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1 Determining Energy Requirements - & Gas Heating & Gas Heating and gas heating applications can be divided into two conditions, air or gas at normal atmospheric pressure and air or gas under low to high pressure. Applications at atmospheric pressure include process air, re-circulation and oven heating using duct or high temperature insert air heaters. Pressurized applications include pressurized duct heating and other processes using high pressures and circulation heaters. Procedures for determining heat energy requirements for either condition are similar except the density of the compressed gas and the mass velocity of the flow must be considered in pressurized applications. Selection of equipment in both conditions is critical due to potentially high sheath temperatures that may occur. Determining Heat Requirements for Atmospheric Pressure Gas Heating The following formulas can be used to determine kw required to heat air or gas: Equation A kw = CFM x lbs/ft 3 x 6 min x Cp x ΔT x SF CFM = Volume in cubic feet per minute Lbs/ft 3 = Density of air or gas at initial temperature Cp = Specifi c heat of air or gas at initial temperature ΔT = Temperature rise in F SF = Suggested Safety Factor For quick estimates of air heating requirements for inlet temperatures up to F, the following formula can be used. kw = SCFM x ΔT x 1. SF 3, SCFM = Volume of air in cubic feet per minute at standard conditions 1 (7 F at standard atmospheric pressure) 3, = Conversion factor for units, time and Btu/lb/ F 1. SF = Suggested safety factor of % Graph G-176S When airfl ow (ft 3 /min) and temperature rise are known, kw requirements can be read directly from graph G-176S. Note Safety factors are not included. Note 1 Based on an average density of. lbs/ft 3 and a specifi c heat of. Btu/lb/ F. For greater accuracy, use Equation A and values from the Properties of Chart in this section. I- Graph G-176S Heating Kilowatts Process Heating Calculation Example A drying process requires heating ACFM of air 1 from 7 F to 1 F. The existing duct- work measures ft wide by 1 ft high and is insulated (negligible losses). To fi nd heating capacity required, use Equation A: kw = ACFM x. x 6 x. x x 1. SF kw = 1. Based on Density of. Lbs/Ft 3 and a Specific Heat of.37 Btu/Lb/ F Heater Selection Finstrip (CAB heaters), Fintube (DH heaters) or tubular elements (TDH, ADH and ADHT heaters) will all work satisfactorily in low temperature applications. Finstrips or fi nned tubular elements are usually the most cost effective. Tubular elements are recommended for high temperatures. Once the desired type of heating element is selected, the next step is to calculate the air velocity and estimate sheath temperatures to verify that maximum operating temperatures are not exceeded. Calculate the air velocity over the elements and refer to allowable watt density graphs for estimated operating temperature. Calculating velocity can be calculated from the following formula: Velocity (fps) = 6 FRise FRise FRise F Rise FRise 3 FRise 3 FRise F Rise FRise 1 F Rise F Rise 7 F Rise F Rise Volume (Cubic Feet Per Minute) (ACFM) Area of Heater (ft ) x 6 sec. Low Temperature Heater Selection A ypical heater selection for the previous example might be a type CAB heater with fi nstrip elements. Available 1 kw stock heaters include a CAB-111 with chrome steel elements or a CAB- with iron sheath elements, both rated at 6 W/in. From the product page, the face area of a 1 kw CAB heater is 1.19 ft : Velocity (fps) = ACFM = 6.3 fps 1.19 ft x 6 sec. Estimating Sheath Operating Temperature The maximum operating sheath temperatures for fi nstrips are 7 F for iron and 9 F for chrome steel. Using graph G-7S for iron sheath fi nstrips, a 1 F outlet temperature and a watt density of 6 W/in requires a velocity in excess of 9 ft/sec to keep sheath temperatures below maximum permissible levels. With only 6.3 fps in the application, a CAB- heater with iron sheath elements is not suitable. Using graph G-S for chrome sheath fi nstrips, approximately 3 ft/sec. air velocity results in a maximum of 9 F sheath temperature. Since this is lower than the actual velocity of 6.3 fps, a CAB-111 with chrome steel fi nstrips is an acceptable heater selection. (Use graphs G-S, G-S,G- 6S and G-13S for air heating with regular strip and fi nstrip heaters.) High Temperature Heater Selection Type TDH and ADHT heaters with tubular elements are recommended for high temperature applications. Steel sheath tubulars may be used where the sheath temperature will not exceed 7 F. Finned tubulars can be used in applications up to a maximum sheath temperature of F. INCOLOY sheath tubulars may be used for applications with sheath temperatures up to F. Allowable watt densities for tubulars and fi nned tubulars can be determined by reference to graphs G-136S and G-11-1 through G--1. Estimating Sheath Operating Temperature Select a heater for a high temperature application with an inlet air temperature of 97 F and a velocity of ft/sec. Since the temperature is above 7 F, an INCOLOY sheath must be used. Using graph G--1 the allowable watt density is 11 W/in for sheath temperatures of F or W/in for temperatures of 1 F. In this application, a stock ADHT heater with a standard watt density of W/in can be used. Note Special ADHT duct heaters, derated to the required watt density, can be supplied when element ratings less than the standard W/in are needed.

