1 OpenStax-CNX module: m Energy Flow through an Ecosystem Miranda Dudzik Based on Energy Flow through Ecosystems by OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 By the end of this section, you will be able to: Abstract Describe how organisms acquire energy in a food web and in associated food chains Explain how the eciency of energy transfers between trophic levels aects ecosystem structure and dynamics Discuss trophic levels and how ecological pyramids are used to model them All living things require energy in one form or another. Energy is required by most complex metabolic pathways (often in the form of adenosine triphosphate, ATP), especially those responsible for building large molecules from smaller compounds, and life itself is an energy-driven process. Living organisms would not be able to assemble macromolecules (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and complex carbohydrates) from their monomeric subunits without a constant energy input. It is important to understand how organisms acquire energy and how that energy is passed from one organism to another through food webs and their constituent food chains. Food webs illustrate how energy ows directionally through ecosystems, including how eciently organisms acquire it, use it, and how much remains for use by other organisms of the food web. 1 How Organisms Acquire Energy in a Food Web Energy is acquired by living things in three ways: photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, and the consumption and digestion of other living or previously living organisms by heterotrophs. Photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms are both grouped into a category known as autotrophs: organisms capable of synthesizing their own food (more specically, capable of using inorganic carbon as a carbon source). Photosynthetic autotrophs (photoautotrophs) use sunlight as an energy source, whereas chemosynthetic autotrophs (chemoautotrophs) use inorganic molecules as an energy source. Autotrophs are critical for all ecosystems. Without these organisms, energy would not be available to other living organisms and life itself would not be possible. Version 1.1: Oct 15, :23 am
2 OpenStax-CNX module: m Photoautotrophs, such as plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria, serve as the energy source for a majority of the world's ecosystems. These ecosystems are often described by grazing food webs. Photoautotrophs harness the solar energy of the sun by converting it to chemical energy in the form of ATP (and NADP). The energy stored in ATP is used to synthesize complex organic molecules, such as glucose. Chemoautotrophs are primarily bacteria that are found in rare ecosystems where sunlight is not available, such as in those associated with dark caves or hydrothermal vents at the bottom of the ocean (Figure 1). Many chemoautotrophs in hydrothermal vents use hydrogen sulde (H 2 S), which is released from the vents as a source of chemical energy. This allows chemoautotrophs to synthesize complex organic molecules, such as glucose, for their own energy and in turn supplies energy to the rest of the ecosystem. Figure 1: Swimming shrimp, a few squat lobsters, and hundreds of vent mussels are seen at a hydrothermal vent at the bottom of the ocean. As no sunlight penetrates to this depth, the ecosystem is supported by chemoautotrophic bacteria and organic material that sinks from the ocean's surface. This picture was taken in 2006 at the submerged NW Eifuku volcano o the coast of Japan by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The summit of this highly active volcano lies 1535 m below the surface. 2 Productivity within Trophic Levels Productivity within an ecosystem can be dened as the percentage of energy entering the ecosystem incorporated into biomass in a particular trophic level. Biomass is the total mass, in a unit area at the time of
3 OpenStax-CNX module: m measurement, of living or previously living organisms within a trophic level. Ecosystems have characteristic amounts of biomass at each trophic level. For example, in the English Channel ecosystem the primary producers account for a biomass of 4 g/m 2 (grams per meter squared), while the primary consumers exhibit a biomass of 21 g/m 2. The productivity of the primary producers is especially important in any ecosystem because these organisms bring energy to other living organisms by photoautotrophy or chemoautotrophy. The rate at which photosynthetic primary producers incorporate energy from the sun is called gross primary productivity. An example of gross primary productivity is shown in the compartment diagram of energy ow within the Silver Springs aquatic ecosystem as shown (Figure 2). In this ecosystem, the total energy accumulated by the primary producers (gross primary productivity) was shown to be 20,810 kcal/m 2 /yr. Because all organisms need to use some of this energy for their own functions (like respiration and resulting metabolic heat loss) scientists often refer to the net primary productivity of an ecosystem. Net primary productivity is the energy that remains in the primary producers after accounting for the organisms' respiration and heat loss. The net productivity is then available to the primary consumers at the next trophic level. In our Silver Spring example, 13,187 of the 20,810 kcal/m 2 /yr were used for respiration or were lost as heat, leaving 7,632 kcal/m 2 /yr of energy for use by the primary consumers. 3 Ecological Eciency: The Transfer of Energy between Trophic Levels As illustrated in Figure 2, large amounts of energy are lost from the ecosystem from one trophic level to the next level as energy ows from the primary producers through the various trophic levels of consumers and decomposers. The main reason for this is that in biologic systems, a great deal of energy is lost as metabolic heat when the organisms from one trophic level consume the next level. In the Silver Springs ecosystem example (Figure 2), we see that the primary consumers produced 1103 kcal/m 2 /yr from the 7618 kcal/m 2 /yr of energy available to them from the primary producers. The measurement of energy transfer eciency between two successive trophic levels is termed the trophic level transfer eciency (TLTE) and is typically somewhere around 10% - 15% in a given ecosystem :
