that requires assistance. Add up the percentages and calculate the Gap percentage to make sure the post shock food sources add up to 100%. Put an approximate answer in percentages in Table 2 below. e.g.: Gap = 70% 7. What is the reason for the change in the food sources and their share before and after the disaster? Put answers in Table 2 below. e.g.: lost, damaged, stopped and destroyed. Table 2 (Questions 5 to 7): Food Sources and Food Gap Sources Q5. Pre-Shock (Approx. %) PURCHASE (including cafes / fast food, etc.) OWN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION OWN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION (milk / meat) LABOUR PAID WITH FOOD IN- KIND (not Food for Work) GIFTS / LOANS / CHARITY (including begging) RELIEF (Food Aid / Food for Work, etc.) OTHER (specify e.g.: existing stocks, fishing, wild food) GAP TOTAL PERCENTAGE 100% 100% Q6. Post-Shock (NOW) (Approx. %) Q7. Impact of shock on food source The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 3

11 48-Hour Assessment Tool Questionnaire 8. w, after the disaster, if all the food the household ate was purchased in the local market, how much would it cost to feed a typical household a good diet for 1 week, including fuel for cooking? Approx: (local currency) for 1-week household food 9. w, after the disaster, does a typical household have enough cooking fuel to prepare its daily meals? Yes (please circle) Specify the type of cooking fuel typically used: 10. w, after the disaster, does a typical household have the essential cooking utensils required to prepare its daily meals? Yes (please circle) ANY OTHER OBSERVATION MADE DURING THE ADMINISTRATION OF THIS PART OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: LIVELIHOODS NOW AND IN THE NEXT TWO MONTHS BY THE END OF THIS SECTION, YOU SHOULD KNOW: Key livelihood activities in which households typically engage in now and in 2 months. What key livelihood assets need to be protected immediately to prevent their loss. How many animals need support, what support and for how long. What assets are needed to ensure livelihood activities can start, re-start or continue in the next 2 months. If you are unable to collect all or most of the information requested in this section, tick this box and record the reasons why and/or the assumptions made in the other observations section. 11. rmally, at this time of year and the next 2 months, what important livelihood activities would women and men engage in? Put answers in Table 3 below. 12. rmally, in a typical year, when do these activities start? Put answers in Table 3 below. 13. rmally, in a typical year, what percentage of households engages in these activities? Put answers in Table 3 below. 14. w and in the next 2 months, after the disaster, are women and men able to continue, start or restart these activities? Put Yes / in Table 3 below. If household can engage in all activities continue to Question 17 The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 4

12 48-Hour Assessment Tool Questionnaire 15. w and in the next 2 months, after the disaster, why are women and men unable to continue, start or re-start these activities? Put answers in Table 3 below. e.g.: lost employment, land destroyed, lost seeds and livestock, presence of armed groups. 16. For typical livelihood activities that cannot continue, start or re-start now and in the next 2 months, due to the disaster, are there any essential assets or input (state quantities) or activities (e.g.: land clearance) that would enable them to re-start these activities? Put answers in Table 3 below. 17. w and in the next 2 months, after the disaster, are there new livelihood activities (i.e. activities that women and men do not do in a typical year) that have been or are likely to be started? Yes (please circle) If Yes, indicate these activities in Table 3 below. Table 3 (Questions 11 to 17): Livelihood Activities w and in the Next 2 Months Q11. Q11. Q12. Q13. Q14. Q15. If no, Q16. Assets and/or activities Livelihood Gender When Approx % Can it be WHY unable required to continue, start or Activities M / F or usually of HH restarted to engage? re-start the activities? now & next 2 both starts involved in the Asset Unit Quantity months next 2 type months? Yes / Q17. New / non-typical livelihood activities 4. Yes 5. Yes 18. w, after the disaster, what are the key livelihood assets that are owned by most of the affected households? Put answers in Table 4 below. 19. rmally, what percentage of affected households owns these assets? Put an approximate answer in percentages in Table 4 below. 20. w, after the disaster, what percentage of affected households owns these assets? Put an approximate answer in percentages in Table 4 below. 21. w, after the disaster, are households likely to lose any of these key livelihood assets in the next 2 months? Put Yes / in Table 4 below. e.g.: death of animals not having enough fodder or drinking water; sale of livestock, tools, land, machinery to raise money to buy food or other essential items. The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 5

