Empires of Early Africa

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1 Empires of Early Africa Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 9-12 Curriculum Focus: World History Lesson Duration: Two class periods Program Description The Nile: Where Egypt Began (5 min.) Examines the Nile s role in the birth and growth of Egyptian civilization. Nefertiti Resurrected (32 min.) Investigates whether a recently discovered defaced and discarded mummy is the remains of the most-powerful woman of ancient Egypt. Sub-Saharan Survey (5 min.) Treks though this region s history to examine how thriving gold and salt trades helped bring Islam to Africa. Islam Comes to Timbuktu (4 min.) Looks at how Mansa Musa used his wealth and influence to turn this captured city into a center for Islamic learning. Onscreen Questions Why do civilizations rise near bodies of water? How do archaeologists learn about the past? How can trade affect a growing civilization? How can wealth help make leaders and their ideas more popular? Lesson Plan Student Objectives Understand that Nefertiti and Akhenaten were controversial rulers of ancient Egypt and founded a new capitol in Amarna. Explore how archaeologists have learned about life in the ancient city of Amarna by studying artifacts found there. Materials Empires of Early Africa video and VCR, or DVD and DVD player Computer with Internet access

2 Empires of Early Africa: Teacher s Guide 2 Procedures 1. After watching the video, ask students: Who was Nefertiti? (She was the wife of the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten; she may have ruled as pharaoh herself.) Review basic facts about Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Why was their rule so revolutionary and controversial? (They did not worship all the traditional Egyptian gods; instead, they worshiped a single god named Aten.) What was the name of the city they founded? (Akhetaten, now called Amarna) 2. Next, talk about how archaeologists looked for clues to determine the identity of the mummy they found in the Valley of the Kings. What led them to believe the mummy was Nefertiti? (long neck, band mark around head, double-ear piercing, skeleton, fused bones) What clue led them to believe Nefertiti had actually served as a pharaoh? (The mummy might have been buried with her right arm bent, the sign of a pharaoh.) 3. Talk about how archaeologists use evidence to learn about ancient cultures. They analyze evidence, such as artifacts and ruins, to piece together the puzzle of life long ago. In fact, archaeologists have used artifacts to learn about the world of Akhenaten and Nefertiti and the city they founded. 4. Tell students they ll be exploring a Web site called Pharaohs of the Sun to discover what ancient artifacts have revealed about the world of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. This site provides images and explanations of artifacts, from simple objects to stone carvings, found at Amarna. 5. Divide the class into groups. Explain that they ll be exploring different types of artifacts from Amarna that reflect different aspects of life in the ancient city. The artifacts can be found at Be sure to explore the entire site, as there are numerous images. Assign each group to study one of the following subject areas: The Worship of Aten The Arts in Amarna Daily Life Women s Lives in Amarna Each group should select and print five images that illustrate their subject. 6. Have each group prepare and present a report on their findings as if they are a team of archaeologists who discovered and analyzed the artifacts. They should present an image for each artifact, explaining where it was found and what it reveals about life in Amarna during Akhenaten s rule. Assessment Use the following three-point rubric to evaluate students' work during this lesson. 3 points: Students were highly engaged in class discussions; demonstrated a clear understanding of Nefertiti, Akhenaten, and their controversial rule; gave a clear and thorough class presentation highlighting five artifacts from Amarna.

3 Empires of Early Africa: Teacher s Guide 3 2 points: Students participated in class discussions; demonstrated an adequate understanding of Nefertiti, Akhenaten, and their controversial rule; gave a complete class presentation highlighting five artifacts from Amarna. 1 point: Students did not participate in class discussions; demonstrated an incomplete understanding of Nefertiti, Akhenaten, and their controversial rule; gave an incomplete class presentation highlighting less than five artifacts from Amarna. Vocabulary archaeologist Definition: A scientist who studies ancient peoples by analyzing the things they left behind. Context: Some archaeologists say there is evidence that Nefertiti may have ruled as pharaoh. mummy Definition: A body preserved after death by natural or artificial means. Context: Mummies have been found in many areas of the world, including South America and Asia. pharaoh Definition: a ruler of ancient Egypt Context: The pharaoh was seen as a direct link between the gods and the people. sacrilege Definition: The disrespectful treatment of something others consider holy or sacred Context: Many of the priests in ancient Egypt saw Akhenaten s decision to worship only Aten as sacrilege. Academic Standards Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) McREL's Content Knowledge: A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks for K-12 Education addresses 14 content areas. To view the standards and benchmarks, visit This lesson plan addresses the following national standards: World History: Era 3 Understands the major characteristics of civilization and the development of civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley; Era 4 Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilizations between the 7 th and 10 th centuries Historical Understanding: Understands the historical perspective.

