# 29.1 COST SHEET : MEANING AND ITS IMPORTANCE

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1 29 COST SHEET You are running a factory which manufactures electronic toys. You incur expenses on raw material, labour and other expenses which can be directly attibuted to cost and which cannot be directly attributed but are incurred upto their sales. You need to know the composition of cost at different stages. This will help you in the analysis of cost of a product so that same can be used for its proper management. In this lesson you will learn about cost sheet and its various components. OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson, you will be able to: state the meaning and type of Cost Sheet; state the importance of Cost Sheet; explain the components of total cost; prepare the cost sheet as per format COST SHEET : MEANING AND ITS IMPORTANCE Cost sheet is a statement, which shows various components of total cost of a product. It classifies and analyses the components of cost of a product. Previous periods data is given in the cost sheet for comparative study. It is a statement which shows per unit cost in addition to Total Cost. Selling price is ascertained with the help of cost sheet. The details of total cost presented in the form of a statement is termed as Cost sheet. Cost sheet is prepared on the basis of : 1. Historical Cost 2. Estimated Cost 121

2 Historical Cost Cost Sheet Historical Cost sheet is prepared on the basis of actual cost incurred. A statement of cost prepared after incurring the actual cost is called Historical Cost Sheet. Estimated Cost Estimated cost sheet is prepared on the basis of estimated cost. The statement prepared before the commencement of production is called estimated cost sheet. Such cost sheet is useful in quoting the tender price of a job or a contract. Importance of Cost Sheet The importance of cost sheet is as follows: Cost ascertainment The main objective of the cost sheet is to ascertain the cost of a product. Cost sheet helps in ascertainment of cost for the purpose of determining cost after they are incurred. It also helps to ascertain the actual cost or estimated cost of a Job. Fixation of selling price To fix the selling price of a product or service, it is essential to prepare the cost sheet. It helps in fixing selling price of a product or service by providing detailed information of the cost. Help in cost control For controlling the cost of a product it is necessary for every manufacturing unit to prepare a cost sheet. Estimated cost sheet helps in the control of material cost, labour cost and overheads cost at every point of production. Facilitates managerial decisions It helps in taking important decisions by the management such as: whether to produce or buy a component, what prices of goods are to be quoted in the tender, whether to retain or replace an existing machine etc. 122

3 INTEXT QUESTIONS 29.1 I. State the meaning of cost sheet II. Fill in the blanks with suitable words: (i) Cost sheet classifies and analyses the... of cost of a product. (ii)... is ascertained with the help of cost sheet. (iii)... Cost sheet is prepared on the basis of actual cost incurred. (iv) Cost sheet also helps to ascertain the actual cost or... cost of a job. (v) Cost sheet helps in fixing... of products or services by providing detailed cost information. (vi)... cost sheet helps in the control of material cost of a product/service COMPONENTS OF TOTAL COST The Components of cost are shown in the classified and analytical form in the cost sheet. Components of total cost are as follows: Prime Cost It consists of direct material, direct wages and direct expenses. In other words Prime cost represents the aggregate of cost of material consumed, productive wages, and direct expenses. It is also known as basic, first, flat or direct cost of a product. Prime Cost = Direct material + Direct Wages + Direct expenses Direct material means cost of raw material used or consumed in production. It is not necessary that all the material purchased in a particular period is used in production. There is some stock of raw material in balance at opening and closing of the period. Hence, it is necessary that the cost of opening and closing stock of material is adjusted in the material purchased. Opening stock of material is added and closing stock of raw material is deducted in the material purchased and we get material consumed or used in production of a product. It is calculated as : Material Consumed = Material purchased + Opening stock of material Closing stock of material. 123

4 Cost Sheet Illustration 1 Calculate prime cost from the following particulars for a production unit: Cost of material purchased 30,000 Opening stock of material 6,000 Closing stock of material 4,000 Wages paid 3,000 Rent of hire of a special machine for production 5,000 Solution: Statement showing Prime Cost Details Amount () Direct Material: Material Consumed Opening stock of material 6,000 Add : Material Purchased 30,000 Material available for consumption 36,000 Less : Closing stock of material 4,000 Material consumed 32,000 Direct Labour : Wages 3,000 Direct Expenses: Rent of hire a special machine 5,000 Prime cost 40,000 Factory Cost In addition to prime cost it includes works or factory overheads. Factory overheads consist of cost of indirect material, indirect wages, and indirect expenses incurred in the factory. Factory cost is also known as works cost, production or manufacturing cost. Factory Cost = Prime cost + Factory overheads 124

