# FINANCIAL STATEMENTS-I

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1 14 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS-I You have learnt the meaning of the financial statements and the need to prepare these for the business organisations. You have also learnt the format of these statements and the important items that are recorded in these statements. You would now like to learn how to prepare these statements. You know Trial Balance is the basis of preparation of these statements. Every business organisation prepares the financial statements i.e. Trading and Profit and Loss A/c and the Balance sheet. In this lesson you will learn how to prepare these statements. OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson you will be able to : prepare Trading Account and Profit and Loss Account; explain the Balance Sheet as per format; appreciate the marshalling of Balance Sheet; classify the assets and liabilities; prepare Balance Sheet PREPARATION OF TRADING ACCOUNT AND PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT You have already learnt the meaning and format of Trading Account and Profit and Loss Account. You have also learnt how to make journal entries to transfer relevant ledger balances to Trading Account and Profit and Loss Account. Now you will learn the various steps to be followed in preparing these statements. 27

2 Steps to be followed while preparing Trading Account A. Debit side (i) (ii) (iii) B. Credit side Financial Statements-I We write the amount of opening stock (In case of a new firm there will not be any opening stock). We write the amount of purchases Out of this purchases returns or returns outward is deducted. Purchases may be cash or credit or both. Then we write the direct expenses such as carriage inward, wages, power, etc. (i) (ii) We write sales. Sales return or returns inward is deducted from the sales to get the net sales figure. Sales may be cash or credit or both. Closing stock is the next item. C. Ascertaining Gross Profit/Gross Loss Finally Trading Account is closed by calculating the difference of the two sides. If credit side exceeds the debit side, the difference is written as Gross Profit on the debit side of the Trading A/c. In case debit side is more than the credit side, the difference amount is termed as Gross Loss and is written on the credit side of the Trading A/c. Total of Debit column > Total of credit column Gross profit Total of credit column > Total of debit column Gross loss Steps to be followed while preparing Profit and Loss Account A. Debit side (i) (ii) B. Credit side Gross Loss, if any, transferred from Trading A/c is written as the first item. Next all items of revenue expenses and losses are written. These items may be salaries, rent paid, depreciation, etc. 1. Gross Profit transferred from Trading A/c is the first item. 2. Next all items of revenue incomes and gains are written. These may be interest on investments, discount received, commission received, etc. 28

3 Financial Statements-I C. Ascertaining Net Profit/Net Loss The next step is to get the balance. If credit side is more than the debit side the difference in amount is written as Net Profit. If debit side exceeds the credit side, the difference is Net Loss. This amount is transferred to Capital Account. Total of Debit side > Total of credit side Net profit Total of credit side > Total of debit side Net loss MODULE - 3 Illustration 1 From the following information of M/s Nand Lal & Bros. for the year ending 31st March, 2006 prepare Trading A/c and Profit and Loss A/c for the year ended 31st March, Stock Sales Purchases - cash Return Inward 2000 Purchases - credit Interest on Investment 1500 Freight Inward 1800 Discount Received 1200 Wages 4500 Closing stock 7200 Carriage on Sales 800 Telephone Charges 1600 Electricity Expenses 1200 Office Rent Paid 6000 Salaries 8000 Depreciation 1400 Solution : Books of M/s Nand Lal & Bros. Trading A/c for the year ended 31st March, 2006 Dr. Particulars Amount Particulars Amount Stock ( ) 5800 Sales Purchases Less Return Inward Cash Closing stock 7200 Credit Freight Inward 1800 Wages 4500 Gross profit transferred to Profit and Loss A/c Cr. 29

4 Profit and Loss A/c for the year ending 31st March, 2006 Financial Statements-I Particulars Amount Particulars Amount () () Carriage on sale 800 Gross Profit transferred 5100 from Trading A/c Telephone charges 1600 Interest on Investment 1500 Electricity Expenses 1200 Discount Received 1200 Office Rent 6000 Net Loss transferred to capital A/c Salaries 8000 Depreciation Illustration 2 Prepare Trading A/c and Profit and Loss A/c of Raman Irani from the following balances for the year ending 31st March, Opening Stock Trading Expenses 1450 Purchases Discount allowed 1250 Sales Discount Received 800 Return outward 2200 Bill Receivables 4500 Carriage Inward 2100 Debtors Capital Closing stock Drawings Insurance 1600 Advertisement 2400 Salesmen s Salaries