4 Empires of Early Africa: Teacher s Guide 4 The National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) The National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) has developed national standards to provide guidelines for teaching social studies. To view the standards online, go to This lesson plan addresses the following thematic standards: Culture Time, Continuity, and Change Power, Authority, and Governance Support Materials Develop custom worksheets, educational puzzles, online quizzes, and more with the free teaching tools offered on the Discoveryschool.com Web site. Create and print support materials, or save them to a Custom Classroom account for future use. To learn more, visit I. The Nile: Where Egypt Began TRT: 5:18 Time Codes: 1:05:03-1:09:59 1:05:03 The River Nile flows for 4,000 miles 1:09:59 the civilization it helped create. Into music Image: 1:05:51 did the Nile promote civilization? into music The Nile provided ancient Egyptians water for crops and transportation, as well as opportunities for increased wealth. See how the river helped establish Egypt as the first unified, successful civilization. Keywords: Nile, Egypt, agriculture, wealth, merchants, pyramids II. Nefertiti Resurrected TRT: 32:09 Time Codes: 1:11:21-1:43:29 1:11:21 Legend says Egypt never produced such 1:43:29 on Nefertiti has finally been lifted. Image: 1:11:42 from history like a mirage. Watch as scientists try to identify the mummy known as Lady X and restore the memory of Nefertiti, ancient Egypt s famed beauty. Keywords: Egypt, Nefertiti, mummy, Lady X, tomb KV35 III. Sub-Saharan Survey TRT: 5:06 Time Codes: 1:45:21-1:50:27 1:45:21 Africa is the second largest continent.

5 Empires of Early Africa: Teacher s Guide 5 1:50:27 alongside traditional African religions. Image: 1:47:41 traders and created a great empire. Thanks to the lucrative trade of gold and salt, several early African civilizations grew powerful. Learn about the ancient West African empires of Mali, Ghana, and Songhai. Keywords: Africa, Mali Empire, Ghana Empire, Islam, Songhai Empire IV. Islam Comes to Timbuktu TRT: 4:16 Time Codes: 1:51:42-1:55:58 1:51:42 The savannahs of West Africa were 1:55:58 more valuable than gold, knowledge. Image: 1:53:18 Arab traders about a thousand years earlier. Discover how the powerful Malian king Mansa Moussa used his vast wealth to spread the teachings of Islam throughout his empire. Keywords: Mali, empire, Islam, trade, Mansa Moussa, Timbuktu CURRICULUM UNITS 1. The World s First Unified State 1:04:01-1:04:14; 1:04:41-1:04:57; 1:05:03-1:07:49 1:04:01 One of the most successful civilizations of the 1:04:14 Nile was at the heart of it all. 1:04:41 Throughout history, water has been at the 1:04:57 along the banks of the River Nile. Into music 1:05:03 The River Nile flows for 4,000 miles 1:07:49 water where they needed it. Q: What kinds of activities require cooperation among groups of people? Q: How did ancient Egyptians control the Nile s yearly floods? A: Working together to control the Nile s floods, people built dikes and irrigation ditches. These channeled the rising river and also helped store water for the dry season. Keywords: Nile, Egypt, agriculture, civilization, Menes 2. Acquiring Wealth in Egypt 1:07:50-1:09:59 1:07:50 music into The Egyptians also built their civilization 1:09:59 the civilization it helped create. Into music Q: How do civilizations become wealthy? Q: Where did Egypt s wealth come from? A: The Nile was the main source of Egypt s prosperity. It provided an abundance of food and a means

6 Empires of Early Africa: Teacher s Guide 6 for transportation, which helped generate wealth for the Egyptians. Foreign traders carried a constant supply of goods down the river. And gold, ivory, incense, and furs from tropical Africa helped increase the pharaoh s wealth. Keywords: Nile, Egypt, wealth, merchants 3. Opening Tomb KV35 1:10:22-1:10:37; 1:11:21-1:12:06; 1:12:11-1:14:37 1:10:22 Ancient Egyptians mummified their leaders so 1:10:37 people of this mysterious civilization. 1:11:21 Legend says Egypt never produced such 1:12:06 than Egypt s lost queen, Nefertiti. 1:12:11 music into In a walled-up chamber deep in 1:14:37 window, three mummies lie within. Q: What do archaeologists look for and study? Q: What do you think tomb KV35 will reveal? Keywords: Nefertiti, Dr. Joann Fletcher, tomb KV35, mummy 4. The KV35 Mummies 1:14:38-1:18:56 1:14:38 music into There they all are. Unbelievable. 1:18:56 the hidden story of Nefertiti s life. Into music Q: What do you know about Egyptian mummies? Q: What evidence indicates that Lady X might be Nefertiti? A: The Lady X mummy has a long neck, a band mark around the head, and double ear piercing in the left ear. And damage to the mummy s jaw might have occurred after death due to hatred or jealousy. Keywords: mummies, bandages, theory, Lady X, Nefertiti, Dr. Joann Fletcher 5. Nefertiti s Early Life 1:18:56-1:22:16 1:18:56 Her quest begins on the west bank 1:22:16 Nefertiti herself would play a leading role. Q: What do you think royal life was like in ancient Egypt? Q: Why do you think the queen would have chosen Nefertiti as her son s wife? Keywords: Nefertiti, Nile, Malkata, Dr. Joann Fletcher, Omenhotep III, priests

