Body Fluids. Physiology of Fluid. Body Fluids, Kidneys & Renal Physiology

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Body Fluids. Physiology of Fluid. Body Fluids, Kidneys & Renal Physiology"

Transcription

1 Pc Remember arterioles have more smooth muscle So SNS effects are greater on arterioles than on venules Net effects: SNS P c (vasoconstriction > venoconstriction) SNS P c (vasodilation > venodilation) Body Fluids, Kidneys & Renal Physiology Body Fluids Body Water (TBW) =.6 x body weight (kg) Intracellular =.4 x body weight Extracellular =. x body weight plasma = 1/3 extracellular interstitial = /3 extracellular 75 kg TBW =45 litres intra = 3 litres (⅔ of TBW) extra = 15 litres (⅓ of TBW) plasma = ~5 litres interstitial = ~1 litres Normal Daily Water Loss: 1. Insensible: Skin.4 L Respiratory tract.4 L. Sweat Normal temp.1 L Hot Temp 1.4 L 3. Feces.1 L 4. Urine 1.4 L Normal Water Intake Balances Normal Water Loss Physiology of Fluid Concentration & Osmotic Forces Concentration expressed as molarity Amount relative to molecular weight i.e glucose MW=18g/mol 1 g of glucose in 1 L of water = 1g/L / 18 g/mol =.56mol/L Osmotic Forces determined by the number of solute particles Glucose one solute particle NaCl two solute particles Osmolarity = concentration x # particles/molecule i.e 15 mmol/l solution glucose = 15 mosm 15 mmol/l solution NaCl = 3 mosm Also expressed as osmolality» Number of particles per kg of solvent (mosm/kg H ) 1

2 Plasma Major ionic components are Na +, Cl -, HCO 3 - Plasma osmolality x [Na+] plasma 9 mosm/kg H.9% NaCl solution = Iso-osmotic Any solution < 9 mosm = hypo-osmotic Any solution > 9 mosm = hyper-osmotic Tonicity Tendency of a solution to cause cells to swell or shrink Very important because water moves into and out of cells under osmotic pressure and is not actively transported by pumps Isotonic no effect on cell -.9% NaCl Hypotonic cause cell to swell <.9% NaCl Hypertonic cause cell to shrink >.9% NaCl Under normal circumstances ExtraCellular Fluid (ECF) and IntraCellular Fluid (ICF) are at osmotic equilibrium Changes in osmotic forces lead to a new osmotic equilibrium within ~1 minute Calculating changes in ICF and ECF as fluids are added or removed 1. If iso-osmotic fluid added there is no change in ICF, only an increase in ECF since there is no osmotic effect. If hypo- or hyper-osmotic fluid added then ICF and ECF redistribute to get a new osmotic equilibrium Effect of adding 1 L of water (i.e hypo-osmotic) Body Water Intracellular Extracellular mosm /L Effect of adding L of 4.5% NaCl (i.e hyper-osmotic) Body Water Intracellular Extracellular mosm /L Initial Initial Sol n added 1 1 Sol n added Instant effect Instant effect After osmotic equil After osmotic equil [ ]=116 / 5 = 3 FVxFC=SVxSC Vol FVx3=x9 =754 / FV = = Vol =46 / 3 = 17.5 [ ]=145 / 4 = FVxFC=SVxSC Vol FVx=x9 =754 / FV = = 3.5 Vol FVxFC=SVxSC =46 / FVx=16x435 = 17.5 FV =

3 The Kidney Therefore, 1. hyposmotic solution will be distributed into the intracellular and extracellular space. hypersmotic solution will remove solution from intracellular and bring it to extracellular space 1. Regulation of water & ion balance. Removal of waste from blood & excretion in urine 3. Hormone/enzymes production: a) 1,5 dihydroxyvitamin D b) Renin an enzyme important for Angiotensin II production blood pressure, Na+ regulation The outer layer is the renal cortex; and it contains the sites of filtration and the convoluted tubules. The functional unit in the kidney The inner part of is the renal medulla; this is the location of the longer loops of Henle, and the drainage of the collecting ducts into the renal pelvis and ureter. Proximal tubule Bowman s capsule Bowman s space Blood flow Blood flow The intersection of the macula densa in the distal tubule with the afferent and efferent arterioles forms the juxtaglomerular apparatus, which secretes renin into blood in the afferent arteriole. 3