5 Financial Statements-I Solution : MODULE - 3 Books of Raman Irani Trading A/c for the year ending 31st March, 2006 Dr. Particulars Amount Particulars Amount Cr. Opening Stock Sales Purchases Closing stock Less Return outward Carriage Inward 2100 Gross profit transferred to Profit and Loss A/c , ,000 Profit and Loss A/c for the year ended 31st March, 2006 Dr. Cr. Particulars Amount Particulars Amount () () Insurance 1600 Gross Profit transferred from Trading A/c Advertisement 2400 Discount Received 800 Salesmen s salaries 5200 Trading Expenses 1450 Discount allowed 1250 Net Profit transferred to capital A/c INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.1 Write the name of the Account (Trading A/c, Profit & Loss A/c) and the side (debit credit) against the items given below to which these are taken: (i) Closing stock (ii) Carriage outward

6 Financial Statements-I (iii) Interest on Investment (iv) Custom duty (v) Fuel & Power (vi) Sales (vii) Salaries (viii) Rent from tenant BALANCE SHEET Apart from Trading Account and Profit and Loss Account, Balance Sheet is another financial statement that is prepared by the every business firm. Balance sheet is a statement which shows the financial position of a business organisation on a particular date which is generally the last date of the accounting period. Financial position of a business unit is the amount of claims against the resources of business. These resources are cash, stock of goods, furniture, machinery, etc. The claims include the claims of the owner capital and the claims of outsiders such as creditors, bankers, etc. Therefore, it can be stated that Balance Sheet is the statement which shows assets owned by the business and liabilities owed by it on a particular date. Balance Sheet is not an account. It has two sides. (i) Assets side and (ii) the Liabilities side. The Asset side has a list of fixed as well current assets. The liabilities side has a list of items of capital, long term as well as short term liabilities. Need 1. Balance Sheet is prepared to measure the true financial position of a business entity at a particular point of time. 2. It is a systematic presentation of what a business unit owns and what it owes. 3. Balance Sheet shows the financial position of the concern at a glance. 4. Creditors, financiers are particularly interested in the Balance Sheet of a concern so that they can decide whether to deal with the concern or not. Marshalling of Assets and Liabilities As stated above Balance sheet has two sides i.e. Assets side, which has various items of assets of the concern and liabilities side which has the liability or claim of the owner as well as of the outside parties. 32

7 Financial Statements-I Assets refer to the financial resources of the business and can broadly be divided into Current Assets and Fixed Assets, Liabilities denote claims against the assets of the business. Liabilities can be of two types owners liability or capital and outsiders liabilities such as creditors, bills payable, Bank Loan etc. There is no prescribed form of a Balance Sheet in which it should be prepared by a sole proprietary business or a partnership firm. However, an order is generally maintained in which assets and liabilities are written. This is to maintain uniformity/consistency which facilitates comparative analysis for decision making. Balance sheet may be prepared in any of the following orders : (a) Liquidity order (b) Permanency order MODULE - 3 (a) Liquidity order Liquidity means convertibility of assets into cash. Every asset cannot be converted into cash at the same degree of ease and convenience. Assets are written in the order of their liquidity, Assets of highest liquidity is written first and next highest follows and so on. Similarly, liabilities are also written in this very order. Short term liabilities are written first and then long term liabilities and lastly the capital. A specimen of the balance sheet prepared on the basis of liquidity order is given below : Balance Sheet of M/s... As on... Liabilities Amount Assets Amount Bank overdraft Cash in hand Outstanding Expenses Cash at bank Prepaid expenses Investments (short term) Bill payables Bill Receivables Sundry creditors Sundry Debtors Loans Closing stock Capital Investments Add Net Profit Furniture Less drawings Plant & Machinery Land & Building Goodwill 33