2 Allowable Watt Density & Heater Selection - Heating & Gas Heating with Strip and Finstrip Heaters Custom Designs Strip and fi nstrip heaters are frequently mounted in banks by the end user. Graphs G-S and G-6S on this page can be used in conjunction with other graphs to determine maximum watt density for virtually any custom design low temperature heating application. Graph G-S Strip Heaters To use this graph: 1. Select maximum desired outlet air temperature on line A.. Choose either chrome steel sheath or rust resisting iron sheath (points B) on the basis of operating conditions. 3. Select minimum anticipated air velocity on B. Note natural circulation is equal to approximately one foot per second.. Draw a straight line through points A and B to a reading on C. Read maximum allowable watts per square inch from line C.. Select desired length heater with an equivalent watt density or less from the product page in this catalog. Graph G-6S Finstrip Heaters To use this graph: 1. Select maximum desired outlet air temperature on line D.. Choose either chrome steel sheath or rust resisting iron sheath (points E) on the basis of operating conditions. 3. Select minimum anticipated air velocity on B. Note natural circulation is equal to approximately one foot per second.. Draw a straight line through points D and E to a reading on F. Read maximum allowable watts per square inch from line F.. Select desired length heater with an equivalent watt density or less from the product page in this catalog. Recommendations for Custom Installations Strip heaters should always be mounted sideways in the ductwork with the narrow edges facing the air stream. The total number of elements installed should be divisible by 3 so that the heater load will be balanced on a three phase circuit. Graph G-S Strip Heater Heating-Selection of Watt Density Graph G-6S Finstrip Heater Heating-Selection of Watt Density A B C Chrome Steel Sheath Iron Sheath Chrome Steel Sheath Iron Sheath (F.P.S.) 9 1 (F.P.S.) 9 1 (F.P.S.) 9 1 (F.P.S.) 9 1 D E F W/In W/In I-17 TECHNICAL INFORMATION

3 Allowable Watt Density & Heater Selection - Heating Graph G-13S Strip Heater (Iron) Heating Allowable Watt Densities for 7 F Sheath Temp F.P.S. Distributed Velocity 9F.P.S. F.P.S. 1 F.P.S. or Free 9 F.P.S. F.P.S. 1 F.P.S or Free F.P.S. Wattage Rating of Strip Heater = W/In x Heated Area Strip Heaters < 3-1/", Heated Length = Overall Length - " Strip Heaters 3-1/", Heated Length = Overall Length - " 1-1/" Wide Strip Heater = 3. in /in. 1" Wide Strip Heater =.31 in /in. Maximum Outlet Temperature and the Lowest. For Close Grouping of Heaters, Use % of the Calculated Value Graph G-7S Finstrip (Iron Sheath) Heating Allowable Watt Densities for 7 F Sheath Temp. F.P.S. Distributed Maximum Outlet Temperature and the Lowest. For Close Grouping of Heaters, Use only % of the Calculated Value 3 6 Graph G-S Finstrip (Chrome Steel) Heating Allowable Watt Densities for 9 F Sheath Temp. 9F.P.S. 1 F.P.S.or Free F.P.S. Distributed Maximum Outlet Temperature and the Lowest. For Close Grouping of Heaters, Use % of the Calculated Value. Wattage Rating of Finstrip = W/In x 3.6 x Heated Length Wattage Rating of Finstrip = W/In x 3.6 x Heated Length Graph G-S Strip Heater (Chrome) Heating Allowable Watt Densities for F Sheath Temp F.P.S.Distributed 9F.P.S. F.P.S. 1 F.P.S. or Free Maximum Outlet Temperature and the Lowest. For Close Grouping of Heaters, Use % of the Calculated Value Notes Strip Heaters < 3-1/", Heated Length = Overall Length - " Strip Heaters 3-1/", Heated Length = Overall Length - " 1-1/" Wide Strip Heater = 3. in./in. 1" Wide Strip Heater =.31 in./in. Graph G-136S Tubular Heater Heating 3 Sheath Temperature of Tubular Elements at Various Watt Densities in Free or Forced at F F.P.S. 9 F.P.S. F.P.S. 1 F.P.S. 6 1 Sheath Temperature ( F) Still I-1

