1 Information Systems SQL Nikolaj Popov Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria
2 Outline SQL Table Creation Populating and Modifying Tables Querying
3 SQL SQL: a standard interactive and programming language for getting information from and updating a database. The first version of SQL (initially called SEQUEL) was developed in 1970s at IBM, based on Codd s original ideas. Standardized since Latest release: SQL As it is widely accepted, SQL stands for Structured Query Language. SQL specifies: a data definition language (DDL), a data manipulation language (DML), embedded SQL (to make relational databases accessible in other programming languages, like C, Pascal, PL/I).
4 SQL The SQL language is broken into several distinct parts: SQL schema statements, used to define the data structures stored in the database; SQL data statements, used to manipulate the data structures previously defined using SQL schema statements. In SQL terminology a relation is a table, an attribute is a column and a tuple is a row.
5 Standard Types char(n) a character string of fixed length n, int an integer (length can be implementation/hardware dependent), numeric(i, d) a numerical value with i digits in the integer part (and a sign) and d digits in the decimal part, real a single precision floating point number, date storing the years in four digits and the months and the days in two, time in hh:mm:ss format.
6 Standard Types Coercion between compatible types, and the usual operations (e.g. arithmetic for numerical types, or string concatenation) are supported. Many DBMSs also support the BLOB type (Binary Large OBject). Simple domain definitions can be made, for example: CREATE DOMAIN name type AS CHAR(20)
7 Table Creation. Step 1: Design Let s define a table to hold information about a person. First, decide what kind of information should be included in the database. Assume: Name Gender Birth date Address Favorite foods Next, assign column names and data types: Column Type Allowable values Name Varchar(40) Gender Char(1) M, F Birth_date Date Address Varchar(100) Favorite_foods Varchar(200)
8 Table Creation. Step 2: Refinement Problems with the definition of the person table: The name and address columns are compound (first name, last name for name, and street, city, postal code, country for address). Multiple people can have the same name, gender, birth date, etc., there are no columns in the person table that guarantee uniqueness. The favorite_foods columns is a list containing 0,1, or more independent items. It would be best to create a separate table for this data that includes a foreign key to the person table.
9 Table Creation. Step 2: Refinement New version of the person table: Column Type Allowable values Person_id Smallint First_name Varchar(20) Last_name Varchar(20) Gender Char(1) M,F Birth_date Date Street Varchar(30) City Varchar(20) State Varchar(20) Country Varchar(20) Postal_code Varchar(20) Person_id will serve as the primary key. The favorite_food table includes a foreign key to the person table: Column Person_id Food Type Smallint Varchar(20)
10 Table Creation. Step 3: Building SQL Schema Statements After the design is complete, the next step is generate SQL statements to create tables in the database: CREATE TABLE person ( person_id SMALLINT, fname VARCHAR(20), lname VARCHAR(20), gender CHAR(1) CHECK (gender in ( M, F )), birth_date DATE, address VARCHAR(30), city VARCHAR(20), state VARCHAR(20), country VARCHAR(20), postal_code VARCHAR(20), CONSTRAINT pk_person PRIMARY KEY (person_id) );
11 Table Creation. Step 3: Building SQL Schema Statements If we want to make sure that the table exists, we can use the MySQL DESC command: mysql > DESC person;
13 Populating and Modifying Tables. Insert Four SQL data statements: insert, update, delete, and select. Three main components to an insert statement: The name of the table into which to add the data. The names of the columns in the table to be populated. The values with which to populate the columns. INSERT INTO person (person_id, fname, lname, gender, birth_date) VALUES (1, William, Turner, M, );
14 Populating and Modifying Tables. Insert More insert statements: INSERT INTO favorite_food (person_id, food) VALUES (1, pizza ); INSERT INTO favorite_food (person_id, food) VALUES (1, cookies ); INSERT INTO favorite_food (person_id, food) VALUES (1, nachos );
15 Select We can look at the data just added to the table person by issuing a select statement: SELECT person_id, fname, lname, gender, birth_date FROM person; If there were more than one row in the table, we could add a where clause to specify that we only want to retrieve data for the row having a value of 1 for the person_id column: SELECT person_id, fname, lname, birth_date FROM person WHERE person_id = 1;
16 Select The following query retrieves William s favorite foods in alphabetic order using an order by statement: SELECT food FROM favorite_food WHERE person_id = 1 ORDER BY food;
17 Insert and Select Another insert statement adds Susan Smith to the person table: INSERT INTO person (person_id, fname, lname, gender, birth_date, address, city, state, country, postal_code) VALUES (2, Susan, Smith, F, , 23 Maple St., Arlington, VA, USA, ); We can query the person table again: SELECT person_id, fname, lname, gender, birth_date FROM person;
18 Updating When the data about William Turner was added to the table, data for the various address columns was omitted in the insert statement. These columns can be populated via an update statement: UPDATE person SET address = 1225 Tremont St., city = Boston, state = MA, country = USA, postal_code = WHERE person_id = 1; update can modify more than one rows at once. If the WHERE clause is omitted than all rows will be updated.