4 artery Afferent arteriole Glomerular capillary Efferent arteriole Steps in urine formation Bowman s space Peritubular capillary 1. Filtration. Secretion 3. Reabsorption 4. Excretion (urine) 1 3 vein tubule 4 Basic Renal Processing General strategy Everything but cells and protein gets filtered into Bowman s space (called glomerular filtrate) Flitrate has the same substances at same concentrations as plasma Further along tubule, substances are added (secretion) or removed (reabsorption) Amount excreted = amount filtered + amount secreted amount reabsorbed 1. Filtered and secreted; not reabsorbed 3. Filtered and completely reabsorbed For each substance in plasma there is some combination of filtration, reabsorption and secretion For many substances (eg, Na+, Ca++, water) these processes are under physiological control. Filtered, some reabsorbed, some excreted 4

5 Glomerular Filtration Capillary Fenestra allow movement from plasma to Bowman s space Glomerular Filtration A bulk flow process Glomerular Filtration Pressure GFP= ((P GC -P BS )-(π GC - π BS )) P GC P Bs π GC π BS GFP=(6-15)-(9) = 16 mmhg Usually Positive pressure indicates filtration Role of hydrostatic pressure in controlling GFP Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) Function of: 1. Filtration pressure. Permeability of substance 7 kg person GFR water = 18 L/day (15 ml/min) 1. P BC primarily a function of the tubules & ureters; movement of fluid through the system keeps P BC low. P GC a function of blood in glomerular capillary Afferent and efferent arterioles may be regulated independently Function of R eff / R aff Constriction of afferent flow into glomerular capillary therefore P GC Constriction of efferent flow out of glomerular capillary therefore P GC Opposites for dilation 5

6 6

LECTURE 1 RENAL FUNCTION

LECTURE 1 RENAL FUNCTION LECTURE 1 RENAL FUNCTION Components of the Urinary System 2 Kidneys 2 Ureters Bladder Urethra Refer to Renal System Vocabulary in your notes Figure 2-1,page10 Kidney Composition Cortex Outer region Contains

More information

Chapter 26: The Urinary System

Chapter 26: The Urinary System Chapter 26: The Urinary System Chapter Objectives OVERVIEW OF KIDNEY FUNCTION 1. List and describe the functions of the kidneys. NEPHRONS 2. Describe the two major portions of a nephron and the capillaries

More information

CHAPTER 20: URINARY SYSTEM

CHAPTER 20: URINARY SYSTEM OBJECTIVES: 1. Name the major function of the urinary system, and name and locate (on a diagram) the organs that compose the system. 2. Explain what the term renal refers to. 3. Define the term retroperitoneal.

More information

April 18, 2008 Dr. Alan H. Stephenson Pharmacological and Physiological Science

April 18, 2008 Dr. Alan H. Stephenson Pharmacological and Physiological Science Renal Mechanisms for Regulating Urine Concentration April 18, 2008 Dr. Alan H. Stephenson Pharmacological and Physiological Science Amount Filtered Reabsorption is selective Examples of substances that

More information

Urinary System. And Adrenal Function

Urinary System. And Adrenal Function Urinary System And Adrenal Function Overview Kidney anatomy and physiology Urine Ureters, Bladder and Urethra Adrenal Function Functions of the Kidney Filter fluids from the blood Regulate volume and composition

More information

Sign up to receive ATOTW weekly - email worldanaesthesia@mac.com

Sign up to receive ATOTW weekly - email worldanaesthesia@mac.com RENAL PHYSIOLOGY - PART 1 ANAESTHESIA TUTORIAL OF THE WEEK 273 5 th NOVEMBER 2012 Dr Matthew Gwinnutt Mersey Deanery, UK Dr Jennifer Gwinnutt Mersey Deanery, UK Correspondence to: mgwinnutt@doctors.org.uk

More information

Renal Blood Flow GFR. Glomerulus Fluid Flow and Forces. Renal Blood Flow (cont d)

Renal Blood Flow GFR. Glomerulus Fluid Flow and Forces. Renal Blood Flow (cont d) GFR Glomerular filtration rate: about 120 ml /minute (180 L a day) Decreases with age (about 10 ml/min for each decade over 40) GFR = Sum of the filtration of two million glomeruli Each glomerulus probably

More information

Select the one that is the best answer:

Select the one that is the best answer: MQ Kidney 1 Select the one that is the best answer: 1) n increase in the concentration of plasma potassium causes increase in: a) release of renin b) secretion of aldosterone c) secretion of H d) release

More information

Water Homeostasis. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.

Water Homeostasis. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc. Water Homeostasis Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) 1. Water Homeostasis The body maintains a balance of water intake

More information

The digestive system eliminated waste from the digestive tract. But we also need a way to eliminate waste from the rest of the body.