5 Illustration 2 Calculate factory cost from the following particulars: Material consumed 60,000 Productive wages 20,000 Direct Expenses 5,000 Consumable stores 2,000 Oil grease/lubricating 500 Salary of a factory manager 6,000 Unproductive wages 1,000 Factory rent 2,000 Repair and Depreciation on Machine 600 Solution: Details Statement showing Factory cost Amount () Direct Material: Material Consumed 60,000 Direct Labour: Productive wages 20,000 Direct Expenses 5,000 Prime cost 85,000 Add : Factory overheads Indirect Material: Consumable stores 2,000 Oil grease/lubricants 500 2,500 Indirect Labour: Unproductive wages 1,000 Salary of a factory Manager 6,000 7,000 Indirect Expenses: Factory rent 2,000 Repair and Depreciation on Machine 600 2,600 Factory cost 97,

6 Cost Sheet Adjustment for stock of work-in-progress In the process of production, some units remain to be completed at the end of a period. These incomplete units are known as work-in-progress. Normally, the cost of incomplete units include direct material, direct Labour, direct expenses, and average factory overheads. Hence, at the time of computing factory cost, it is necessary to make adjustment of opening and closing stock of work in progress to arrive at the net Factory cost/works cost. Illustration 3 From the following information calculate the works cost. Direct material 80,000 Direct Labour 22,000 Direct Expenses 5,000 Factory overheads 12,000 Work-in-progress: Opening stock 13,000 Closing stock 7,000 Solution: Statement showing Factory cost Details Amount () Direct Material: Material Consumed 80,000 Direct Labour: Productive wages 22,000 Direct Expenses 5,000 Prime cost 1,07,000 Factory overheads 12,000 Factory Cost (Gross) 1,19,000 Add: Opening stock of work-in-progress 13,000 1,32,000 Less: Closing stock of work-in-progress 7,000 Works or Factory cost (Net) 1,25,

7 INTEXT QUESTIONS 29.2 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: (i) (ii) The Component of cost shown in the... and... form is the cost sheet. Prime cost is also known as... first, flat or... cost of a job. (iii) Material Consumed = Material purchased +... Closing stock of material. (iv) Factory cost is also known as works cost,... or manufacturing cost. (v) Some units are not completed in process, they are known as TOTAL COST AND COST SHEET If office and administrative overheads are added to factory or works cost, total cost of production is arrived at. Hence the total cost of production is calculated as: Total Cost of production = overheads Factory Cost + office and administration Illustration 4 From the following information calculate the total cost of production Direct material 90,000 Direct Labour 32,000 Direct Expenses 9,000 Factory overheads 25,000 Office and administration overheads 18,

8 Solution: Statement showing total cost of production Cost Sheet Details Amount () Direct Material: Material Consumed 90,000 Direct Labour: Productive wages 32,000 Direct Expenses 9,000 PRIME COST 1,31,000 Factory overheads 25,000 FACTORY COST 1,56,000 Office and administration overheads 18,000 TOTAL COST OF PRODUCTION 1,74,000 Cost of goods sold It is not necessary, that all the goods produced in a period are sold in the same period. There is stock of finished goods in the opening and at the end of the period. The cost of opening stock of finished goods is added in the total cost of production in the current period and cost of closing stock of finished goods is deducted. The cost of goods sold is calculated as: Cost of goods sold = Total cost of production + Opening stock of Finished goods Closing stock of finished goods Illustration 5 From the following information calculate the cost of goods sold. Total Cost of Production 1,22,000 Opening stock of finished goods 12,000 Closing stock of finished goods 16,000 Solution: Cost of goods sold Cost of goods sold = Cost of Production + Opening stock of Finished goods - closing stock of Finished goods = 1,22, ,000 16,000 = 1,18,