19 Deleting Delete Susan Smith from the person table: Delete FROM person WHERE person_id = 2; delete can delete more than one rows at once. If the WHERE clause is omitted than all rows will be deleted.
20 When Good Statements Go Bad Nonunique primary key: INSERT INTO person (person_id, fname, lname, gender, birth_date) VALUES (1, Charles, Fulton, M, ); Error message will be given.
21 When Good Statements Go Bad Nonexistent foreign key: INSERT INTO favorite_food (person_id, food) VALUES (666, lasagna ); There is no person in the person table with the id 666. An error message will be issued.
22 When Good Statements Go Bad Column value violation: UPDATE person SET gender = Z WHERE person_id = 1; Error message. The gender value Z violates CHECK constraint.
23 Dropping Tables DROP TABLE favorite_food; Drops the table favorite_food; DROP TABLE person; Drops the table person;
24 Querying select statement. Before executing queries, the server checks the following things: Do we have permission to execute the statement? Do we have permission to access the desired data? Is our statement syntax correct? If the query passes these three tests, then it is handed to the query optimizer. The query optimizer determines the most efficient way to execute the query and creates the execution plan used by the server. Once the server has finished executing the query, the result set is returned to the calling application.
25 Querying Query example (suppliers-parts database): SELECT sname, city FROM S; The result table will be returned, that contains two columns and five rows.
26 Query Clauses The select statement is made up from several components, not all of them are mandatory: SELECT: Determines which columns to include in the query s result set. FROM: Identifies the tables from which to draw data and how the tables should be joined. WHERE: Restricts the number of rows in the final result set. ORDER BY: Sorts the rows of the final result set by one or more columns.
27 The SELECT Clause Show all the columns in the suppliers table: SELECT * FROM S; In addition to specifying all of the columns via the asterix character, we can explicitly name the columns we are interested in, such as: SELECT sno, sname, status, city FROM S; We can choose to include only a subset of the columns in the suppliers table as well: SELECT sno, sname FROM S;
28 The SELECT Clause We can include in the select clause such things as: Literals, such as numbers or strings Expressions, such as: status * 10 Built-in function calls, such as: ROUND(status, 10) SELECT sno, status * 10, sname FROM S; When the query simply calls built-in functions and does not retrieve data from any tables, there is no need for a FROM clause: SELECT current_date, 2+2;
29 The SELECT Clause Adding a column alias after each element of the SELECT clause will display the aliases as the column name: SELECT sno, status * 10 AS status_x_10, sname AS last_name FROM S;
30 The SELECT Clause In some cases, a query might return duplicate rows of data: SELECT city FROM S; To get distinct rows, we can add the keyword DISTINCT: SELECT DISTINCT city FROM S; Generating a distinct set of results requires the data to be sorted, which can be time consuming for large result sets.
31 The FROM Clause The FROM clause defines the tables used by a query, along with the means of linking the tables together. Three types of tables can be used in the FROM clause Permanent tables (i.e., created using the create table statement) Temporary tables (i.e., rows returned by a subquery) Virtual tables (i.e., created using the create view statement) Queries on the previous slides used permanent tables.
32 The FROM Clause. Subqueries The FROM clause using a temporary table: SELECT e.sname, e.city FROM (SELECT sname, status, city FROM S) AS e; A subquery against the S table returns three columns, and the containing query references two of the three available columns. The subquery is referenced by the containing query via its alias, which, in this case, is e.
