3. The Buddha followed some Hindu ideas and changed others, but he did not consider himself to be a god.

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1 True / False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Like the ancient Greeks, Indian astronomers proposed the theory that the Earth was round and revolved around the sun. 2. During his time as ruler, Ashoka became more violent and warlike. 3. The Buddha followed some Hindu ideas and changed others, but he did not consider himself to be a god. 4. Theravada Buddhism teaches that the Buddha is a god. 5. The most powerful varnas were the Vaisyas and Sudas. Multiple Choice Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 6. Most Indus Valley people lived in a. farming villages. b. large cities. c. small towns. d. trading communities. 7. The Indian subcontinent is part of the continent of a. Africa. b. Asia. c. Europe. d. South America.

2 8. In step 2 of the diagram, how does the air become warm? a. The hot landmass heats the air above it. b. The Indian Ocean heats the air. c. The sun warms the air. d. The wind blows warm air in from another area. 9. Based on the monsoon diagram, which of the following happens immediately after warm air expands and rises? a. Cool, moist, heavy air replaces rising hot air. b. Monsoon rains begin. c. The land absorbs heat. d. Winds blow from the sea to the land. 10. According to the diagram, during the monsoon rains, winds blow from a. east to west across the Himalaya. b. land to sea. c. sea to land. d. southern India to the north. 11. Who developed the current form of Jainism? a. Ashoka b. Mahavira c. Mohandas Gandhi d. Siddhartha Gautama 12. Mahayana Buddhism spread to which of the following countries? a. Cambodia b. China c. Myanmar d. Thailand

3 13. Ashoka was the first ruler to promote a. ahimsa. b. Buddhism. c. Hinduism. d. Jainism. 14. The Gupta Empire thrived through the trade of goods such as a. gold. b. iron. c. paintings. d. sculptures. 15. Which of the following correctly describes Hindu epics? a. They were examples of ancient Indian b. They taught correct and acceptable behavior through architecture. interesting stories. c. They were among the last works to be written in Sanskrit. Matching Match each item with the correct statement below. a. Vedas b. guru c. Siddhartha Gautama d. Dalai Lama e. stupas 16. a teacher 17. contained religious objects and served as places of worship 18. sacred texts that recorded Aryan hymns, stories, poems, and prayers 19. became known as the Buddha 20. Buddhist leader that acts as head of Tibet s government d. They were never written down. Subjective Short Answer 21. Reread this part of the quote: [T]he Self, having reached the end of his body, takes hold of another body, then draws itself from the first. What concept does this quote describe? 22. Which other major religion shares a similar belief to the one expressed in the quotation? 23. The quotation comes from an ancient text of what religion? How do you know? 24. How did the caste system in India affect people s lives?

4 25. To which varna would skilled craftspeople have belonged? 26. According to the map, in which general direction did the Aryans migrate across India? 27. According to the map, what mountain range did the Aryans cross between 2000 and 1500 B.C.? 28. Along which river did the Aryans migrate between 1500 and 1000 B.C., according to the map?

5 29. Why did the Mauryan Empire decline after Ashoka s death in 232 B.C.? 30. According to the Buddha's Four Noble Truth, why do people suffer and what is the solution to end suffering? Essay 31. Why did many people in early India accept the Buddha s message?

6 Answer Key 1. True 2. False 3. True 4. False 5. False 6. a 7. b 8. a 9. a 10. c 11. b 12. b 13. b 14. b 15. b 16. b 17. e 18. a 19. c 20. d 21. the concept of reincarnation, or rebirth in another body 22. Buddhism 23. Hinduism; because it talks about reincarnation, and the Upanishads are part of the Hindu religion 24. People remained in the caste system for life. These castes determined the jobs that people could have. Small groups within the caste system had strict rules for diet and social customs. Castes also affected who people could marry, and determined how successful they could be. 25. Vaisyas 26. southeast 27. Hindu Kush 28. Ganges River

7 29. The rulers that followed Ashoka treated merchants and peasants poorly. The Indian people rebelled against this harsh treatment. The Mauryan Empire eventually split into many small, warring kingdoms. 30. The Buddha s Four Noble Truths state that people suffer because they desire worldly things and want to satisfy themselves.people must stop desiring things and accept the Eightfold Path. 31. Correct answers should include: Buddhism did not defend the caste system. It asserted that even Untouchables and Indians in the lower jati could achieve enlightenment. It also provided a path toward breaking the unending chain of reincarnation and suffering.

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