# EINDHOVEN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mathematics and Computer Science

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1 EINDHOVEN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Examination Computer Networks (2IC15) on Monday, June 22 nd 2009, 9.00h-12.00h. First read the entire examination. There are 7 exercises in total. Grades are included between parentheses at all parts and sum up to 11 points. Good luck! 1. (2.0 pt) Network Delay - Consider a server sending a 64 MB audio file to a receiver over a 1Mbps connection using packets of size 1 MB. After a packet is sent, the sender waits until an ACK packet of size 8 bytes is received before a new packet can be sent (no pipelining). Find the latency of the connection if the data transfer lasts 10 minutes in total. Assume that the packet processing delays (t proc ) at the sender and the receiver are negligible. Answer M = 512 Mbits; R = 1 Mbps; P = 8 Mbits; T = 600 s; A = 64bits; 1

2 Total transmission time is: T = M P (t tran1 + t prop + t proc rec + t tran2 + t prop + t proc tran ) = M P ( P R + 2 t prop + t proc tran + A R + t proc rec) latency = t tran1 + t prop Neglecting both processing delays, latency = (P A)M+P T R 2RM = s 2. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)- Consider the following plot of TCP window size as a function of time. Assuming TCP Reno is the protocol experiencing the behavior shown above, answer the following questions. In all cases, you should provide a short discussion justifying your answer. (a) (0.2 pt) Identify the intervals of time when TCP slow start is operating. Answer TCP slowstart is operating in the intervals [1,6] and [23,26] (b) (0.2 pt) Identify the intervals of time when TCP congestion avoidance is operating. Answer TCP congestion advoidance is operating in the intervals [6,16] and [17,22] (c) (0.2 pt) After the 16 th transmission round, is segment loss detected by a triple duplicate ACK or by a timeout? Answer After the 16 th transmission round, packet loss is recognized by a triple duplicate ACK. If there was a timeout, the congestion window size would have dropped to 1. (d) (0.2 pt) After the 22 nd transmission round, is segment loss detected by a triple duplicate ACK or by a timeout? Answer After the 22 nd transmission round, segment loss is detected due to timeout, and hence the congestion window size is set to 1. (e) (0.3 pt) What is the initial value of Threshold at the first transmission round? Answer Threshold is initially 32, since it is at this window size that slowtart stops and congestion avoidance begins. 2

3 (f) (0.3 pt) What is the value of Threshold at the 18 th transmission round? Answer Threshold is set to half the value of the congestion window when packet loss is detected. When loss is detected during transmission round 16, the congestion windows size is 42. Hence the threshold is 21 during the 18 th transmission round. (g) (0.3 pt) During what transmission round is the 70 th segment sent? Answer During the 1 st transmission round, packet 1 is sent; packet 2-3 are sent in the 2 nd transmission round; packets 4-7 are sent in the 3 rd transmission round; packets 8-15 are sent in the 4 th transmission round; packets are sent in the 5 th transmission round; packets are sent in the 6 th transmission round; packets are sent in the 7 th transmission round. Thus packet 70 is sent in the 7 th transmission round. (h) (0.3 pt) Assuming a packet loss is detected after the 26 th round by the receipt of a triple duplicated ACK, what will be the values of the congestion control window size and of Threshold? Answer The congestion window and Threshold will be set to half the current value of the congestion window (8) when the loss occurred. Thus the new values of the threshold and window is Network Routing - Consider the network shown below, which consists of 4 autonomous systems (AS). Suppose AS3 and AS2 are running OSPF for their intra-as routing protocol, and AS1 and AS4 are running RIP for their intra-as routing protocol. Suppose ebgp and ibgp are used for the inter-as routing protocol. (a) (0.15 pt) Router 3c learns about prefix x from which routing protocol: OSPF, RIP, ebgp, or ibgp? (b) (0.15 pt) Router 3a learns about x from which routing protocol? (c) (0.15 pt) Router 1c learns about x from which routing protocol? (d) (0.15 pt) Router 1d learns about x from which routing protocol? 3

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