13 48-Hour Assessment Tool Questionnaire Table 4 (Questions 18 to 21): Livelihood Asset Ownership and Potential Loss Q18. Asset (type of livestock, of machinery, of tools, of seeds, etc.) owned by most of the affected households % of HH that own these assets? Q21. In Q19. Pre- Shock Q20. Post- Shock (NOW) danger of losing in the next 2 months? Yes / Q21. If YES, WHY? 22. w, after the disaster, what percentage of household own large and/or small livestock? % If 40% or more of the affected households own livestock continue to Question 23. If less than 40% own livestock continue to Question w, after the disaster, what large and/or small livestock (and how many) does a typical affected household own? Cattle: Goat: Sheep: Donkey: Pig: Other: specify: 24. w, after the disaster, can most of these livestock owning households provide enough water and fodder/feed for their animals? Yes (please circle) If Yes continue to Question If, please state the needed quantity of water and fodder that a typical household would NOT be able to supply to their typical number of animals and for approximately how long. Water: Quantity: per day for weeks Fodder: Quantity: per day for weeks Feed: Type: Quantity: per day for weeks 26. w, after the disaster, can most of these livestock owning households provide adequate shelter for their animals? Yes (please circle) If no, specify what is needed: ANY OTHER OBSERVATION MADE DURING THE ADMINISTRATION OF THIS PART OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 6

14 48-Hour Assessment Tool Questionnaire MARKETS AND TRADERS STATUS AFTER THE DISASTER FROM THE HOUSEHOLDS PERSPECTIVE BY THE END OF THIS SECTION, YOU SHOULD KNOW: The proximity and access of markets and shops to the affected women and men and the transportation costs post disaster. Whether the local markets and shops households rely on for basic food and non-food items and livelihood assets and resources are working after the disaster. If you are unable to collect all or most of the information requested in this section, tick this box and record the reasons why and/or the assumptions made in the other observations section. 27. w, after the disaster, are there markets / shops for essential food and non-food items that are in an acceptable distance (walking or by local transport) to the affected communities? Yes Don t know (please circle) If Yes list markets that are within this distance in Table 5 below. If or Don t know continue to question w, after the disaster, what are the transportation costs to these local markets / shops (for a return journey)? Put answers in Table 5 below. 29. w, after the disaster, can women and men physically and safely access these markets / shops (with or without transportation, road conditions, security, etc.)? Put answers in Table 5 below. 30. w, after the disaster, can these markets / shops provide households with most of the food and non-food items they need for their day-to-day consumption? Put answers in Table 5 below. 31. w, after the disaster, can these markets / shops provide households with livelihood inputs and resources that they need for their livelihood activities now and in the next 2 months? Put answers in Table 5 below. e.g.: seeds, fertilisers, fodder, medicines, tools Table 5 (Question 27 to 31): Market Access Q27. Markets within an acceptable distance 1. Q28. Transport cost (return journey) Post- Shock (NOW) Q29. Physical access Post- Shock? Male Y / N Female Y / N Q29. Safe access Post- Shock? Male Y / N Female Y / N Q30. Are most traders able to provide most essential food / non-food items? Post-Shock (NOW) 1 = Yes, like before 2 = Yes, but less 3 = Q31. Are most traders able to provide most livelihoods inputs? Post-Shock (NOW) 1 = Yes, like before 2 = Yes, but less 3 = ANY OTHER OBSERVATION MADE DURING THE ADMINISTRATION OF THIS PART OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 7

