Stephen Bennington CELLA ENERGY

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1 Stephen Bennington CELLA ENERGY

2 The Cella Material Cella s Material Characteristics: Hydrogen stored in a form of plastic pellets 10 kg of material per 100km (zero emission vehicle) Heated pellets above 100 C release the hydrogen stored within 2 minutes Safe, no high pressure or cryogenic temperatures requirements Can be stored indefinitely at room temperature Low toxicity can be handled 2

3 Cella Overview Enabling Safe Mobility Applications Cella s Material: Hydrogen stored in a form of plastic pellets 10 kg of material per 100km (zero emission vehicle) Heated pellets above 100 C release the hydrogen stored within 2 minutes Safe, no high pressure or cryogenic temperatures requirements Cella material vs. Li ion Cella material vs. compressed hydrogen Small Energy < 6kW Medium Energy < 20kW 3 times higher energy density Flexible form factor Safe Safety Cost Significantly less infrastructure investment Applications By Power Segment UAV Soldier portable e Scooters EV range extender Aircraft (APU, galley battery) Telecom Tower Large Energy Source: Cella > 20kW Forklift Zero Emission Bus Diesel abatement/ Zero Emission Vehicle 3

4 Battery replacement technoloyg Small Energy <6kW Cella is most advanced in development of small energy systems 1 st flight is scheduled for May 2014 Arrangement of Hydrogen Storage Pellets Proposed for a UAV Wing Section For small scale applications each pellet of material is heated separately on a printed heater board There is no high pressure and the temperature used are low ( C) The material is stable and will not lose energy with time The cartridge can be made in any shape Much lighter than lithium ion batteries Early markets in small un manned surveillance vehicles 4

5 Unmanned vehicles Markets Military Security The Federal Aviation Authority will deregulate in 2015 Predicted to be a $1 billion market by 2023 in the US Agriculture Fisheries Coast guard Infrastructural surveys (oil rigs, pipelines, transmission lines) First responder Deliveries (medical, emergency, military, etc. ) Environmental audits A Deutsche Post (DHL) delivery of Pharmaceuticals in Bonn 5

6 Cella s Approach Battery Replacement Technology Small Energy<6kW System test January 2014 Tested the system on the wing section of a AirEnvironment Raven Cella Cartridge system built into the central wing section Powered the motor via a fuel cell built into the airframe Tested the: heating, hydrogen, release, control system, filtration, fuel cell and battery / fuel cell hybridization 6

7 New Projects New UK Government Grants New grant UAV development for Marine Application 450K total project cost Collaborators Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS) Arcola Energy (Fuel cell integrator) 7

8 Medium Scale System 1 kw demonstrator Proprietary TSB funded demonstrator Unipart/MIRA/Productiv/Cella Prototype system has been built and in commissioning phase. 25mm diameter cartridges are stored in a magazine and move to a hot-cell for initiation by pistons and a revolver (V System will be capable of 1kW Hydrogen energy. 8

9 New Projects New UK Government Grants New grants Electric Vehicle range extender 1.1m total project cost Diesel-hydrogen co-combustion 595 total project cost Collaborators Coventry University / Microcab Motor Industry Research Association (MIRA) University College London Productiv Unipart Steering Committee Collaborators Nissan Renault JCB Inergy Smiths Electric Vehicles 9

10 Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Honda Clarity Toyota FCV Most vehicle manufacturers are rolling out affordable fuel cell vehicles in Prototype vehicles have the same performance and range as gasoline vehicles and have been tested by consumers over hundreds of thousands of miles Early markets in fork lifts and other heavy lift vehicles 10

11 Compressed gas Hydrogen storage on a vehicle is problematic because, in order to achieve a reasonable energy density, it must currently be stored as a liquid at low temperature or as a compressed gas, the latter requiring a large and expensive tank. The King Review of low carbon cars Part 1 October

12 Cella Material Cont d Refuelling Millimetre sized pellets flow like a fluid They can be transported by Tanker and pumped into and out of a vehicle Pumping Cella Material Refuelling using small millimetre sized pellets can be done with simple a vacuum pump Tests with simple cyclone type technology shows that refuelling can be done in minutes There are no thermal issues with this transfer and the energies and powers needed are small 12