4 OpenStax-CNX module: m Figure 2: This conceptual model shows the ow of energy through a spring ecosystem in Silver Springs, Florida. Notice that the energy decreases with each increase in trophic level. Why do you think the value for gross productivity of the primary producers is the same as the value for total heat and respiration (20,810 kcal/m 2 /yr)? In Silver Springs, the TLTE between the rst two trophic levels was approximately 14.8 percent. The low eciency of energy transfer between trophic levels is usually the major factor that limits the length of food chains observed in a food web. The fact is, after four to six energy transfers, there is not enough energy left to support another trophic level. In the Lake Ontario example shown in here 1, only three energy transfers occurred between the primary producer, (green algae), and the apex consumer (Chinook salmon). Ecologists have many dierent methods of measuring energy transfers within ecosystems. Some transfers are easier or more dicult to measure depending on the complexity of the ecosystem and how much access scientists have to observe the ecosystem. In other words, some ecosystems are more dicult to study than others, and sometimes the quantication of energy transfers has to be estimated. 4 Modeling Ecosystems Energy Flow: Ecological Pyramids The structure of ecosystems can be visualized with ecological pyramids, which were rst described by the pioneering studies of Charles Elton in the 1920s. Ecological pyramids show the relative amounts of various parameters (such as number of organisms, energy, and biomass) across trophic levels. Pyramids of numbers can be either upright or inverted, depending on the ecosystem. As shown in Figure 3, typical grassland during the summer has a base of many plants and the numbers of organisms decrease at each trophic level. However, during the summer in a temperate forest, the base of the pyramid 1 "Ecology of Ecosystems", Figure 5 <
5 OpenStax-CNX module: m consists of few trees compared with the number of primary consumers, mostly insects. Because trees are large, they have great photosynthetic capability, and dominate other plants in this ecosystem to obtain sunlight. Even in smaller numbers, primary producers in forests are still capable of supporting other trophic levels. Another way to visualize ecosystem structure is with pyramids of biomass. This pyramid measures the amount of energy converted into living tissue at the dierent trophic levels. Using the Silver Springs ecosystem example, this data exhibits an upright biomass pyramid (Figure 3), whereas the pyramid from the English Channel example is inverted. The plants (primary producers) of the Silver Springs ecosystem make up a large percentage of the biomass found there. However, the phytoplankton in the English Channel example make up less biomass than the primary consumers, the zooplankton. As with inverted pyramids of numbers, this inverted pyramid is not due to a lack of productivity from the primary producers, but results from the high turnover rate of the phytoplankton. The phytoplankton are consumed rapidly by the primary consumers, thus, minimizing their biomass at any particular point in time. However, phytoplankton reproduce quickly, thus they are able to support the rest of the ecosystem. Pyramid ecosystem modeling can also be used to show energy ow through the trophic levels. Notice that these numbers are the same as those used in the energy ow compartment diagram in Figure 2. Pyramids of energy are always upright, and an ecosystem without sucient primary productivity cannot be supported. All types of ecological pyramids are useful for characterizing ecosystem structure. However, in the study of energy ow through the ecosystem, pyramids of energy are the most consistent and representative models of ecosystem structure (Figure 3). : Figure 3: Ecological pyramids depict the (a) biomass, (b) number of organisms, and (c) energy in each trophic level. Pyramids depicting the number of organisms or biomass may be inverted, upright, or even diamondshaped. Energy pyramids, however, are always upright. Why? 5 Consequences of Food Webs: Biological Magnication One of the most important environmental consequences of ecosystem dynamics is biomagnication. Biomagnication is the increasing concentration of persistent, toxic substances in organisms at each trophic
6 OpenStax-CNX module: m level, from the primary producers to the apex consumers. Many substances have been shown to bioaccumulate, including classical studies with the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), which was published in the 1960s bestseller, Silent Spring, by Rachel Carson. DDT was a commonly used pesticide before its dangers became known. In some aquatic ecosystems, organisms from each trophic level consumed many organisms of the lower level, which caused DDT to increase in birds (apex consumers) that ate sh. Thus, the birds accumulated sucient amounts of DDT to cause fragility in their eggshells. This eect increased egg breakage during nesting and was shown to have adverse eects on these bird populations. The use of DDT was banned in the United States in the 1970s. Other substances that biomagnify are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which were used in coolant liquids in the United States until their use was banned in 1979, and heavy metals, such as mercury, lead, and cadmium. These substances were best studied in aquatic ecosystems, where sh species at dierent trophic levels accumulate toxic substances brought through the ecosystem by the primary producers. As illustrated in a study performed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron (Figure 4), PCB concentrations increased from the ecosystem's primary producers (phytoplankton) through the dierent trophic levels of sh species. The apex consumer (walleye) has more than four times the amount of PCBs compared to phytoplankton. Also, based on results from other studies, birds that eat these sh may have PCB levels at least one order of magnitude higher than those found in the lake sh.