8 Financial Statements-I (Investments on short term basis are marketable securities; they form part of current assets.) Permanency order While following the order of permanency, assets, which are to be used permanently i.e. for a long time and not meant for resale are written first. For example, Land and Building, Plant and Machinery, furniture etc. are written first. Assets which are most liquid such as cash in hand is written in the last. Order of liabilities is similarly changed. Capital is written first, then the long term liabilities and lastly the short term liabilities and provisions and Specimen of a Balance Sheet that can be prepared in the order of permanency is as follows : Balance sheet of M/s... As on... Liabilities Amount Asset Amount Capital Goodwill Add : Net profit Land & Building Less : Drawings Plant & Machinery Loans Furniture Sundry creditors Investments Bills payable Closing stock Outstanding expenses Sundry Debtors Bank overdraft Bills Receivables Investments (short term) Prepaid expenses Cash at bank Cash in hand [In case of joint stock companies balance sheet is prepared as per schedule VI of the Companies Act 1956] Illustration 3 From the balances given below prepare Balance sheet of M/s Bharat & Bros as on 31st December, In (a) liquidity order and, (b) in permanency order. 34

9 Financial Statements-I Particulars Amount Particulars Amount Capital Sundry Debtors Loan from Bank Bills Payable 8000 Cash in hand 2500 Drawings 6000 Cash at Bank Building Closing stock Furniture 4500 Sundry creditor Investments Net Profit MODULE - 3 Solution : A. Liquidity order Balance sheet of M/s Bharat & Bros as on 31st Dec., 2006 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount Bills Payable 8000 Cash in hand 2500 Sundry creditors Cash at Bank Loan from Bank Sundry Debtors Capital Closing stock Add Net Profit Investments Building Less drawings Furniture 4500 B. In permanency order Balance sheet of M/s Bharat & Bros as on 31st Dec., 2006 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount Capital Building Add Net Profit Furniture 4500 Less drawings Investments Loan from Bank Closing stock Sundry creditors Sundry Debtors Bills payable 8000 Cash at Bank Cash in hand

10 Financial Statements-I INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.2 I. Arrange the following Assets in (i) Liquidity order (ii) Permanency order. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) Closing stock Furniture Cash in hand Investments Bills Receivable Goodwill Building Debtors II. Arrange the following items of liabilities (i) Liquidity order and (ii) in permanency order (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Bills Payable Sundry Creditors Loan on Mortgage Outstanding Expenses Capital 14.3 CLASSIFICATION OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES Assets and Liabilities are of various types. These can be classified as under: (a) Fixed Assets These are the assets that are purchased for permanent i.e. long term use and these help the business to earn revenue. Examples of such assets are Building, Machinery, Motor Vehicle, etc. These assets are not for sale in ordinary course of business but can be disposed off, if no more needed for business use. (b) Current Assets These are the assets which are acquired by the business either for resale or for converting them into cash. These are normally realised within a period 36

11 Financial Statements-I of one year. Examples of such assets are : cash in hand, cash at bank, bill receivable, debtors, stock etc. MODULE - 3 (c) Tangible Assets These are the assets that can be seen, touched and have certain volume. Building, Machinery, goods etc. are tangible assets. (d) Intangible Assets Assets which can neither be seen nor touched and have no volume are called intangible assets. Patents, trademark, goodwill etc are the examples of such assets. (e) Liquid Assets These are the assets which are either in cash or can be easily converted into cash. For example cash, stock, marketable securities etc. (f) Wasting Assets These are the assets which exhaust or reduce in value by their use. Mines, quarries etc come under this category. (g) Fictitious Assets These are not the real assets. These are the items of such expenses and losses which have not been written off in full. For example, preliminary expenses, under writing commission, etc. Liabilities Liabilities can be classified as follows : (a) Long term Liabilities These are the liabilities which are not payable during the current accounting year. Generally, the funds raised through such means are used for purchase of fixed assets. Examples of such liabilities are loan on mortgage, loan from financial institutions. (b) Current Liabilities These are the liabilities which are payable during the current year. These include Bank overdraft, trade creditors, bill payable etc. 37

