World Small Hydropower Development Report 2013

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1 World Small Hydropower Development Report TURKMENISTAN

2 Disclaimer Published in 2013 by United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and International Center on Small Hydro Power (ICSHP) UNIDO and ICSHP All rights reserved This report was jointly produced by United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and International Center on Small Hydro Power (ICSHP) to provide information about small hydropower. The document has been produced without formal United Nations editing. The designations employed and the presentations of the material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of UNIDO and ICSHP concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries, or its economic system or degree of development. Designations such as developed, industrialized and developing are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process: Mention of firm names or commercial products does not constitute an endorsement by UNIDO or its partners. The opinions, statistical data and estimates contained in the articles are the responsibility of the author(s) and should not necessarily be considered as reflecting the views or bearing the endorsement of UNIDO and its partners. While every care has been taken to ensure that the content is useful and accurate, UNIDO and ICSHP and any contributing third parties shall have no legal liability or responsibility for the content or the accuracy of the information so provided, or for any loss or damage caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with reliance on the use of such information. Copyright: Material in this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted, but acknowledgement is requested, together with a copy of the publication containing the quotation or reprint. Recommended citation: Liu, H., Masera, D. and Esser, L., eds. (2013). World Small Hydropower Development Report United Nations Industrial Development Organization; International Center on Small Hydro Power. Available from

3 3 Asia 3.1 Central Asia Turkmenistan Yingnan Zhang, International Center on Small Hydro Power Key facts Population 5,054,828 1 Area 488,100 km 2. 1 Climate Subtropical desert 1 Topography Flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran (highest point: Gora Ayribaba, 3,139 m) 1 Rain pattern Annual average rainfall is 210 mm. Rainfall peaks in March with 44 mm, and reaches its lowest point in August with 1 mm, on average. 2 Electricity sector overview Electricity in Turkmenistan is mainly generated from natural gas, with a very small contribution from hydropower (figure 1). Electrification access is 99.6 per cent. 3 It has to be noted that Turkmenistan is the only country where households are provided with free electricity. The installed capacity of the power grid of Turkmenistan is 4,151.7 MW. According to the World Bank, Turkmenistan generated per cent of its total electricity in 2009 from hydropower, equivalent to 3 GWh. 4 The electricity sector in Turkmenistan is a monopoly and is managed by state-owned Turkmenenergo State Corporation which owns all electricity generating plants, along with transmission and distribution facilities. Hydropower Natural gas 0.02% 99.98% Small hydropower sector overview and potential The birth of Turkmenistan s power sector is considered to be in 1913, when the construction of the Hindu Kush hydropower plant was completed on Murghab River. Turkmenistan has a small installed (operating) capacity, approximately 5 MW (figure 2). 6 The Hindu Kush consisted of three hydraulic turbines manufactured by the Austrian-Hungarian Hans Company with a total installed capacity of 1.2 MW. The hydro station is in good technical condition and serves as a museum exhibit as well. With installed capacities of 0.6 MW and 3.2 MW respectively, Kaushut-Bent and Kolkhoz-Bent hydropower plants are currently being upgraded by an European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Renewable Energy Initiative. 6 Besides, there are many proposed small hydropower projects in Turkmenistan (table 1). SHP installed capacity SHP potential 5 MW 23 MW Figure 2 Small hydropower capacities in Turkmenistan Source: Ebrdrenewables 6 Note: Potential estimates vary. In Turkmenistan, hydropower potential is mainly located on Murgab and Amu-Daria river basins. The largest small hydropower potential is concentrated in the southern part of the Republic on the Murgab and Tejen rivers and Karakumy canal (figure 2). 6 Renewable energy policy Turkmenistan has abundant wind and solar power potential. The Law of Turkmenistan on Energy Saving was issued to protect the environment. In September 2008, a Law on Hydrocarbon Resources was revised and approved to encourage foreign investors to buy property in Turkmenistan. 3 The Renewable Energy Development Strategy plans to develop renewable energy frameworks. 7 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Figure 1 Electricity generation in Turkmenistan Source: International Energy Agency 5 Table 1 Proposed programme for small hydropower development in Turkmenistan Type of construction Quantity Potential capacity (MW) Note Reconstruction and rehabilitation Mostly former rural hydro plants of of existing hydro plants capacity between 0.8 and 2.7 MW Adding hydro plants to water Hydro plants of capacity between 2.6 management projects and 15 MW Total Region Iolontan region on Murgab river South Turkmenistan. Karakumy canal, Murgab and Tenjen Rivers 1

4 Table 2 Priority small hydropower projects in Turkmenistan Projects Potential Location installation capacity (MW) Adding to water management projects Hauznan reservoir HPP 11.7 Karakumy Canal, Mary Oblast Kopetdag reservoir HPP 15.0 Karakumy Canal, Ashkhabad oblast Saryyazin reservoir HPP 12.0 Murgab River, Mary Oblast Tashkeprin HPP 7.0 Murgab River, Mary oblast Note: HPP hydropower plant 7. Korpeyev, Nazar (2011). Personal communication with Director of Tebigy Kuwwat, Social Unit Enterprise. Turkmenistan. Barriers to small hydropower development The population of Turkmenistan obtains free-of-charge the following: 45 kwh electricity per month per person, 600 m 3 of natural gas per year per person, and 1,500 liters of gasoline per year for car owners. 7 Therefore the population does not use solar, wind or hydropower and investment in these renewable energy sources by private companies is not followed or promoted. Currently, due to an absence of a specific policy for promotion of renewable energy, there is also no regulatory framework related to renewable energy. References 1. Central Intelligence Agency (2012). The World Factbook. Available from 2. Climatemps.com (2012). Turkmenistan. Available from 3. Balliyev, Kurban and Klaus Jorde (2009). Regional Reports on Renewable Energies-8 Country Analyses on Potentials and Markets in Central Asia. Turkmenistan. Eschborn. Available from 4. World Bank (2011). Electricity production from hydroelectric sources (kwh). Available from 5. International Energy Agency (2009). Electricity/ Heat in Turkmenistan in Available from E=TM. Accessed December Ebrdrenewables (2011). Projects. Available from s/public%20view.aspx?paged=true&p_country_x002 d_region=turkey&p_id=2350&view=%7baa77b e E7E56FB399F2%7D&FilterField1=Technology&FilterVal ue1=hydroelectric&sortfield=country_x002d_region &SortDir=Asc&PageFirstRow=1501. Accessed December

5 United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) Wagramer Straße 2, 1220 Vienna Austria International Center on Small Hydro Power (ICSHP) 136 Nanshan Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China

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