Characteristics of the Text Genre Narrative nonfi ction Text Structure Underlying structures description, compare/contrast

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1 LESSON 25 TEACHER S GUIDE by Leo Frank Fountas-Pinnell Level V Narrative Nonfiction Selection Summary Between the 1500s and the 1800s beavers were trapped for their fur. The beaver trade helped settle the western United States. Characteristics of the Text Genre Narrative nonfi ction Text Structure Underlying structures description, compare/contrast Content Themes and Ideas Language and Literary Features Sentence Complexity Vocabulary Words Illustrations Book and Print Features Number of Words: 1,915 Organized categorically Beaver fur is used for hats and other clothing items. Lewis and Clark explore the west and fi nd new areas for beaver trapping. Trapping beavers helps settle the west. Selling goods is important to governments. Fashion or styles can help or hurt businesses. Exploring new lands leads to many discoveries. Long stretches of descriptive language Setting distant in time and space from student experiences Many instances of complex sentences Wide range of sentence types Sentences with parenthetical material Technical vocabulary, some of which might not be familiar to English language learners, such as trapper and beaver musk. Cultural references such as how the west was settled (p. 4), and North American Indians (p. 6) Many multisyllable words: carefully, profi table, rediscovered, wilderness Many technical words that are diffi cult to decode Colorful photographs with captions Easy-to-read chapter headings and illustrations on most pages Table of Contents Tables, diagrams, and timeline, and sidebars Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, N.H. Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law. Permission is hereby granted to individual teachers using the corresponding (discipline) Leveled Readers to photocopy student worksheets from this publication in classroom quantities for instructional use and not for resale. Requests for information on other matters regarding duplication of this work should be addressed to Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, Attn: Contracts, Copyrights, and Licensing, 9400 SouthPark Center Loop, Orlando, Florida Printed in the U.S.A If you have received these materials as examination copies free of charge, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company retains title to the materials and they may not be resold. Resale of examination copies is strictly prohibited. Possession of this publication in print format does not entitle users to convert this publication, or any portion of it, into electronic format.

2 by Leo Frank Build Background Help students use their knowledge of fur to visualize the selection. Build interest by asking questions such as the following: Have you ever seen a fur coat? What about a fur hat? What kinds of animals are used for their fur? Read the title and author and talk about the cover illustration. Tell students that this selection is narrative nonfiction, so it gives facts and examples about the history of the beaver fur trade. Frontload Vocabulary Some everyday words may be unfamiliar to English learners. Before reading, check understanding of the following words: trap, fur, beaver, trade, mountain ranges, routes, trail. Introduce the Text Guide students through the text, reading the captions, noting important ideas, and helping with unfamiliar language and vocabulary so they can read the text successfully. Here are some suggestions: Page 2: Point out the table of contents. Suggested language: The table of contents lists the chapters and the page number where each chapter can be found. Which chapter is on page 7? What do you think this chapter is about? Page 3: Read the caption next to the illustration Ask: What kind of animal trap is described in this section? Page 10: Explain to students that mountain men who made the trek, or trip, into the wilderness were seeking adventure and were skilled hunters. Page 11: Read the caption under the illustration. Make sure students understand the terms storms and diseases. Ask: Why do you think trapping fur was dangerous? Page 18: Have students look at the time line. What important event happened in 1811? Why do you think this was important? Now turn back to the beginning of the selection and read to fi nd out about the history of the beaver fur trade. Target Vocabulary barrier something that blocks movement, p. 8 despite something that did or did not happen against what was expected, p. 7 edible safe to eat, p.12 expedition a journey made by a group of people for a specific purpose, p. 9 fulfilled achieve a goal, p.8 range a group of mountains, p.4 resumed start something again, p. 16 techniques ways of doing tasks, p. 13 trek a slow, hard journey, p. 7 tributaries smaller rivers that flow into larger rivers, p. 5 2 Lesson 25:

3 Read Have students read silently while you listen to individual students read aloud. Support their understanding of the text as needed. Remind students to use the Monitor/Clarify Strategy and to notice what isn t making sense and find ways to figure out the parts of the text that are confusing. Discuss and Revisit the Text Personal Response Invite students to share their personal responses to the selection. Suggested language: Do you think the beaver fur trade was important to the growth of America? Why or why not? Ways of Thinking As you discuss the text, help students understand these points: Thinking Within the Text Thinking Beyond the Text Thinking About the Text Beaver fur becomes popular and is used for hats and other clothing items. Trappers hunt and kill almost all of the beavers in the eastern United States. Lewis and Clark explore the west and find new areas for beaver trapping, and beaver trappers help settle the American west. Selling and trading goods is important to the economy of governments. Fashion can help or hurt the success of businesses. Exploring new lands leads to many new discoveries Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, N.H. The chapter heads help the reader understand what the chapter is about. The map, timeline, sidebars, and photographs help readers understand the information. The table of contents helps the reader quickly find information. Choices for Further Support Fluency Invite students to choral read a passage from the text and demonstrate pausing and phrasing during reading. Remind students to pause after punctuation by taking short breaths after commas and stopping after periods and questions marks. Comprehension Based on your observations of the students reading and discussion, revisit parts of the text to clarify or extend comprehension. Remind students to go back to the text to support their ideas. Phonics/Word Work Provide practice as needed with words and word parts, using examples from the text. Remind students that they can use their knowledge of prefi xes to determine the meaning of an unfamiliar word. For example the word returned on page 16 has the prefi x re-. The prefi x re- means go back. The word returned means go back to doing something that you had stopped doing. 3 Lesson 25:

