# Chapter 5 More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema Modification

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1 Chapter 5 More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema Modification Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

2 Chapter 5 Outline More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL Schema Change Statements in SQL

3 More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries Additional features allow users to specify more complex retrievals from database: Nested queries, joined tables, outer joins, aggregate functions, and grouping

4 Comparisons Involving NULL and Three-Valued Logic Meanings of NULL Unknown value Unavailable or withheld value Not applicable attribute Each individual NULL value considered to be different from every other NULL value SQL uses a three-valued logic: TRUE, FALSE, and UNKNOWN

5 Comparisons Involving NULL and Three-Valued Logic (cont d.)

6 Comparisons Involving NULL and Three-Valued Logic (cont d.) SQL allows queries that check whether an attribute value is NULL IS or IS NOT NULL

7 Nested Queries, Tuples, and Set/Multiset Comparisons Nested queries Complete select-from-where blocks within WHERE clause of another query Outer query Comparison operator IN Compares value v with a set (or multiset) of values V Evaluates to TRUE if v is one of the elements in V

8 Nested Queries (cont d.)

9 Nested Queries (cont d.) Use tuples of values in comparisons Place them within parentheses

10 Nested Queries (cont d.) Use other comparison operators to compare a single value v = ANY (or = SOME) operator Returns TRUE if the value v is equal to some value in the set V and is hence equivalent to IN Other operators that can be combined with ANY (or SOME): >, >=, <, <=, and <>

11 Nested Queries (cont d.) Avoid potential errors and ambiguities Create tuple variables (aliases) for all tables referenced in SQL query

12 Correlated Nested Queries Correlated nested query Evaluated once for each tuple in the outer query

13 The EXISTS and UNIQUE EXISTS function Functions in SQL Check whether the result of a correlated nested query is empty or not EXISTS and NOT EXISTS Typically used in conjunction with a correlated nested query SQL function UNIQUE(Q) Returns TRUE if there are no duplicate tuples in the result of query Q

14 Explicit Sets and Renaming of Attributes in SQL Can use explicit set of values in WHERE clause Use qualifier AS followed by desired new name Rename any attribute that appears in the result of a query

15 Joined Tables in SQL and Outer Joined table Joins Permits users to specify a table resulting from a join operation in the FROM clause of a query The FROM clause in Q1A Contains a single joined table

16 Joined Tables in SQL and Outer Joins (cont d.) Specify different types of join NATURAL JOIN Various types of OUTER JOIN NATURAL JOIN on two relations R and S No join condition specified Implicit EQUIJOIN condition for each pair of attributes with same name from R and S

17 Joined Tables in SQL and Outer Inner join Joins (cont d.) Default type of join in a joined table Tuple is included in the result only if a matching tuple exists in the other relation LEFT OUTER JOIN Every tuple in left table must appear in result If no matching tuple Padded with NULL values for attributes of right table

18 Joined Tables in SQL and Outer Joins (cont d.) RIGHT OUTER JOIN Every tuple in right table must appear in result If no matching tuple Padded with NULL values for the attributes of left table FULL OUTER JOIN Can nest join specifications

19 Aggregate Functions in SQL Used to summarize information from multiple tuples into a single-tuple summary Grouping Create subgroups of tuples before summarizing Built-in aggregate functions COUNT, SUM, MAX, MIN, and AVG Functions can be used in the SELECT clause or in a HAVING clause

20 Aggregate Functions in SQL (cont d.) NULL values discarded when aggregate functions are applied to a particular column

21 Grouping: The GROUP BY and HAVING Clauses Partition relation into subsets of tuples Based on grouping attribute(s) Apply function to each such group independently GROUP BY clause Specifies grouping attributes If NULLs exist in grouping attribute Separate group created for all tuples with a NULL value in grouping attribute

22 Grouping: The GROUP BY and HAVING Clauses (cont d.) HAVING clause Provides a condition on the summary information

23 Discussion and Summary of SQL Queries

24 Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers CREATE ASSERTION Specify additional types of constraints outside scope of built-in relational model constraints CREATE TRIGGER Specify automatic actions that database system will perform when certain events and conditions occur

25 Specifying General Constraints as Assertions in SQL CREATE ASSERTION Specify a query that selects any tuples that violate the desired condition Use only in cases where it is not possible to use CHECK on attributes and domains

26 Introduction to Triggers in SQL CREATE TRIGGER statement Used to monitor the database Typical trigger has three components: Event(s) Condition Action

27 Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL Concept of a view in SQL Single table derived from other tables Considered to be a virtual table

28 Specification of Views in SQL CREATE VIEW command Give table name, list of attribute names, and a query to specify the contents of the view

29 Specification of Views in SQL (cont d.) Specify SQL queries on a view View always up-to-date Responsibility of the DBMS and not the user DROP VIEW command Dispose of a view

30 View Implementation, View Update, and Inline Views Complex problem of efficiently implementing a view for querying Query modification approach Modify view query into a query on underlying base tables Disadvantage: inefficient for views defined via complex queries that are time-consuming to execute

31 View Implementation View materialization approach Physically create a temporary view table when the view is first queried Keep that table on the assumption that other queries on the view will follow Requires efficient strategy for automatically updating the view table when the base tables are updated

32 View Implementation (cont d.) Incremental update strategies DBMS determines what new tuples must be inserted, deleted, or modified in a materialized view table

33 View Update and Inline Views Update on a view defined on a single table without any aggregate functions Can be mapped to an update on underlying base table View involving joins Often not possible for DBMS to determine which of the updates is intended

34 View Update and Inline Views Clause WITH CHECK OPTION Must be added at the end of the view definition if a view is to be updated In-line view (cont d.) Defined in the FROM clause of an SQL query

35 Schema Change Statements in SQL Schema evolution commands Can be done while the database is operational Does not require recompilation of the database schema

36 The DROP Command DROP command Used to drop named schema elements, such as tables, domains, or constraint Drop behavior options: CASCADE and RESTRICT Example: DROP SCHEMA COMPANY CASCADE;

37 The ALTER Command Alter table actions include: Adding or dropping a column (attribute) Changing a column definition Adding or dropping table constraints Example: ALTER TABLE COMPANY.EMPLOYEE ADD COLUMN Job VARCHAR(12); To drop a column Choose either CASCADE or RESTRICT

38 The ALTER Command (cont d.) Change constraints specified on a table Add or drop a named constraint

39 Summary Complex SQL: Nested queries, joined tables, outer joins, aggregate functions, grouping CREATE ASSERTION and CREATE TRIGGER Views Virtual or derived tables

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Summary on Chapter 4 Basic SQL SQL Features Basic SQL DDL o Includes the CREATE statements o Has a comprehensive set of SQL data types o Can specify key, referential integrity, and other constraints Basic