9 Total Cost i.e, Cost of Sales If selling and distribution overheads are added to the total cost of production, total cost is arrived at. This cost is also termed as cost of Sales. Hence the total cost is calculated as: Total Cost = Cost of Goods sold + Selling and distribution overheads Illustration 6 From the following information calculate the total cost. Direct material 1,60,000 Direct Labour 52,000 Direct Expenses 19,000 Factory overheads 45,000 Office and administration overheads 28,000 Selling and distribution overheads 33,000 Solution: Statement showing total cost Details Amount () Direct Material: 1,60,000 Direct Labour: 52,000 Direct Expenses 19,000 PRIME COST 2,31,000 Factory overheads 45,000 FACTORY COST 2,76,000 Office and administration overheads 28,000 TOTAL COST OF PRODUCTION 3,04,000 Selling and distribution overheads 33,000 Total cost = cost of sales 3,27,000 Sales If the profit margin is added to the total cost, sales are arrived at. Excess of sales over total cost is termed as profit. When total cost exceeds sales, it is termed as Loss. Sales = Total Cost + Profit 129

10 Cost Sheet Sometimes profit is calculated on the basis of given information in percentage of cost or sales. In such a situation, the amount is assumed 100 in which the percentage is calculated. Then the Profit is calculated in the following ways: Case 1 If Cost is 10,000 and profit on cost 10%. Assume the cost is 100 and profit on cost is 10. Hence Profit on cost of 10,000 is 10,000 10/100 = 1,000 Thus the sales value is Rs (10, ) Case 2 If Cost is 10,800 and profit on sales price is 10%. Assume sales price is 100. cost price is 90 [i.e ]. When profit on cost of 90 is 10. Hence profit on cost of 10,800 is Case 3 10,800 10/90 = 1,200 10, = 12,000 sales value If sales price is 12,100 and profit on cost is 10%. Assume Cost price is 100. Sales price is 110 [i.e ]. If sales price is 110, profit is 10. Profit on sales price of 12,100 is 12,100 10/110 = 1,100 profit Illustration 7 From the following information, calculate the value of goods sold. Total Cost of Production 1,45,000 Opening stock of finished goods 22,000 Closing stock of finished goods 6,000 Selling and distribution overheads 25,000 Profit 22,

11 Solution Statement showiniz Sales Details Amount () Total cost of production 1,45,000 Add : Opening stock of finished goods 22,000 1,67,000 Less Closing stock of finished goods 6,000 Cost of Goods sold 1,61,000 Selling and distribution overheads 25,000 Total Cost 1,86,000 Profit 22,000 Sales 2,08,000 There is no prescribed format of a Cost sheet. It may change from industry to industry. A specimen format of a Cost Sheet is given as under: Particulars Total () A. Materials Consumed : Purchases... Add : Opening Stock of Raw material... Expenses on Purchases... Less : Closing Stock of Raw Material... Direct Material consumed B. Direct Labour (Wages)... C. Direct Expenses... D. Prime Cost (A + B + C)... E. Factory/Works Overheads... Add : Opening Stock of Work-in-Progress... Less : Closing Stock of Work-in-Progress... F. Works/Factory Cost (D + E)... G. Office and administration overheads

12 Cost Sheet H. Total Cost of Production (F + G)... Add : Opening Stock of finished Goods... Cost of Goods available for sale... Less : Closing Stock of finished Goods... I. Cost of production of goods Sold or cost of good sold... J. Selling and Distribution Overheads... K. Total Cost (I + J) = Cost of Sales... L. Profit... M. Sales (K + L)... Preparation of cost sheet The various components of cost explained above are presented in the form of a statement. Such a statement of cost consists of prime cost, works cost, cost of production of goods, cost of goods sold, total cost and sales and is termed as cost sheet. The Preparation of a cost sheet can be understood with the help of following illustration: Illustration 8 From the following information, prepare a cost sheet for period ended on 31st March Opening stock of raw material 12,500 Purchases of raw material 1,36,000 Closing stock of raw material 8,500 Direct wages 54,000 Direct expenses 12,000 Factory overheads 100% of direct wages Office and administrative overheads 20% of works cost Selling and distribution overheads 26,000 Cost of opening stock of finished goods 12,000 Cost of Closing stock of finished goods 15,000 Profit on cost 20% 132