The digestive system eliminated waste from the digestive tract. But we also need a way to eliminate waste from the rest of the body. Outline Urinary System Urinary System and Excretion Bio105 Lecture 20 Chapter 16 I. Function II. Organs of the urinary system A. Kidneys 1. Function 2. Structure III. Disorders of the urinary system 1

More information

Chapter 23. Urine Formation I Glomerular Filtration

Chapter 23. Urine Formation I Glomerular Filtration Chapter 23 Urine Formation I Glomerular Filtration Urine Formation I: Glomerular Filtration kidneys convert blood plasma to urine in three stages glomerular filtration tubular reabsorption and secretion

More information

Regulating the Internal Environment Water Balance & Nitrogenous Waste Removal

Regulating the Internal Environment Water Balance & Nitrogenous Waste Removal Regulating the Internal Environment Water Balance & Nitrogenous Waste Removal 2006-2007 Animal systems evolved to support multicellular life CH CHO O 2 O 2 NH 3 CH CHO O 2 CO 2 NH NH 3 O 2 3 NH 3 intracellular

More information

RENAL WATER REGULATION page 1

RENAL WATER REGULATION page 1 page 1 INTRODUCTION TO WATER EXCRETION A. Role of the Kidney: to adjust urine formation rate and urine concentration to maintain 1. body fluid osmolar concentration 2. body fluid volume 3. intravascular

More information

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Chapter 15. The Urinary System. Slides 15.1 15.20. Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L.

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Chapter 15. The Urinary System. Slides 15.1 15.20. Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Elaine N. Marieb Seventh Edition Chapter 15 The Urinary System Slides 15.1 15.20 Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook Functions of the Urinary System Elimination

More information

Pathophysiology Renal Anatomy and Function II

Pathophysiology Renal Anatomy and Function II Pathophysiology Renal Anatomy and Function II I. Effects of blood volume on the filtration fraction (FF) {Altered Volume Effects in syllabus A. Under normal conditions, ~20% of renal plasma flow becomes

More information

Components. Urinary System. Formation of Urine. Functions of Kidney. Pathway of Urine. Kidney. Major functions of the kidneys include:

Components. Urinary System. Formation of Urine. Functions of Kidney. Pathway of Urine. Kidney. Major functions of the kidneys include: Components Urinary System To Accompany: Anatomy and Physiology Text and Laboratory Workbook, Stephen G. Davenport, Copyright 2006, All Rights Reserved, no part of this publication can be used for any commercial

More information

Kidney Structure and Function.

Kidney Structure and Function. Kidney Structure and Function. Learning Objectives. At the end of this section, you should be able to : 1. describe the structure of the kidney; 2. understand the vascular organisation of the kidneys;

More information

Blood Pressure Regulation

Blood Pressure Regulation Blood Pressure Regulation Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction There are two basic mechanisms for regulating

More information

Pathophysiology Introduction/ Renal Anatomy and Function

Pathophysiology Introduction/ Renal Anatomy and Function Pathophysiology Introduction/ Renal Anatomy and Function I. Functions of the kidney A. Maintaining homeostasis of a large number of solutes and water is the main job of the kidney. Total body contents

More information

Chapter 23. Composition and Properties of Urine

Chapter 23. Composition and Properties of Urine Chapter 23 Composition and Properties of Urine Composition and Properties of Urine urinalysis the examination of the physical and chemical properties of urine appearance - clear, almost colorless to deep

More information

2. Understand the structure of the kidney, and how this structure facilitates its function

2. Understand the structure of the kidney, and how this structure facilitates its function Objectives 1. Understand the roles of the kidney 2. Understand the structure of the kidney, and how this structure facilitates its function 3. Begin to appreciate the inter-dependence of regulatory mechanisms

More information

Fluid, Electrolyte & ph Balance

Fluid, Electrolyte & ph Balance , Electrolyte & ph Balance / Electrolyte / AcidBase Balance Body s: Cell function depends not only on continuous nutrient supply / waste removal, but also on the physical / chemical homeostasis of surrounding

More information

Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 3)

Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 3) Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 3) Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) 27. Effect of Hypoventilation Now let's look at how the

More information

Renal Topics 1) renal function 2) renal system 3) urine formation 4) urine & urination 5) renal diseases

Renal Topics 1) renal function 2) renal system 3) urine formation 4) urine & urination 5) renal diseases Renal Topics 1) renal function 2) renal system 3) urine formation 4) urine & urination 5) renal diseases 1/9/2015 Renal Biology - Sandra Hsu 1 Renal Functions 1) excrete metabolic wastes (blood cleaning)

More information

Biology 224 Human Anatomy and Physiology II Week 8; Lecture 1; Monday Dr. Stuart S. Sumida. Excretory Physiology

Biology 224 Human Anatomy and Physiology II Week 8; Lecture 1; Monday Dr. Stuart S. Sumida. Excretory Physiology Biology 224 Human Anatomy and Physiology II Week 8; Lecture 1; Monday Dr. Stuart S. Sumida Excretory Physiology The following ELEVEN slides are review. They will not be covered in lecture, but will be