4 Allowable Watt Density & Heater Selection - Heating Graph G-11-1 Fintube & Tubular Heaters Sheath Temperatures with 1 FPS Distributed Finned F F F 9 F F 6 F F F Graph G-1-1 Fintube & Tubular Heaters Sheath Temperatures with FPS Distributed Finned F F 7 F 6 F F F F 1 F Graph G--1 Fintube & Tubular Heaters Sheath Temperatures with FPS Distributed Finned F F F F 6 F F F F F F F 6 F F F 1 F 1 F Graph G-13-1 Fintube & Tubular Heaters Sheath Temperatures with 9 FPS Distributed Finned Graph G-1-1 Fintube & Tubular Heaters Sheath Temperatures with FPS Distributed Finned F F 6 F 6 F F F F F 6 F 6 F F F F Graph G--1 Fintube & Tubular Heaters Sheath Temperatures with 36 FPS Distributed Finned TECHNICAL INFORMATION I-19

5 Determining Energy Requirements - & Gas Heating & Gas Heating Cryogenics Industrial gases are usually stored in a liquid state with heat being added to vaporize and boil off the gas as usage requires. General heat equations apply except that pipes, tubes and vessels containing the cryogenic fl uid or gas frequently represent a heat source rather than a heat loss. If the size and materials of the tanks or vessels are known, then heat calculations for the temperature rise can be performed as in standard vessel heating or boiler problems. The following example is typical of a cryogenic heating application. Problem Vaporize and preheat 3, SCFH of liquid Nitrogen (N ) from -3 F to 7 F at atmospheric conditions. The properties of N from Cryogenic Gas Tables are: Boiling point, -3 F Specific heat Btu/lb/ F =.7 (liq.),. (gas) Latent heat of vaporization =.7 Btu/lb Atm. density of N at 3 F =.7 lb/ft 3. Solution Amount of liquid N to be vaporized 3, SCFH x.7 lb/ft 3 =,3 lbs/hr 1. Raise liquid from -3 F to -3 F (boiling point) ΔT = F. kw = Wt x Cp x ΔT x SF Wt = Weight of material in lbs Cp = Specifi c heat of the liquid N ΔT = Temperature rise in F SF = Suggested safety factor of % kw =,3 lbs x.7 x x 1. = 9. kw. Vaporize the liquid N kw =,3 lbs x.7 x 1. = 7.9 kw 3. Raise the temperature of the N from boiling point -3 F to 7 F ΔT = 39 F. kw =,3 lbs x. x 39 x 1. = kw Total kw/hr required = = 9.7 Equipment Recommendations Generally, cryogenic applications utilize both a vaporizer unit and a gas preheater. High watt density heaters immersed in the cryogenic fl uid can be used for the vaporizer. Standard circulation heaters and watt densities are recommended for gas preheating. Protect the heater terminals from frost and moisture with element seals and liquid tight terminal covers. Material Recommendations Ordinary carbon steel is subject to brittle fracture at temperatures below - F and is generally not recommended. Stainless steel, high nickel bearing alloys or aluminum alloys may be used. Use Tefl on for gaskets astefl on remains pliable at low temperatures. & Gas Heating Batch Ovens Most oven applications consist of heating work product inside an insulated enclosure. Heat loss calculations involve the determination of the heat requirements to heat the enclosure and