7 OpenStax-CNX module: m Figure 4: This chart shows the PCB concentrations found at the various trophic levels in the Saginaw Bay ecosystem of Lake Huron. Numbers on the x-axis reect enrichment with heavy isotopes of nitrogen ( 15 N), which is a marker for increasing trophic level. Notice that the sh in the higher trophic levels accumulate more PCBs than those in lower trophic levels. (credit: Patricia Van Hoof, NOAA, GLERL) Other concerns have been raised by the accumulation of heavy metals, such as mercury and cadmium, in certain types of seafood. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends that pregnant women and young children should not consume any swordsh, shark, king mackerel, or tilesh because of their high mercury content. These individuals are advised to eat sh low in mercury: salmon, tilapia, shrimp, pollock, and catsh. Biomagnication is a good example of how ecosystem dynamics can aect our everyday lives, even inuencing the food we eat. 6 Section Summary Organisms in an ecosystem acquire energy in a variety of ways, which is transferred between trophic levels as the energy ows from the bottom to the top of the food web, with energy being lost at each transfer. The eciency of these transfers is important for understanding the dierent behaviors and eating habits of warm-blooded versus cold-blooded animals. Modeling of ecosystem energy is best done with ecological pyramids of energy, although other ecological pyramids provide other vital information about ecosystem structure.
8 OpenStax-CNX module: m Art Connections Exercise 1 (Solution on p. 9.) Figure 3 Pyramids depicting the number of organisms or biomass may be inverted, upright, or even diamond-shaped. Energy pyramids, however, are always upright. Why? 8 Review Questions Exercise 2 (Solution on p. 9.) The weight of living organisms in an ecosystem at a particular point in time is called: a. energy b. production c. entropy d. biomass Exercise 3 (Solution on p. 9.) Which term describes the process whereby toxic substances increase along trophic levels of an ecosystem? a. biomassication b. biomagnication c. bioentropy d. heterotrophy Exercise 4 (Solution on p. 9.) Organisms that can make their own food using inorganic molecules are called: a. autotrophs b. heterotrophs c. photoautotrophs d. chemoautotrophs 9 Free Response Exercise 5 (Solution on p. 9.) Compare the three types of ecological pyramids and how well they describe ecosystem structure. Identify which ones can be inverted and give an example of an inverted pyramid for each.
9 OpenStax-CNX module: m Solutions to Exercises in this Module to Exercise (p. 8) Figure 3 Pyramids of organisms may be inverted or diamond-shaped because a large organism, such as a tree, can sustain many smaller organisms. Likewise, a low biomass of organisms can sustain a larger biomass at the next trophic level because the organisms reproduce rapidly and thus supply continuous nourishment. Energy pyramids, however, must always be upright because of the laws of thermodynamics. The rst law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; thus, each trophic level must acquire energy from the trophic level below. The second law of thermodynamics states that, during the transfer of energy, some energy is always lost as heat; thus, less energy is available at each higher trophic level. to Exercise (p. 8) D to Exercise (p. 8) B to Exercise (p. 8) D to Exercise (p. 8) Pyramids of numbers display the number of individual organisms on each trophic level. These pyramids can be either upright or inverted, depending on the number of the organisms. Pyramids of biomass display the weight of organisms at each level. Inverted pyramids of biomass can occur when the primary producer has a high turnover rate. Pyramids of energy are usually upright and are the best representation of energy ow and ecosystem structure. Glossary Denition 1: assimilation biomass consumed and assimilated from the previous trophic level after accounting for the energy lost due to incomplete ingestion of food, energy used for respiration, and energy lost as waste Denition 2: biomagnication increasing concentrations of persistent, toxic substances in organisms at each trophic level, from the primary producers to the apex consumers Denition 3: biomass total weight, at the time of measurement, of living or previously living organisms in a unit area within a trophic level Denition 4: chemoautotroph organism capable of synthesizing its own food using energy from inorganic molecules Denition 5: ecological pyramid (also, Eltonian pyramid) graphical representation of dierent trophic levels in an ecosystem based of organism numbers, biomass, or energy content Denition 6: gross primary productivity rate at which photosynthetic primary producers incorporate energy from the sun Denition 7: net consumer productivity energy content available to the organisms of the next trophic level Denition 8: net primary productivity energy that remains in the primary producers after accounting for the organisms' respiration and heat loss
10 OpenStax-CNX module: m Denition 9: net production eciency (NPE) measure of the ability of a trophic level to convert the energy it receives from the previous trophic level into biomass Denition 10: trophic level transfer eciency (TLTE) energy transfer eciency between two successive trophic levels
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