More information

Kidneys, Nephrons, and Urine Production

Kidneys, Nephrons, and Urine Production Valerie ovelace Kidneys, Nephrons, and rine Production Part of the urinary system, our kidneys are vital organs that serve to remove waste from the bloodstream through ultrafiltration and the formation

More information

Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back

Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back to the left atria from the left ventricle, blood is pumped

More information

Chapter 48. Nutrients in Food. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids, continued

Chapter 48. Nutrients in Food. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids, continued Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids The three nutrients needed by the body in the greatest amounts are carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Nutrients in Food All of these nutrients are called organic compounds,

More information

Urinary System Lab Guide

Urinary System Lab Guide Urinary System Lab Guide I. Prelab Questions Name 1. Describe the location of the kidneys. 2. Describe the following structures: a. renal cortex b. renal pyramid c. renal column d. minor calyx e. renal

More information

Urinary System! (Chapter 26)! Lecture Materials! for! Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D.! Suffolk County Community College! Eastern Campus!

Urinary System! (Chapter 26)! Lecture Materials! for! Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D.! Suffolk County Community College! Eastern Campus! Urinary System! (Chapter 26)! Lecture Materials! for! Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D.! Suffolk County Community College! Eastern Campus! Urinary System Components:! -Kidneys! -Ureters! -Urinary Bladder!! -Urethra!

More information

Part I Clinical Chemistry of the Kidney and Renal-Associated Physiology

Part I Clinical Chemistry of the Kidney and Renal-Associated Physiology Part I Clinical Chemistry of the Kidney and Renal-Associated Physiology 1 Kidney Anatomy and Function (Lecture 1) 2 Functions of Kidney A) Regulation of water B) Regulation of electrolytes C) Acid-base

More information

FIGURE 2.18. A. The phosphate end of the molecule is polar (charged) and hydrophilic (attracted to water).

FIGURE 2.18. A. The phosphate end of the molecule is polar (charged) and hydrophilic (attracted to water). PLASMA MEMBRANE 1. The plasma membrane is the outermost part of a cell. 2. The main component of the plasma membrane is phospholipids. FIGURE 2.18 A. The phosphate end of the molecule is polar (charged)

More information

AORN A.CARDARELLI NAPOLI dr.e.di Florio III SAR

AORN A.CARDARELLI NAPOLI dr.e.di Florio III SAR AORN A.CARDARELLI NAPOLI dr.e.di Florio III SAR Renal Anatomy Renal Artery & Veins 6 cm 3cm Cortex 11cm Pelvis of the ureter Capsule Ureter To the bladder Medulla Medulary Pyramid Renal Anatomy and Physiology

More information

ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS (Continued)

ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS (Continued) ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS (Continued) Osmolarity Osmotic pressure is an important biologic parameter which involves diffusion of solutes or the transfer of fluids through semi permeable membranes. Per US Pharmacopeia,

More information

Problem 24. Pathophysiology of the diabetes insipidus

Problem 24. Pathophysiology of the diabetes insipidus Problem 24. Pathophysiology of the diabetes insipidus In order to workout this problem, study pages 240 6, 249 51, 318 9, 532 3 and 886 7 of the Pathophysiology, 5 th Edition. (This problem was based on

More information

The first vertebrates evolved in seawater, and the physiology

The first vertebrates evolved in seawater, and the physiology 58 Maintaining the Internal Environment Concept Outline 58.1 The regulatory systems of the body maintain homeostasis. The Need to Maintain Homeostasis. Regulatory mechanisms maintain homeostasis through

More information

Structure of the Kidney Laboratory Exercise 56

Structure of the Kidney Laboratory Exercise 56 Structure of the Kidney Laboratory Exercise 56 Background The two kidneys are the primary organs of the urinary system. They are located in the upper quadrants of the abdominal cavity, against the posterior

More information

CHAPTER 11: URINARY SYSTEM. At the end of this chapter, student will be able to:

CHAPTER 11: URINARY SYSTEM. At the end of this chapter, student will be able to: CHAPTER 11: URINARY SYSTEM At the end of this chapter, student will be able to: a) Describe the location and general function of each organ of the urinary system. b) Name the parts of a nephron and the

More information

The kidneys play a dominant role in regulating the composition

The kidneys play a dominant role in regulating the composition PART VI RENAL PHYSIOLOGY AND BODY FLUIDS C H A P T E R 22 Kidney Function George A. Tanner, Ph.D. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon mastering the material in this chapter you should be able to: Summarize the functions

More information

Clinical Aspects of Hyponatremia & Hypernatremia

Clinical Aspects of Hyponatremia & Hypernatremia Clinical Aspects of Hyponatremia & Hypernatremia Case Presentation: History 62 y/o male is admitted to the hospital with a 3 month history of excessive urination (polyuria) and excess water intake up to