work product using heated air circulated by natural or forced convection. Any make up or ventilation air must also be considered. The following example outlines the calculation of the heat required for a typical oven heating application. Problem An oven with inside dimensions of ft H x 3 ft W x ft D is maintained at 3 F. The oven has sheet steel walls with inches of insulation and is ventilated with cfh (ft 3 /hr) of 7 F air which exhausts to the outside to remove fumes. The oven is charged with lbs of coated steel parts on a steel tray weighing lbs. The process requires the parts to be heated from 7 F to 3 F in 3/ hour. Weight of steel = 9 lbs Specifi c heat of steel. Btu/lb/ F Weight of air =. lbs/ft 3 at 7 F Specifi c heat of air =. Btu/lb/ F Temperature rise = F Surface losses with inch insulation = 1 W/ ft /hr at F temperature difference (Graph G-6S) Surface area of oven = ft Time = 3/ hr (.7) fl ow rate = ft 3 /hr Solution 1. Calculate kwh required to heat metal. kw = 9 lbs x. Btu/lb/ F x F =.6 kw. Calculate kwh required to heat ventilated air kw= cfh x. Lbs x. Cp x ΔT x.7 t =.7kW cfh = fl ow rate () Lbs/ft 3 = Density of air (.) Cp = Specifi c heat of air (.) ΔT = Temperature rise () = Time in hours (.7) 3. Calculate surface losses. Since the oven is already at temperature, losses are at full value. kw = 1 W/ft /hr x ft area x.7 hr =.7 kw 1, W/kW. Total kw = =.3 kw. For Oven Applications, add 3% to cover door losses and other contingencies. kwh required (including safety factor) is kwh = kw =.3 kw =.37 kw x 1.3 = 6.9 kw t.7 hrs Equipment Recommendations Several process air heaters, including strip heaters, fi n- strips, bare tubulars or type OV oven heaters, are suitable for oven heating applications. Pressure Drop for Process Heaters The pressure drop through TDH and ADH process air heaters with bare tubular or fi nned tubular elements, CAB heaters with fi nstrip elements, and ADH and DH air heaters with fi nned tubular elements will vary considerably depending on product design and construction. Chromalox sales engineering can provide pressure drop calculations for virtually any duct heater (or circulation heater) application. Graphs G-1S3, G-19S1, G-7-, and G-7ADH on the following page provide guidance for estimating the pressure drop for many Chromalox process air heaters 1. Graph G-19S1 can be used for most fi nned tubular applications providing the elements are mounted in a three or six row confi guration. Transitions in Ducts In some air distribution systems, the duct heater may be considerably larger or smaller than the associated ductwork. The duct heater can be adapted to different size ductwork by installing a sheet metal transition. The transition must be designed so that the slope on the upstream side of the equipment is limited to 3 (see below). On the leaving side, the slope should not be more than. Note 1 Contact the factory for pressure drop calculations for duct heaters mounted lengthwise or in series and for GCH gas circulation heaters. These applications require special calculations for proper application and air handler sizing. Recommended Dimensions for Duct Transitions 3 3 I-