7 Empires of Early Africa: Teacher s Guide 7 6. The King Leaves Thebes 1:22:16-1:26:3 1:22:16 music into Karnak was built up over generations 1:26:35 from Thebes to their new home. Into music Q: Why might a ruler or leader break away from old traditions? Q: Why did Nefertiti and Akhenaten leave Thebes? A: Nefertiti and her husband, the pharaoh Akhenaten worshipped the sun god instead of all the traditional Egyptian gods. They promised to wrest power away from the priests and built new temples that eclipsed the traditional temples of Karnak. These temples were considered sacrilege and a threat to the Egyptian priests, who may have been planning a way to sabotage the rulers. To thwart this possible sabotage, Akhenaten took his wife and their followers away from Thebes and began a new society in what is now known as Amarna. Keywords: temples, Karnak, Akhenaten, priests, Amarna 7. Akhenaten Destroys Egyptian Society 1:26:35-1:30:04 1:26:35 Built within a few years at lightning speed 1:30:04 it all started to fragment. Q: Have you ever moved to a new community? Q: How did Akhenaten change Egyptian society for the worse? A: Akhenaten and Nefertiti adopted informality as soon as they moved to Amarna. Freed from tradition, they took away people s belief system by sweeping away the old Egyptian gods and substituting themselves. This propelled Egypt into economic crisis and great social disorder. Keywords: Amarna, tradition, Utopia, cult, Akhenaten, crisis of faith 8. Technology and Nefertiti s Mummy 1:30:04-1:34:13 1:30:04 music into Egyptologist Joann Fletcher has returned to 1:34:13 from the 18 th dynasty, an encouraging coincidence. Q: How would you identify an object lost long ago? Q: What did the x-ray technology reveal about the mummy in KV35? A: The X-rays revealed that the mummy was female, that a brain was intact, and that a distinctive embalming fluid was used during mummification. Used during the 18 th Dynasty, the fluid helped confirm the mummy s time period, which was also when Nefertiti lived. Keywords: Dr. Joann Fletcher, Nefertiti, mummy, tomb KV35, technology

8 Empires of Early Africa: Teacher s Guide 8 9. The Importance of Lady X 1:34:13-1:38:45 1:34:13 music into In the Valley of the Kings, the investigation 1:38:45 Lady X, but others exist. Q: How do scientists determine the age of mummies and other ancient bodies? Q: What identified Lady X as an important person? A: The mummy was wrapped in linen, used only for royalty, and a bent right arm symbolic of a pharaoh that had been missing for 100 years was replaced with a straight arm. If the bent arm is Lady X s arm, then she would have been royalty. Keywords: Nefertiti, mummy, Lady X, x-ray, age, arm 10. Lady X Reconstructed 1:38:45-1:43:29 1:38:45 music into Joann Fletcher and her team will 1:43:29 on Nefertiti has finally been lifted. Q: How are people remembered after they die? Q: What evidence persuades you to believe that Lady X is Nefertiti s mummy? Keywords: Joann Fletcher, forensic, arm, computer, Nefertiti 11. Early African Empires 1:44:20-1:44:36; 1:45:21-1:50:27 1:44:20 The gold and salt trade brought the African 1:44:36 and power were also picked up along the way. 1:45:21 Africa is the second largest continent. 1:50:27 alongside traditional African religions. Q: What do you know about early African civilizations? Q: Describe the ancient empires of Ghana and Mali. A: A people called the Soninke established Ghana around A.D They may have been the first West Africans to make iron, and their tools and weapons gave them power over the other tribes. The empire drew most of its wealth from the trade of gold and salt. In 1076, Ghana was captured and converted to a Muslim society by Almoravid invaders. Mali, an Islamic empire, was established in 1235 at the site of the former capital of the Ghana Empire. The people of Mali revived the profitable gold and salt trade, and the empire s territory expanded north and west, eventually covering an area about the size of Western Europe.

9 Empires of Early Africa: Teacher s Guide 9 Keywords: Africa, Mali Empire, Ghana Empire, Islam, Songhai Empire 12. Islam: Mali s Official Religion 1:50:50-1:51:06; 1:51:42-1:55:58 1:50:50 The Malian king Mansa Moussa used his 1:51:06 can still be seen in Western Africa today. 1:51:42 The savannahs of West Africa were 1:55:58 more valuable than gold, knowledge. Q: How does trade bring wealth to a country? Q: How did Mansa Moussa spread the Islamic religion? A: The wealthy king spread Islam by sending Egyptian artists to Mali to build mosques and bringing Muslim scholars to his empire to teach. He built a palace in Timbuktu, which he established as a center of Islamic culture and teachings. Keywords: Mali, empire, Islam, trade, Mansa Moussa, Timbuktu

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