More information

THE URINARY SYSTEM THE URINARY SYSTEM 2012

THE URINARY SYSTEM THE URINARY SYSTEM 2012 THE URINARY SYSTEM KIDNEYS A. Location: a. under the back muscles b. behind the parietal peritoneum c. just above the waistline d. right kidney a little lower than the left B. internal structure a. cortex:

More information

Modes of Membrane Transport

Modes of Membrane Transport Modes of Membrane Transport Transmembrane Transport movement of small substances through a cellular membrane (plasma, ER, mitochondrial..) ions, fatty acids, H 2 O, monosaccharides, steroids, amino acids

More information

Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance Distribution of Body Fluids Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance Total body fluids=60% of body weight Extracellular Fluid Comp 20% of Total body wt. Interstitial= 15% of total body wt. Intravascular=5%

More information

UNIT 11 - URINARY SYSTEM LECTURE NOTES

UNIT 11 - URINARY SYSTEM LECTURE NOTES UNIT 11 - URINARY SYSTEM LECTURE NOTES 11.01 FUNCTIONS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM A. Regulate the composition and volume of the blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. B. Excretes

More information

Chapter 26: The Urinary System Kidney

Chapter 26: The Urinary System Kidney Chapter 26: The Urinary System Kidney --Overview of Kidney Function a. Regulation of blood ionic composition b. Regulation of blood ph and osmolarity c. Regulate blood glucose level (gluconeogenesis) d.

More information

REGULATION OF FLUID & ELECTROLYTE BALANCE

REGULATION OF FLUID & ELECTROLYTE BALANCE REGULATION OF FLUID & ELECTROLYTE BALANCE 1 REGULATION OF FLUID & ELECTROLYTE BALANCE The kidney is the primary organ that maintains the total volume, ph, and osmolarity of the extracellular fluid within

More information

Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy and Physiology Learning Activities It is important that you do not lecture all of the time. If you employ a variety of teaching styles, your students will stay focused better and they will find it easier to process the

More information

Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley. Practice Exam 1

Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley. Practice Exam 1 Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley Practice Exam 1 1. Which definition is the best definition of the term gross anatomy? a. The study of cells. b. The study of tissues. c. The study of structures

More information

Introduction to the kidneys + urinary system Dr Vikram Khullar (v.khullar@imperial.ac.uk)

Introduction to the kidneys + urinary system Dr Vikram Khullar (v.khullar@imperial.ac.uk) Introduction to the kidneys + urinary system Dr Vikram Khullar (v.khullar@imperial.ac.uk) 1. Draw a simple diagram of the urinary system including the following: kidney, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder,

More information

Acute Renal Failure. usually a consequence.

Acute Renal Failure. usually a consequence. Acute Renal Failure usually a consequence www.philippelefevre.com Definitions Pathogenisis Classification ICU Incidence/ Significance Treatments Prerenal Azotaemia Blood Pressure Cardiopulmonary Baroreceptors

More information

EXPERIMENT # 3 ELECTROLYTES AND NON-ELECTROLYTES

EXPERIMENT # 3 ELECTROLYTES AND NON-ELECTROLYTES EXPERIMENT # 3 ELECTROLYTES AND NON-ELECTROLYTES Purpose: 1. To investigate the phenomenon of solution conductance. 2. To distinguish between compounds that form conducting solutions and compounds that

More information

23. The Urinary System Text The McGraw Hill Companies, 2003 CHAPTER

23. The Urinary System Text The McGraw Hill Companies, 2003 CHAPTER CHAPTER 23 The kidneys (green), ureters, and urinary bladder (red) of a healthy person (colorized X ray) The Urinary System CHAPTER OUTLINE Functions of the Urinary System 880 Functions of the Kidneys

More information

The Urinary System Urine (pp. 984 985)

The Urinary System Urine (pp. 984 985) Kidney Anatomy (pp. 961 969) Location and External Anatomy (pp. 961 962) Internal Anatomy (pp. 962 963) Blood and Nerve Supply (pp. 963 964) Nephrons (pp. 964 969) Kidney Physiology: Mechanisms of Urine

More information

References below to Guyton and Hall, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 9th Edition, 1996 are denoted as G&H.

References below to Guyton and Hall, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 9th Edition, 1996 are denoted as G&H. Osmolarity References below to Guyton and Hall, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 9th Edition, 1996 are denoted as G&H. The osmolarity of body fluids is an important part of many physiological responses.