15 48-Hour Assessment Tool Questionnaire MONEY TRANSFER SYSTEMS FROM THE HOUSEHOLDS PERSPECTIVE BY THE END OF THIS SECTION, YOU SHOULD KNOW: If there are functional money transfer mechanisms that are working after the disaster. The accessibility of the financial structures (by men and women) and costs to reach them. If men/ women need identity cards / other papers to access financial structures, and if they do not have them, the reasons why. If you are unable to collect all or most of the information requested in this section, tick this box and record the reasons why and/or the assumptions made in the other observations section. 32. w, after the disaster, are there functional money transfer systems that usually deliver cash (such as banks, money lenders, traders, post offices, remittance companies and/or mobile phone companies) that are in an acceptable distance (walking or by local transport) to the affected communities? Yes Don t know (please circle) If Yes put mechanisms / structures names in Table 6 below. If or Don t know this is the end of the focus group discussion. 33. w, after the disaster, how much does it cost to use the money transfer systems? Put answers in Table 6 below. e.g.: transportation costs (return journey) or any other costs (e.g. transaction cost, bribe). 34. w, after the disaster, can most women and men physically and safely access or use these functional money transfer mechanisms (road conditions, security, are they allowed into the buildings, can they own mobile phones if money is transferred by phone, etc.)? Put answers in Table 6 below. 35. What do men and women need to access the money transfer mechanisms (ID cards, documents, mobile phones, etc.)? Put answers in Table 6 below. Table 6 (Question 32 to 35): Functional Money Transfer Systems Q32. Financial Q33. Costs to use the Q34. Physical Q34. Safe Structure within money transfer system access Post- access Postan acceptable Post-Shock Shock? Shock? distance Transport Other (list) Male Female Male Female Y / N Y / N Y / N Y / N 1. Q35. What is needed to use the money transfer system (ID card, mobile, bank account, etc. - list) Do most men and women have the documents they need to access the money transfer mechanisms? Men: Yes (please circle) Women: Yes (please circle) If, Please list below the reasons why not: The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 8

16 48-Hour Assessment Tool Questionnaire ANY OTHER OBSERVATION MADE DURING THE ADMINISTRATION OF THIS PART OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 9

17 48-Hour Assessment Tool Questionnaire HEALTH, WATER AND SANITATION IN THE AFFECTED COMMUNITY BY THE END OF THIS SECTION, YOU SHOULD KNOW: Whether there are indications of health issues. Whether or not water and sanitation activities are likely to be required. The quantity of water households can access and how. If you are unable to collect all or most of the information requested in this section, tick this box and record the reasons why and/or the assumptions made in the other observations section. 37. Are there many children or adults that are very weak, are obviously too thin and that have no energy to play / carry out their household duties, or are very sick or have sudden illness (e.g.: diarrhoea, fever)? Yes (please circle if one or more of these symptoms are observed) (please circle if none of these symptoms is observed) 38. w, after the disaster, approximately how much drinking water are households collecting in 1 day (i.e. the last 24 hours)? litres Or buckets of litres 39. w, after the disaster, how are households collecting water? (please circle). Jerry can Animal skin Bucket Reused food container Other (specify): 40. w, after the disaster, from where are households collecting water and how long does it take? From where: Time for one full round trip: hours and minutes 41. w, after the disaster, how are households ensuring their water is safe for drinking? (please circle). Do nothing Use chlorine Use filters Traditional methods Other (specify): 42. w, after the disaster, do the affected women and men have adequate toilet areas / defecation practices that are not a risk to the community (not close to water sources, shelter, safe access, etc.)? Use observation Men: Yes (please circle) Women: Yes (please circle) ANY OTHER OBSERVATION MADE DURING THE ADMINISTRATION OF THIS PART OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE OR DURING THE VISIT TO THE COMMUNITY (INCLUDING VISUAL OBSERVATIONS): The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 10