12 (c) Owners funds Financial Statements-I The amount owing to the proprietor or proprietors is called owners funds. As per business entity concept this is a liability of the business. Apart from capital it also includes undistributed profits and reserves. Amount of drawings by the proprietor is deducted from it. INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.3 I. Write the type of assets against the items given below : (i) Goodwill... (ii) Bills Receivable... (iii) Preliminary Expenses... (iv) Mines... (v) Furniture... II. Write the type of liabilities against the items given below : (i) Loan on mortgage... (ii) Creditors... (iii) Outstanding expenses... (iv) Capital PREPARATION OF BALANCE SHEET Balance sheet has two sides : Assets and Liabilities. On the assets side we write all types of assets such as Cash, Bills Receivable, Stock, Building etc. On the liabilities side all liabilities, are written both long term liabilities and current liabilities, such as Bills Payable, trade creditors, bank loan etc. Next we write owners capital. Net profit is added to it. If there is net loss it is deducted from the capital. Amount of drawings is also deducted from the capital. Finally the two sides are totalled and the totals should agree. Illustration 4 From the following Trial Balance of M/s Vikram Brothers prepare Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31st March 2006 and Balance Sheet as on that date. 38

13 Financial Statements-I Dr. Cr. Particulars Balances Particulars Balance Cash in hand 500 Capital Motor car Discount Received 2000 Drawings Sales Legal charges 1500 Creditors Plant & Machinery Interest on investment 5200 Investments Purchases Return 3800 Opening stock Bills payable Sales Returns 2500 Salaries Discount allowed 600 Carriage Inward 1800 Wages Postage 400 Debtors Interest 1500 Insurance Premium 1200 Purchases MODULE - 3 Closing stock as on Solution : Trading A/c for the year ended 31st March, 2006 Dr. Cr. Particulars Amount Particulars Amount Opening stock Sales Purchases Less sales Returns Less purchase return Closing stock Wages Carriage Inward 1800 Gross Profit transferred to Profit & Loss A/c

14 Profit & Loss A/c for the year ended 31st March, 2006 Financial Statements-I Particulars Amount Particulars Amount Salaries Gross Profit transferred from Trading A/c Insurance Premium 1200 Discount Received 2000 Discount allowed 600 Interest on Investments 5200 Postage 400 Interest 1500 Legal charges 1500 Net Profit Transferred to Capital A/c Balance Sheet As on 31st March, 2006 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount Bills Payable Cash in hand 500 Capital Debtors Add Net Profit Closing stock Investments Less drawings Motor car Creditors Plant & Machinery Illustration Following is the Trial Balance extracted from the books of Jasmine Enterprises as on 31st March, Prepare Trading and Profit & Loss A/c from the information given in Trial Balance for the year ending 31st March, Also prepare the Balance Sheet as on that date. Dr. Cr. Particulars Amount Amount (.) (.) Stock ( ) Purchases & Sales Return Inwards & Return Outwards Debtors & Creditors

15 Financial Statements-I Bills Receivable & Bills Payable Commission paid 2000 Audit fees 1800 Building Furniture Salaries Telephone charges 4200 Insurance 2100 Discount allowed 1000 Octroi 1200 Wages Freight Inward 2400 Bad debts 600 Depreciation 4200 Bank loan Cash in hand and at Bank Capital Drawing Machinery MODULE - 3 Stock as on Solution : Trading A/c For the year ended 31st March, 2006 Dr. Cr. Particulars Amount Particulars Amount Stock ( ) Sales Purchases Less Return Inward Less return outward Closing stock Wages Freight Inward 2400 Octroi 1200 Gross Profit transferred to Profit & Loss A/c

16 Profit & Loss A/c For the year ended 31st March, 2006 Financial Statements-I Particulars Amount Particulars Amount Salaries Gross Profit transferred from Trading A/c Insurance Premium 2100 Bad debts 600 Depreciation 4200 Audit fees 1800 Discount allowed 1000 Commission paid 2000 Net Profit Transferred to Capital A/c Balance Sheet As at 31st March, 2006 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount Bills Payable Cash in hand & at Bank Sundry creditors Bill receivable Bank Loan Sundry Debtors Capital Closing stock Add Net Profit Machinery Building Less Drawings Furniture INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.4 Fill in the blanks with appropriate word/words : (i) The amount by which credit side of Trading A/c exceeds the debit side is written as... (ii) The amount by which debit side exceeds the credit side of Profit & Loss A/c is written as... (iii) The totals of the two sides of the Balance sheet should always be... (iv) Bank loan is shown on the... side of the Balance sheet. 42