33 The FROM Clause. Views A view is a query that is stored in the data dictionary. It looks and acts like a table, but there is no data associated with a view. When we issue a query against a view, the query is merged with the view definition to create a final query to be executed. CREATE VIEW supplier_view AS SELECT sno, sname, status FROM S; After the view has been created, no additional data is created: the select statement is simply stored by the server for future use. Now that the view exists, we can issue queries against it: SELECT sno, sname FROM supplier_view;
34 The FROM Clause. Joins Joins link information from several tables together. SELECT sno, sname, s.city, pno, pname FROM s INNER JOIN p ON s.city = p.city;
35 The WHERE Clause The where clause is the mechanism for filtering out unwanted rows from our result set. Selecting only those rows from S that have London in the city column: SELECT * FROM s WHERE city = London ; Selecting only those rows from S that have Paris in the city column and whose status is greater than 10: SELECT * FROM s WHERE city = Paris AND status > 10;
36 The WHERE Clause Selecting those rows from P that have in the pname column parts whose names start either with S or with C : SELECT * FROM p WHERE pname LIKE S% OR pname LIKE C% ; Get all triples of supplier numbers and the city names such that the suppliers concerned are colocated in the city: SELECT A.sno AS SA, B.sno as SB, A.city From S as A, S as B WHERE A.city = B.city AND A.sno < B.sno;
37 The ORDER BY Clause The order by clause is the mechanism for sorting our result set using either raw column data or expressions based on column data. Sorted in ascending order: SELECT * FROM spj ORDER BY qty; Sorted in descending order: SELECT * FROM spj ORDER BY qty DESC;
38 Querying Multiple Tables Join: The mechanism for bringing multiple tables together in the same query. Various kinds of joins: Cross join (cartesian product), inner join, outer joins Cross join is the simplest kind of join: SELECT * FROM S CROSS JOIN P;
39 Querying Multiple Tables Inner join: Joining tables on their common columns SELECT sno, sname, status, s.city, pno, pname, weight FROM s INNER JOIN p ON s.city = p.city; If the names of the columns used to join the two tables are identical, which is true in the previous query, we can use the USING subclause instead of the ON subclause: SELECT sno, sname, status, s.city, pno, pname, weight FROM s INNER JOIN p USING (city);
40 Querying Multiple Tables Three or more tables can be queried in a similar way: SELECT sno, sname, status, s.city, pno, pname, weight, jno FROM s INNER JOIN p USING (city) INNER JOIN j USING (city); We can have subqueries as tables: SELECT sno, sname, status, s.city, pno, pname, weight, jno FROM s INNER JOIN (SELECT pno,city,pname,weight FROM P WHERE weight > 14) USING (city) INNER JOIN j USING (city);
41 Set Operations Union, intersection, set minus, complement. UNION combines all rows from two tables and requires the number of columns in the tables to be the same: SELECT sno, sname FROM S UNION SELECT pno, pname FROM P; Union removes duplicate rows from the result. If we want all the rows, including duplicates, use UNION ALL.
42 Set Operations INTERSECT takes the intersection of the rows from two tables and requires the number of columns in the tables to be the same: (SELECT sno, sname FROM S UNION SELECT pno, pname FROM P) INTERSECT (SELECT sno, sname FROM S WHERE status > 10); INTERSECT removes duplicate rows from the result. If we want all the rows, including duplicates, use INTERSECT ALL. Warning: MySQL (version 4.1 and above) does not implement INTERSECT.
43 Set Operations The EXCEPT operation returns the first table minus any overlap with the second table and requires the number of columns in the tables to be the same: (SELECT sno, sname FROM S UNION SELECT pno, pname FROM P) EXCEPT (SELECT sno, sname FROM S WHERE status > 10); EXCEPT removes duplicate rows from the result. If we want all the rows, including duplicates, use EXCEPT ALL. Warning: MySQL (version 4.1 and above) does not implement EXCEPT.
44 Embedded SQL Embedded SQL is defined to allow access to databases from general purpose programming languages (Perl, C, Ada, etc.) which are called host languages. The SQL statements in the host language are enclosed in an EXEC SQL pair. Inside an SQL statement variable names of the host language are attached the SQL variables. The program in the host language that uses embedded SQL must also contain an SQLSTATE variable, that is how the result is returned after every SQL statement.
45 Embedded SQL Example Assume the number host variable contains a supplier number whose name and status we want to fetch into n and st. EXEC SQL SELECT sname, status INTO :n, :st FROM S WHERE sno = :number ;
46 Summary SQL basic ideas have been discussed. Creating, Populating and Modifying tables. Querying. Embedding SQL into host languages.
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