18 48-Hour Assessment Tool Questionnaire QUESTIONS FOR THE TRADERS OF WORKING SHOPS / MARKETS: MARKETS AND TRADERS STATUS AFTER THE DISASTER This part of the questionnaire should be administered in one or some of the markets that have been identified by the community members (see Table 5). Market place where the questionnaire is administered: This market is subsequently referred to as the reference market. BY THE END OF THIS SECTION, YOU SHOULD KNOW: Prices of key commodities in the local markets. If the markets / shops can re-stock quickly enough to support a response. If the traders will need a cash injection to support their ability to restock quickly or increase their stock. If you are unable to collect all or most of the information requested in this section, tick this box and record the reasons why and/or the assumptions made in the other observations section. 43. What were the prices of key commodities in the reference market before the disaster? Consider collecting the prices for the key staple food identified in question 3 (see Table 1, Typically type of food eaten ). Put answers in Table 7 below. 44. Have prices for these key commodities in the reference market significantly changed between before the disaster and now? Yes (please circle) If continue to Question w, after the disaster, what are the prices of these key commodities in the reference market? Put answers in Table 7 below. 46. What is the name of the nearest large market for traders to buy their supplies? 47. w, after the disaster, what are the prices of those key commodities in the nearest large market where traders would normally restock? Put answers in Table 7 below. Table 7 (Question 43, 45 and 47): Commodity prices in working shops / markets Commodity Unit Q43. Price Pre-Shock CEREALS (specify) Q44. Price Post-Shock (NOW) Q45. Price in nearest large market Post-Shock (NOW) ROOTS AND TUBERS (specify) PULSES, LEGUMES, NUTS (specify) OIL / FAT (specify) OTHER (specify) The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 11

19 48-Hour Assessment Tool Questionnaire 48. w, after the disaster, if traders were rapidly selling out their remaining stock, would the majority of working market / shop traders be able to restock quickly within 7 days? Please note, this would mean that the traders would have sufficient capital / cash, sufficient safety, access to transportation to do so. Most shops for food and non-food items: Yes (please circle) Most shops for livelihood assets and resources: Yes (please circle) If Yes to both questions continue to Question w, after the disaster, if the market / shops (that do not have money to re-stock) were provided with money to bring in new stocks of essential food / non-food and livelihood items, would they be able to do so in 7 days? If Yes, state the amount needed. Shops for food and non-food items: Yes Amount: (please circle) Shops for livelihood assets and resources: Yes Amount: (please circle) 50. With the money they have (and/or the money mentioned above), what % more "volume" of items could traders bring in, thinking about their storage capacity and access to transport? Approx: % ANY OTHER OBSERVATION MADE DURING THE ADMINISTRATION OF THIS PART OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE OR DURING THE VISIT TO THE MARKETS AND TRADERS (INCLUDING VISUAL OBSERVATIONS): The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 12

20 48-Hour Assessment Tool Questionnaire QUESTIONS FOR MONEY TRANSFER COMPANY AGENTS: MONEY TRANSFER SYSTEMS STATUS AFTER THE DISASTER (try and include finance officer in this section) This part of the questionnaire should be administered at one or some of the money transfer agents that have been identified by the community members (see Table 6). It should be administered only IF: a. Markets are functioning well, and b. There are money transfer systems that are or can be made accessible to most affected households. Money transfer company name: Details of agent for potential further communication (name, role, tel #): BY THE END OF THIS SECTION, YOU SHOULD KNOW: If cash transfers were to take place, which provider would be most appropriate based on aspects such as charges and delivery speed, etc. If you are unable to collect all or most of the information requested in this section, tick this box and record the reasons why and/or the assumptions made in the other observations section. 51. Using the Table 8 below, speak to the functional money transfer system providers about the following: a. Whether or not they have distributed cash for an NGO in the past b. If they would be interested in distributing cash for an NGO to affected households c. Their ability to transfer cash to approx affected households (use the figure from the start of the assessment) within 7 days d. Service charges that would have to be paid by the NGO and by the households e. When can they start dispersing cash f. If they have the capacity to deliver cash quickly (number of staff, number of branches or a mobile service, maximum amount that could be transferred in a day) g. What is needed from households to enable cash disbursement (ID cards, registration forms, etc.). Table 8 (Question 51): Additional Information on Money Transfer System Agents Q51.a. Prior NGO / Gov cash disbursal experience? Y / N Q51.b. Interested in cash distributions now? Y / N Q51.c. Can transfer to affected HH in 7 days? Y / N Q51.d. Service charges to be paid per transaction (amount) by NGO by HH Q51.e. Start date for cash disbursal? Q51.f. Existing capacity for quick cash delivery? Q51.g. HH requirement s (ID, papers, etc.) The 48-Hour Assessment Tool is available at 13

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