More information

Intravenous Fluid Selection

Intravenous Fluid Selection BENNMC03_0131186116.qxd 3/9/05 18:24 Page 20 seema Seema-3:Desktop Folder:PQ731: CHAPTER 3 Intravenous Fluid Selection LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: Describe and

More information

Dr. Johnson PA Renal Winter 2010

Dr. Johnson PA Renal Winter 2010 1 Renal Control of Acid/Base Balance Dr. Johnson PA Renal Winter 2010 Acid/Base refers to anything having to do with the concentrations of H + ions in aqueous solutions. In medical physiology, we are concerned

More information

Oedema: causes, physiology and nursing management

Oedema: causes, physiology and nursing management CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT By reading this article and writing a practice profile, you can gain a certificate of learning. You have up to a year to send in your practice profile. Guidelines on

More information

Renal Acid/Base. Acid Base Homeostasis... 2 H+ Balance... 2

Renal Acid/Base. Acid Base Homeostasis... 2 H+ Balance... 2 Renal Acid/Base By Adam Hollingworth Table of Contents Acid Base Homeostasis... 2 H+ Balance... 2 Acid Base Homeostasis... 2 Role of Kidneys in Acid- Base Homeostasis... 3 Renal H+ Secretion... 3 Proximal

More information

Cell Transport and Plasma Membrane Structure

Cell Transport and Plasma Membrane Structure Cell Transport and Plasma Membrane Structure POGIL Guided Inquiry Learning Targets Explain the importance of the plasma membrane. Compare and contrast different types of passive transport. Explain how

More information

BIOL 305L Laboratory Two

BIOL 305L Laboratory Two Please print Full name clearly: Introduction BIOL 305L Laboratory Two Osmosis, because it is different in plants! Osmosis is the movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into

More information

Total body water ~(60% of body mass): Intracellular fluid ~2/3 or ~65% Extracellular fluid ~1/3 or ~35% fluid. Interstitial.

Total body water ~(60% of body mass): Intracellular fluid ~2/3 or ~65% Extracellular fluid ~1/3 or ~35% fluid. Interstitial. http://www.bristol.ac.uk/phys-pharm/teaching/staffteaching/sergeykasparov.htmlpharm/teaching/staffteaching/sergeykasparov.html Physiology of the Cell Membrane Membrane proteins and their roles (channels,

More information

Acid-Base Balance and Renal Acid Excretion

Acid-Base Balance and Renal Acid Excretion AcidBase Balance and Renal Acid Excretion Objectives By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Cite the basic principles of acidbase physiology. 2. Understand the bicarbonatecarbon dioxide

More information

Cell Membrane & Tonicity Worksheet

Cell Membrane & Tonicity Worksheet NAME ANSWER KEY DATE PERIOD Cell Membrane & Tonicity Worksheet Composition of the Cell Membrane & Functions The cell membrane is also called the PLASMA membrane and is made of a phospholipid BI-LAYER.

More information

Quiz Urinary System. 1. The kidneys help regulate blood volume. help control blood pressure. help control ph. All of the above are correct.

Quiz Urinary System. 1. The kidneys help regulate blood volume. help control blood pressure. help control ph. All of the above are correct. Quiz Urinary System 1. The kidneys help regulate blood volume. help control blood pressure. help control ph. All of the above are correct. 2. The location of the kidneys in relationship to the peritoneal

More information

Intravenous Fluids: Composition & Uses. Srinidhi Jayaram, PGY1

Intravenous Fluids: Composition & Uses. Srinidhi Jayaram, PGY1 Intravenous Fluids: Composition & Uses Srinidhi Jayaram, PGY1 Body Fluid Compartments Total Body Water (TBW): 50-70% of total body wt. Avg. is greater for males. Decreases with age. Highest in newborn,

More information

MEMBRANE FUNCTION CELLS AND OSMOSIS

MEMBRANE FUNCTION CELLS AND OSMOSIS CELLS AND OSMOSIS MEMBRANE FUNCTION Consider placing a cell in a beaker of pure water (Fig. 1). The cell contains a water solution with many different kinds of dissolved molecules and ions so that it is

More information

7. A selectively permeable membrane only allows certain molecules to pass through.

7. A selectively permeable membrane only allows certain molecules to pass through. CHAPTER 2 GETTING IN & OUT OF CELLS PASSIVE TRANSPORT Cell membranes help organisms maintain homeostasis by controlling what substances may enter or leave cells. Some substances can cross the cell membrane

More information

The Urinary System. Anatomy of Urinary System. Urine production and elimination are one of the most important mechanisms of body homeostasis

The Urinary System. Anatomy of Urinary System. Urine production and elimination are one of the most important mechanisms of body homeostasis The Urinary System Urine production and elimination are one of the most important mechanisms of body homeostasis all body systems are directly or indirectly affected by kidney function eg. composition

More information

Dehydration & Overhydration. Waseem Jerjes

Dehydration & Overhydration. Waseem Jerjes Dehydration & Overhydration Waseem Jerjes Dehydration 3 Major Types Isotonic - Fluid has the same osmolarity as plasma Hypotonic -Fluid has fewer solutes than plasma Hypertonic-Fluid has more solutes than

More information

The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System Human Anatomy III: Respiratory, Urinary & Digestive Systems The Respiratory System Major functions include: Obtaining oxygen Removing carbon dioxide Maintenance of ph balance Respiration may be accomplished

More information

Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 4)

Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 4) Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 4) Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) 5. The newly formed bicarbonate moves into the plasma.

