Cell membranes and transport. Learning Objective:

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1 Cell membranes and transport Content Fluid mosaic model of membrane structure Movement of substances into and out of cells Learning Objective: a. Describe and explain the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure, including an outline of the roles of phospholipids, cholesterol, glycolipids, proteins and glycoproteins; A cell membrane consists of a double layer of phospholipid molecules. This structure arises because in water a group of phospholipid molecules arranges itself into a bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing outwards into the water and the hydrophobic tails facing inwards, therefore avoiding contact with water. This is the basic structure of a cell membrane. There are also cholesterol molecules in among the phospholipids. Protein molecules float in the phospholipid bilayer. Many of the phospholipids and proteins have short chains of carbohydrates attached to them, on the outer surface of the membrane. They are known as glycolipids and glycoproteins. There are also other types of glycolipid with no phosphate groups. This is called the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure: fluid because the molecules within the membrane can move around within their own layers mosaic because the protein molecules are dotted around within the membrane. model because no-one had ever seen a membrane looking like the diagram the molecules are too small to see even with the most powerful microscope. The

2 structure has been worked out because it explains the behaviour of membranes that has been discovered through experiment. The bilayer (membrane) is about 7nm wide. Component Phospholipids Cholesterol Proteins and glycoproteins Glycolipids Roles Form the fluid bilayer that is the fundamental structure of thee membrane. Prevent hydrophilic substances such as ions and some molecules from passing through. Helps to keep the cell membrane fluid Provide channels that allow hydrophilic substances to pass through the membrane; these channels can be opened or closed to control the substances movement. Actively transport substances through the membrane against their concentration gradient, using energy derived from ATP. Act as receptor molecules for substances such as hormones, which bind with them; this can then affect the activity of the cell. Cell recognition cells from a particular individual or a particular tissue have their own set of proteins and glycoproteins on their outer surfaces. Cell recognition and adhesion to neighbouring cells to form tissues. b. Outline the roles of cell surface membranes; Passive transport through cell membranes Molecules and ions are in constant motion. In gases and liquides they move freely. As a result of their random motion, each type of molecule or ion tends to spread out evenly within thespace available. This is diffusion. Diffusion results in the net movement of ions and molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration. Diffusion across a cell membrane Some molecules and ions are able to pass through cell membranes. The membrane is permeable to these substances. However, some substances cannot pass through cell membranes, so the membtanes are said to be partiallt permeable. For example, oxygen is often at a higher concentration outside a cell than inside, because the oxygen inside the cell is being used up in respiration. The random motion of oxygen molecules inside and outside the cell means that some of them hit the cell surface membrane. More of them hit the membrane on the outside than the inside, because there are more of them outside. Oxygen molecules are small and do not carry an electrical charge, so theu are able to pass freely through the phospholipid bilayer. Oxygen therefore diffuses from outside the cell, through the membrane, to the inside of the cell, down its concentration gradient.

3 This is passive transport, because the cell does not do anything to cause the oxygen to move across the cell membrane. Facillitated diffusion Ions or electrically charged molecules are not able to diffuse through the phospholipid bilater because theu are repelled from the hydrophobic tails. Large molecules are also unacle to move through the phospholipid bilater freeelu. However, the cell membrane contains special protein molecules that provide hudropholic passageways through which these ions and molecules can pass. They are called channel proteins. Different channels proteins allow the passage of different type of molecules and ions. Diffusion through these channel proteins is called facillitated diffusion. Like odrinary diffusion, it is entirely passive. Osmosis Water molecules are small. They carry tiny electrical charges (dipoles) but their small size means that they are still able to move quite freely through the phospholipid bilayer of most cell memnbranes. Water molecules therefore tend to diffuse down their concentration gradient actoss cell membranes. The greater the concentration of solute, the less wateeer is peresent. The water molecules in a concentrated solution are also less free to move, because theu are attracted to the solute molecules. A concentrated solution is therefore said to have a low water potential. In a dilute solution, there are more water molecules and they can move more freely. This solution has a high water potential. Imagine a cell membrane with a dilute solution on one side and a concentrated solution on the other side. The solute has molecules that are too larhe to het through the membrane only the water molecules can get through.

4 Water molecules in the dilute solution are moving more freely and therefore hit the membrane more often than water molecules in the concentrated solution. More water molecules theresore diffuse across the membrane from the dilute to the concentrated solution than in the other direction. The net movement of water molecules is from a high water potential to a low water potential, down a water potential gradient. This is osmosis. Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution throgh a partially permeable membrane, down a water potential gradient. Water potential is measured in pressure units, kilopascals (kpa). Pure water has a water porential of 0kPa. Solutions have negative water potentials. For example, a dilute sucrose solution might have a water potential of -250kPa. A concentrated sucrose solution might have a water potential of -4000kPa. The more negative the number, the lower the water potential. Water moves by osmosis down a water potential gradient, from a high (less negavive) water potential to a low (more negative) water potential. Active transport across cell membrane

5 Cells are able to make some substances move across their memnranes up their concentration gradients. For example, if there are more potassium ions inside the cell than outside the cell, the potassium ions would diffuse out of the cell. However, the cell may require postassium ions. It may therefore use a process called active transport to move potassium ions from outside the cell to inside the cell, against the direction in which they would normally naturally diffuse. This is done using carrier (transporter) proteins in the cell membranes. These use energy from the breakdown of ATP to move the ions into the cell. The carrier proteins are ATPases. Each carrier protein is specific to just one type of ion or molecul. Cells contain many different carrier proteins in their membranes. c. Describe and explain the processes of diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transport, endocytosis and exocytosis; Diffusion the net movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration down a gradient, as a result of the random movements of particales. Osomosis the net movemnt of water molecules from a region of higher water potential to a region of lower water potential, through a partially permeable memnrane, as a result of their random motion (diffusion)

6 Facilitated diffusion the diffusion of a substance through transport proteins in a cell membrane; the proteins provide hydrophilic areas that allow the molecules or ions to pass through the membrane which would otherwise be less permeable to them Active transport the movement of molecules or ions through transport proteins across a cell membrane, against their concentration gradient, using energy from ATP Endocytosis the bulk movement of liquides (pinocytosis) or solids (phogocytosis) into a cell, by the infolding of the cell surface membrane to form vesicles containing the substance; endocytosis is an active process requiring ATP Exocytosis the bulk moveement of liquids or solids out of a cell, by the fusion of vesicles containing the substance with the cell surface membrane; exocytosis is an active process requiring ATP d. Investigate the effects on plant cells of immersion in solutions of different water potential;

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