4 Writing about Reading Have students complete the questions on BLM Responding Have students complete the activities at the back of the book, using their Reader s Notebook. Use the instruction below as needed to reinforce or extend understanding of the comprehension skill. Target Comprehension Skill Author s Purpose Remind students that authors write for different reasons. Explain that it is important to identify the author s purpose in order to understand the author s viewpoint. Model how to add details to the Graphic Organizer using a Think Aloud like the one below: Think Aloud The author s purpose for writing this selection is to inform readers by describing an important part of America s westward expansion. One thing the author describes is the dangers fur trappers faced when hunting beaver. This description helps readers understand that the author feels the fur trappers were brave. Practice the Skill Have students share an example of another selection where the author s purpose was to describe or inform. Writing Prompt: Thinking Beyond the Text Have students write a response to the prompt on page 6. Remind them that when they think beyond the text, they use their personal knowledge to reach new understandings. Assessment Prompts The fi rst paragraph on page 10 is mainly about. How is the sidebar text on page 5 important to understanding the connection between fashion and the beaver trade? Complete this sentence in your own words: This story was most likely written to. 4 Lesson 25:

5 English Language Development Reading Support Pair advanced and intermediate readers to read the text softly, or have students listen to the audio or online recordings. Remind students that this selection is about how trapping beavers helped settle the West. Idioms The text includes idioms that might be unfamiliar to students. Explain the meaning of phrases such as mountain men (page 10). Oral Language Development Check student comprehension, using a dialogue that best matches your students English proficiency. Speaker 1 is the teacher, Speaker 2 is the student. Beginning/Early Intermediate Intermediate Early Advanced/ Advanced Speaker 1: What was one thing beaver fur was used to make? Speaker 2: hats Speaker 1: Who founded the American Fur Company in 1809? Speaker 2: John Jacob Astor Speaker 1: Why were beaver trapped? Speaker 2: They were trapped to make hats Speaker 1: Why did President Jefferson send Lewis and Clark to survey the land bought in the Louisiana Purchase? Speaker 2: It was new and had not been explored. Speaker 1: How did beaver trappers survive in the wilderness? Speaker 2: The trappers learned techniques from Native Americans. Name Date Lesson 25 BLACKLINE MASTER Read and answer the questions. Possible responses shown. 1. Think within the text Why did the European fur traders fight with the Native Americans during the early days of the fur trade? Both groups wanted to control the rivers and land where the beavers lived. 2. Think within the text How was the fur trade organized in the years following the Lewis and Clark expedition? Two major companies controlled the fur trade. 3. Think beyond the text What was the author s purpose for including the stories about James Bridger? to help the reader visualize both the characteristics of James Bridger and the hardships and isolation endured by mountain men 4. Think about the text What is the purpose of the headings in the book? They tell the main ideas of each section and help to organize information that is related. Making Connections What qualities do you have that would help you live the life of a mountain man? Does this kind of life sound like something you would enjoy? Tell why or why not. Write your answer in your Reader s Notebook.. All rights reserved. 12, Unit 5: Under Western Skies 5 Lesson 25:

6 Name Date Thinking Beyond the Text Think about the questions below. Then write your answer in one or two paragraphs. Remember that when you think beyond the text, you use your personal knowledge to reach new understandings. On page 10 it says that a few mountain men became legends. What kind of impact did the mountain men have on the American west? What did they do that helped settle the west? Explain your answer, giving examples from the selection. 6 Lesson 25:

7 Name Date Lesson 25 BLACKLINE MASTER Read and answer the questions. 1. Think within the text Why did the European fur traders fight with the Native Americans during the early days of the fur trade? 2. Think within the text How was the fur trade organized in the years following the Lewis and Clark expedition? 3. Think beyond the text What was the author s purpose for including the stories about James Bridger? 4. Think about the text What is the purpose of the headings in the book? Making Connections What qualities do you have that would help you live the life of a mountain man? Does this kind of life sound like something you would enjoy? Tell why or why not. Write your answer in your Reader s Notebook. 7 Lesson 25:

8 Student Date Lesson 25 BLACKLINE MASTER LEVEL V Running Record Form page Selection Text Errors Self-Corrections 3 It is the middle of April. The sun shines on the snow. A lone trapper moves through the woods. He searches for signs of beavers. An hour passes. The trapper sees some willow tree stumps. There are teeth marks on the stumps. Nearby the trapper finds a stream. On one side, he finds a dam. The dam is made of branches, twigs, and mud. The dam has made a large pool. Beavers! The trapper steps into the pond. The water feels like ice. The trapper s feet cramp right away. Despite the cold, he must stay in the water. It hides his human scent. Comments: Accuracy Rate (# words read correctly/ ) % Total Self- Corrections Behavior Code Error Read word correctly cat 0 Repeated word, sentence, or phrase Omission cat 0 cat 1 Behavior Code Error Substitution cut cat 1 Self-corrects cut sc cat Insertion the ˆcat 1 Word told T 1 cat Lesson 25:

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