More information

Concentration of a solution

Concentration of a solution Revision of calculations Stoichiometric calculations Osmotic pressure and osmolarity MUDr. Jan Pláteník, PhD Concentration of a solution mass concentration: grams of substance per litre of solution molar

More information

Week 30. Water Balance and Minerals

Week 30. Water Balance and Minerals Week 30 Water Balance and Minerals Water: more vital to life than food involved in almost every body function is not stored--excreted daily largest single constituent of the human body, averaging 60% of

More information

BIOL 1108 Vertebrate Anatomy Lab

BIOL 1108 Vertebrate Anatomy Lab BIOL 1108 Vertebrate Anatomy Lab This lab explores major organs associated with the circulatory, excretory, and nervous systems of mammals. Circulatory System Vertebrates are among the organisms that have

More information

1. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled A on the diagram. 2. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled B on the diagram.

1. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled A on the diagram. 2. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled B on the diagram. 2013 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Sample Tournament Station A: Use the diagram in answering Questions 1-5. 1. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled A on the diagram. 2. Give the name and functions

More information

12.1: The Function of Circulation page 478

12.1: The Function of Circulation page 478 12.1: The Function of Circulation page 478 Key Terms: Circulatory system, heart, blood vessel, blood, open circulatory system, closed circulatory system, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, aorta, atrioventricular

More information

Cell Membrane Coloring Worksheet

Cell Membrane Coloring Worksheet Cell Membrane Coloring Worksheet Composition of the Cell Membrane & Functions The cell membrane is also called the plasma membrane and is made of a phospholipid bilayer. The phospholipids have a hydrophilic

More information

Management of Ileostomy and other GI Fluid Losses. Morbidity and Mortality Conference April 29, 2005 Kings County Hospital Sajani Shah MD

Management of Ileostomy and other GI Fluid Losses. Morbidity and Mortality Conference April 29, 2005 Kings County Hospital Sajani Shah MD Management of Ileostomy and other GI Fluid Losses Morbidity and Mortality Conference April 29, 2005 Kings County Hospital Sajani Shah MD Management of Ileostomy and other GI Fluid Losses Anatomy of Body

More information

FLUID & ELECTROLYTE THERAPY Lyon Lee DVM PhD DACVA

FLUID & ELECTROLYTE THERAPY Lyon Lee DVM PhD DACVA FLUID & ELECTROLYTE THERAPY Lyon Lee DVM PhD DACVA Purposes of fluid administration during the perianesthetic period Replace insensible fluid losses (evaporation, diffusion) during the anesthetic period

More information

Isotonic, Hypertonic, Hypotonic or Water Which sports drink is the best for athletes? Fluid Facts for Winners

Isotonic, Hypertonic, Hypotonic or Water Which sports drink is the best for athletes? Fluid Facts for Winners Isotonic, Hypertonic, Hypotonic or Water Which sports drink is the best for athletes? Fluid Facts for Winners Why is fluid intake so important for runners? Fluid is a vital part of any athlete s diet for

More information

3. Tunica adventitia is the outermost layer; it is composed of loosely woven connective tissue infiltrated by nerves, blood vessels and lymphatics

3. Tunica adventitia is the outermost layer; it is composed of loosely woven connective tissue infiltrated by nerves, blood vessels and lymphatics Blood vessels and blood pressure I. Introduction - distribution of CO at rest II. General structure of blood vessel walls - walls are composed of three distinct layers: 1. Tunica intima is the innermost

More information

1. DEFINITION OF PHYSIOLOGY. Study of the functions of the healthy human body. How the body works. Focus on mechanisms of action.

1. DEFINITION OF PHYSIOLOGY. Study of the functions of the healthy human body. How the body works. Focus on mechanisms of action. 1. DEFINITION OF PHYSIOLOGY Study of the functions of the healthy human body. How the body works. Focus on mechanisms of action. Anatomy & Physiology: inseparable & complementary They are complementary

More information

Lesson Aim To explain the human body at a microscopic level, including the structure and function of cells, tissues and membranes.