13 Solution: Cost sheet Details Direct Material : Material consumed Opening stock of raw material Add: Purchases Amount () Less: Closing stock of raw material ,40,000 Direct wages 54,000 Direct expenses 12,000 Prime cost 2,06,000 Factory overheads: 100% of direct wages 54,000 F HG (i.e I K J Works cost 2,60,000 Office and administrative overheads 20% of works cost, (2,60,000 20/100 52,000 Total cost of production 3, Add : opening stock of finished goods 12,000 Cost of Goods available for sale 3,24,000 Less : Closing stock of finished goods 15,000 Cost of goods sold 3,09,000 Selling and distribution overheads 26,000 Total Cost = cost of sales 3,35,000 Profit (20% On Cost i.e. 3,35,00 20/100) 67,000 Sales 4,02,000 Illustration 9 The following information is given to you from which you are required to prepare Cost Sheet for the period ended on 31St march 2006: 133

14 Cost Sheet Consumable material: Opening stock 20,000 Purchases 1,22,000 Closing stock 10,000 Direct wages 36,000 Direct Expenses 24,000 Factory overheads 50 % of direct wages Office and administration overheads 20% of works cost Selling and distribution expenses 3 per unit sold Units of finished goods In hand at the beginning of the period (Value 12500) 500 Units produced during the period 12,000 In hand at the end of the period 1,500 Find out the selling price per unit if 20% profit on selling price. There is no work-in-progress either at the beginning or at the end of the period. Solution: Cost Sheet for the period ended on 31st March 2006 (output 12000units) Particulars Total cost Cost per unit Material Consumed: Opening Stock Add: Purchases Less: Closing Stock Cost of raw material consumed 132, Direct wages Direct Expenses Prime Cost Factory Overheads 50% of Direct Wages (i.e ) Works/Factory overheads Office overheads 20% of works cost Total Cost of production

15 Add: Opening stock of finished goods (500 25) Cost of goods available for sale ( ) Less : Closing stock of Finished 21per unit (1500 units) Cost of goods sold ( = units) Add: Selling & Distribution per unit Cost of Sales Add: Profit 20% On Selling Price i.e. 25% of cost of sales F I HG K J Sales INTEXT QUESTIONS 29.3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: (i) (ii)... is also termed as administrative cost or total cost of production. Cost of production of goods sold =... + opening stock of Finished goods closing stock of finished goods (iii) Total cost is also termed as... (iv) (v) If profit is added to the total cost... are arrived at. Sales =... + Profit. WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT Cost Sheet: Meaning : Cost sheet is a statement, which shows various components of total cost of a particular product. Cost sheet is prepared on the basis of : Historical Cost Estimated Cost The importance of cost sheet is follows: Cost ascertainment Fixation of selling price 135

16 Help in cost control Cost Sheet Facilitates managerial decisions Components of Total Cost Prime Cost = Direct material + Direct Wages + Direct expenses works/ factory cost; Factory Cost = Prime cost + Factory overheads Cost of production/office cost = Factory Cost + office and administration overheads Cost of production of goods sold = Cost of Production + Opening stock of Finished goods closing stock of finished goods Total Cost = Cost of Production of goods sold + Selling and distribution overheads Sales = Total Cost + Profit The various components of cost explained above are presented in the form of a statement. TERMINAL QUESTIONS 1. What is meant by cost sheet? Explain the importance of Cost Sheet. 2. Define various components of total cost. 3. Compute the cost of material consumed from the following data: Opening stock of raw material Purchases of raw material Closing stock of raw material 9,000 1,27,000 12, Compute Prime cost from the data given below: Direct Material 1,80,000 Expenses on purchases 20,000 Rent of special machine taken on hire for production 40,000 Productive wages 65,

17 5. From the following information., prepare cost sheet. Direct material 1,60,000 Direct Labour 45,000 Direct Expenses 15,000 Factory overheads 35,000 Office and administration overheads 20% of works cost Selling and distribution overheads 45,000 Opening stock of finished goods 25,000 Closing stock of finished goods 10,000 Profit on Sales 10% ANSWERS TO INTEXT QUESTIONS Intext Questions 29.1 II. (i) Components (ii) Selling price (iii) Historical (iv) estimated (v) selling price (vi) Estimated Intext Questions 29.2 I. Direct material + Direct wages + Direct expenses II. (i) Classified, analysis (ii) basic, direct (iii) Opening stock of material (iv) production (v) work-in-progress. Intext Questions 29.3 (i) Office cost (ii) cost of production (iii) cost of Sales (iv) sales (v) Total Cost or cost of sales. Answers to Terminal Questions 3. Materials consumed 1,24, Prime cost 305, Sales Rs 4,07,

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