13 The in vehicle concept The concept for the in-car system This uses small beads of Cella material that can be pumped like a fluid 1) A batch of beads are pumped into the hot-cell 2) The beads are heated and the hydrogen driven out (takes 2-3 minutes at C) Fuel cell Hydrogen buffer Hot-Cell Fuel store 3) The beads are pumped back into the top of the store Pellet pump 4) The hydrogen is stored is an buffer before being used in the fuel cell 13

14 Performance Fuel cell electric vehicle Peak Power: 50 kw Range: 550 km Full system, which includes: Hydrogen delivery system Fuel Cell Hybrid battery (10 minutes) full power operation Motors and transmission Specfic Energy (W.h/kg) Cella Energy System Compressed Hydrogen ICE Engine Battery Electric 0 14

15 Cella s Approach The Material lifecycle Storage Features of Cella s Material Regenerate Material The material can be handled safely in air Make New Material Transport to Consumer Generate Hydrogen and Power It is lightweight and when in the form of small pellets can be pumped like a fluid The material can be regenerated in a chemical process Transport to Chemical Plant Transport Features of Cella s Material In its fluid form the material can be transported by tanker Inexpensive vacuum pumps can be used to pump the material in to and out of the vehicle in under 5 minutes Large quantities of material can be handled with ease using a similar and lower cost infrastructure as exists today 15

16 The cost of hydrogen The cost of Hydrogen at the pump Includes hydrogen production, transport and retail, but no taxes Figures for Compressed Hydrogen, reference: A portfolio of power trains for Europe: a fact-based analysis Cella Material: Reference: Low cost precursors for hydrogen storage, Dow Chemicals and Cella analysis $ / kg Hydrogen Compressed Hydrogen Cella Hydrogen $10.7 $

17 Cella s Flow System Concept for Transportation Applications Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) The TCO for a Cella FCEV Based and One Using Compressed Gas Is Similar in 2030 Conclusions Cella FCEV vs. compressed gas : similar TCO by 2030 FCEV competitive with ICE by 2030, earlier with tax incentives Car types A/B : City and supermini C/D: Medium and upper medium J: Small and large SUV 1 Includes production and distribution costs 2 Includes retail cost Assumptions: 15 year lifetime Annual driving distance 12,000km No tax Excludes taxes Source: A portfolio of powertrains for Europe: a fact based analysis, and Cella Energy A/B Segment C/D segment J segment Vehicle Purchase price + Maintenance + Fuel Cost 1 + Infrastructure 2 = TCO FCEV(gas) FCEV(Cella) BEV PHEV ICE gasoline ICE diesel Vehicle Purchase price + Maintenance + Fuel Cost + Infrastructure = TCO FCEV(gas) FCEV(Cella) BEV PHEV ICE gasoline ICE diesel Vehicle Purchase price + Maintenance + Fuel Cost + Infrastructure = TCO FCEV(gas) FCEV(Cella) BEV PHEV ICE gasoline ICE diesel

18 Well to Wheel Analysis Diesel km range High Pressure Hydrogen km range Cella Hydrogen km range Electric Vehicles km range gram CO 2 per 100 km Well to Tank * Assuming 100% renewable electricity supply 18

19 Cella Overview Commercialisation Timeline Development of Business to Business sales Material Ready Proof of concept devices Commercial Prototypes Field Trials Spring 2013 Winter 2013 Summer/Autumn 2014 Late 2014 early 2015 Material development completed early 2013 Currently in-house capacity is 1kg per day Through toll manufacture this is 50kg per day Has collaboration agreement with a chemical supply company ready to sign. Battery replacement (70W) proof of concept completed in January KW power supply completed March 2014 Research on the larger scale systems is paused due to funding and time to market issues. Part grant funded, Total project 2.1m, approx. 600K to Cella, other grant applications have been submitted Commercial contracts being negotiated with first payments expected in May/June. The same partners who are developing equipment will perform the field trials, this would mean consultancy and materials sales for Cella The same partners who do the field trials ultimately sell equipment and buy Cella material. 19

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