17 Financial Statements-I WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT 1. To prepare Trading Account on the debit side we write opening stock, net purchases and direct expenses on the credit we write net sales and closing stock. The difference of the two sides is calculated which may be Gross Profit or Gross Loss. The same is transferred to Profit & Loss Account. MODULE All items of revenue expenditure and losses are written on the debit of Profit and Loss Account and the on the credit we write items of revenue receipts and gains. The difference of the two sides is calculated which may be either Net Profit or Net Loss. 3. Balance sheet is a statement showing the financial position of a business unit on the last date of the accounting year. 4. Balance sheet is a systematic presentation of what a business unit owns and what it owes. 5. Balance sheet has two sides Assets and Liabilities. 6. Assets and Liabilities may be written in (i) Liquidity order or (ii) Permanency order. 7. Assets may be classified as : fixed assets, current assets, tangible assets, intangible assets, liquid assets, wasting assets and fictitious assets. 8. Liabilities can be long term liabilities, current liabilities and owners funds. TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. State the steps taken while preparing Trading Account. 2. Explain the term Balance Sheet. Also explain the objectives of preparing a Balance sheet. 3. Explain showing assets in liquidity order and permanency order in a Balance Sheet. 4. Explain the following types of assets with two examples each : (a) Intangible Assets (b) Fictitious Assets (c) Fixed Assets (d) Current Assets 43

18 5. What are owners funds? Financial Statements-I 6. From the following information extracted from the books of P. Mukherjee, prepare Trading Account for the year ending 31st March, Opening stock 6500 Cash 4500 Purchases Office expenses 3200 Sales Office Rent 6800 Return Inward 1500 Return Outward 500 Carriage on Purchases 1200 Wages 4800 Fuel & Power 3200 Closing stock on 31st March, 2006 was From the following information of Rashmi prepare Profit & Loss Account for the year ending 31st March, Gross Profit Discount Received 600 Bad debts 1500 Commission Received 2100 Depreciation 2500 Freight outward 1600 Office rent 4800 Prepaid Insurance 600 Insurance 3200 Salary 6400 Telephone charges 1700 Stationery 700 Interest on loan 2400 Furniture 6000 Building Closing stock as on 31st March, From the following Trial Balance of M/s Krishna Murthi Garments as on 31st March, 2006, you are required to prepare Trading Account, Profit and Loss A/c for the year ended 31st March, 2006 and a Balance sheet as on that date. 44

19 Financial Statements-I Trial Balance of M/s Krishna Murthi Garments as at 31st March, 2006 Dr. Cr. Particulars Balances Balances Cash in hand Bank overdraft Stock ( ) Purchases Freight Inward 4000 Custom duty 5500 Power 6500 Machines Furniture Sales Bills Payable Sundry Debtors Sundry creditors Salaries 6500 Salesmen s commission 7800 Rent of Godown 7200 Insurance 2400 Land & Building Carriage on sales 3600 Advertisement 4500 Capital Drawings MODULE Closing stock as on 31st March,

20 Financial Statements-I ANSWERS TO INTEXT QUESTIONS Intext Questions 14.1 (i) Trading A/c credit (ii) Profit & Loss A/c debit (iii) Profit & Loss A/c credit (iv) Trading A/c debit (v) Trading A/c debit (vi) Trading A/c credit (vii) Profit & Loss A/c debit (viii) Profit & Loss A/c credit Intext Questions 14.2 I. Liquidity order Permanency order Cash in hand Goodwill Bills Receivable Furniture Sundry Debtors Building Closing stocks Investments Investments Closing stock Building Sundry Debtors Furniture Bills Receivable Goodwill Cash in hand II. Liquidity order Permanency order Outstanding expenses Capital Bills payable Loan on Mortgage Creditors Creditors Loan on Mortgage Bill payable Capital Outstanding expenses Intext Questions 14.3 I. (i) Intangible Asset (ii) Current Asset (iii) Fictitious Asset (iv) Wasting Asset (v) Fixed Asset 46

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