7 Determining Energy Requirements - & Gas Heating & Gas Heating with Circulation Heaters To calculate the heat energy requirements for heating compressed air or gases, the fi rst step is to determine the fl ow rate in pounds per hour. If the density of the air or gas under the actual pressure is known, the kw requirements can be calculated directly. The following example illustrates this procedure. Example Heat ACFM of air at 3 psig from 6 F to F. From the Properties of Chart, the density of air at 6 F and 3 psig is.3 lb/ft 3 with a specifi c heat of. Btu/lb/ F. The kw required can be calculated from the formula: kw = ACFM x lbs/ft 3 x 6 min x Cp x ΔT x SF ACFM = Actual fl ow in ft 3 /min at inlet temperature and gauge pressure (psig) Lbs/ft 3 = Actual density at inlet temperature and gauge pressure (psig) Cp = Specifi c heat of air or gas at inlet temperature and gauge pressure (psig) ΔT = Temperature rise in F SF = Suggested Safety Factor kw = x.3 x 6 x. x ( - 6 F) x 1. 3 kw = 7. lbs/hr x x 1 x 1. = 3. kw 3 When the density and specifi c heat of a gas at a specifi c temperature and pressure are unknown, the actual fl ow rate can be converted to a known pressure and temperature using the physical laws of gases. Example Heat ACFM of Nitrogen (N ) at 3 psig from F to 3 F. From the Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Common Gases Chart, the density of Nitrogen at 7 F is.73 lb/ft 3 with a specifi c heat of.3 Btu/lb/ F. Convert ACFM at 3 psig and F to SCFM of Nitrogen at 7 F using the following formula: SCFM = ACFM x Actual psia x Standard T 1.7 psia Actual T SCFM = Std. ft 3 /min at 1.7 psia and 7 F ACFM = Actual fl ow in ft 3 /min at inlet temperature and gauge pressure (psig) Actual psia = gauge pressure in lb/in psia 1.7 psia = absolute pressure in lb/in T = Rankine ( F + 6) I- SCFM = x ( ) x (7 + 6) 1.7 psia ( + 6) SFCM = 1.1 ft 3 /min Using the calculated SCFM in place of ACFM in equation A, the kw required is: kw = 1.1 x.73 x 6 x.3 x (3 - ) x 1. 3 kw = 1. kw Determining Maximum Sheath & Chamber Temperatures When heating air or gases in insulated pipe chambers or circulation heaters, the pipe wall temperature will normally exceed the outlet gas temperature. Excessively high wall and/or sheath temperatures can create an unsafe or dangerous condition. Maximum sheath and chamber temperatures can be estimated using the mass velocity of the gas and Graph G-37. In the above air heating example, assume a. kw Series 3 heater rated 3 W/in has been selected. From Chart 36, the free cross sectional area of a Series 3 (3 inch) heater is. ft. Calculate mass velocity from the following equation: Mass Velocity = lbs/hr 3,6 sec (lbs/ft /sec) Free area ft hr Mass Velocity = 1.7 lbs/ft /sec On Graph G-37, locate the mass velocity (1.7) on the horizontal axis. From that point, locate a 3 W/in curve. Read across to the vertical axis (sheath temperature rise above outlet temperature) to F. Adding F + F (outlet temp.) = 9 F sheath temperature. Averaging the sheath and outlet temperatures (9 F + F ), yields a maximum chamber temperature of 6 F. Since the maximum chamber wall temperature is less than 7 F, a stock GCH heater with a carbon steel vessel and INCOLOY elements rated 3 W/in can be used. Mass Velocity = (7 lbs/hr) 3,6 sec. ft hr Graph G-37 Sheath Temperature Vs. Mass Velocity Maximum Sheath Temperature Rise Above Outlet Gas Temp. ( F) 1 6 Not Recommended 3 W/In W/In W/In 3 W/In W/In 1 W/In 1 W/In W/In 9 W/In 6 W/In 3 W/In Chart 36 Circulation Heaters Free Internal Cross Sectional Area Pipe Body Nom. IPS (Std.) Mass Velocity (Lbs/Ft /Sec) Total Area (Ft ) Free Area (Ft ) No..7" Elements

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