Lesson Aim To explain the human body at a microscopic level, including the structure and function of cells, tissues and membranes. LESSON 1. CELLS & TISSUES Lesson Aim To explain the human body at a microscopic level, including the structure and function of cells, tissues and membranes. THE CELL All living matter is composed of functional

More information

Acid-Base Balance and the Anion Gap

Acid-Base Balance and the Anion Gap Acid-Base Balance and the Anion Gap 1. The body strives for electrical neutrality. a. Cations = Anions b. One of the cations is very special, H +, and its concentration is monitored and regulated very

More information

Drug Excretion. Renal Drug Clearance. Drug Clearance and Half-Life. Glomerular Filtration II. Glomerular Filtration I. Drug Excretion and Clearance

Drug Excretion. Renal Drug Clearance. Drug Clearance and Half-Life. Glomerular Filtration II. Glomerular Filtration I. Drug Excretion and Clearance t/.drugexcretion AINTRAVENOUSDOSE 36848765430TIME(hours) t/ Drug Excretion Dr. Robert G. Lamb Professor Pharmacology & Toxicology Drug Excretion and Clearance Drug Excretion: is the movement of drug from

More information

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent.

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. TYPES OF SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. Solute: substance being dissolved; present in lesser amount. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving; present

More information

Section 7-3 Cell Boundaries

Section 7-3 Cell Boundaries Note: For the past several years, I ve been puzzling how to integrate new discoveries on the nature of water movement through cell membranes into Chapter 7. The Section below is a draft of my first efforts

More information

Cell Biology - Part 2 Membranes

Cell Biology - Part 2 Membranes Cell Biology - Part 2 Membranes The organization of cells is made possible by membranes. Membranes isolate, partition, and compartmentalize cells. 1 Membranes isolate the inside of the cell from the outside

More information

4. Biology of the Cell

4. Biology of the Cell 4. Biology of the Cell Our primary focus in this chapter will be the plasma membrane and movement of materials across the plasma membrane. You should already be familiar with the basic structures and roles

More information

Overview of the Cardiovascular System

Overview of the Cardiovascular System Overview of the Cardiovascular System 2 vascular (blood vessel) loops: Pulmonary circulation: from heart to lungs and back) Systemic circulation: from heart to other organs and back Flow through systemic

More information

This article reviews the role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid-base balance. It

This article reviews the role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid-base balance. It RENAL REGULATION OF ACID-BASE BALANCE Bruce M. Koeppen Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut 06030 This article reviews the role

More information

Chapter 15. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Visceral Reflexes. general properties Anatomy. Autonomic effects on target organs

Chapter 15. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Visceral Reflexes. general properties Anatomy. Autonomic effects on target organs Chapter 15 Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Visceral Reflexes general properties Anatomy Autonomic effects on target organs Central control of autonomic function 15-1 Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

Paramedic Program Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide

Paramedic Program Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide Paramedic Program Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide Define the terms anatomy and physiology. List and discuss in order of increasing complexity, the body from the cell to the whole organism. Define the

More information

Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes

Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes : 204 : Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes 27 Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes We can live without food for several days but we cannot live without breathing

More information

Sodium. 1 Name and description of analyte. 1.1 Name of analyte Sodium (serum, plasma, whole blood and urine)

Sodium. 1 Name and description of analyte. 1.1 Name of analyte Sodium (serum, plasma, whole blood and urine) Sodium 1 Name and description of analyte 1.1 Name of analyte Sodium (serum, plasma, whole blood and urine) 1.2 Alternative names: none Chemical symbol: Na (from the Latin, Natrium) 1.3 NLMC code: to follow

More information

Chronic Kidney Disease and Diabetes

Chronic Kidney Disease and Diabetes Anyone with diabetes can get kidney disease. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most common causes of kidney disease, and people often have both. Chronic (long term) kidney disease (CKD) caused by

More information

The Kidneys: Structure, Function, Disorders

The Kidneys: Structure, Function, Disorders The Kidneys: Structure, Function, Disorders by John H. Dirckx, M.D. Everyone knows that the heart, the lungs, and the brain are vital organs that is, that their absence or destruction is incompatible with

More information

Eating, pooping, and peeing THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Eating, pooping, and peeing THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Ingested food is not technically in the body until it is absorbed so it needs to be: Mechanically and chemically reduced Transported by the blood to the cells Large portions are not

More information

Functions of Blood System. Blood Cells

Functions of Blood System. Blood Cells Functions of Blood System Transport: to and from tissue cells Nutrients to cells: amino acids, glucose, vitamins, minerals, lipids (as lipoproteins). Oxygen: by red blood corpuscles (oxyhaemoglobin - 4

More information

1. Understand the hemodynamic determinants of systemic hypertension. 2. Recognize primary and secondary forms of hypertension.

1. Understand the hemodynamic determinants of systemic hypertension. 2. Recognize primary and secondary forms of hypertension. Objectives 1. Understand the hemodynamic determinants of systemic hypertension. 2. Recognize primary and secondary forms of hypertension. 3. Understand the role of the kidney in systemic hypertension:

More information