# Essentials of Financial Statement Analysis

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1 Essentials of Financial Statement Analysis An Introduction to Financial Statement Analysis Gregory Mostyn, CPA Worthy and James Publishing

3 Table of Contents Financial Statements Quick Review GAAP Quick Review Trend Analysis Using a Reference Base Financial Ratios and Ratio Analysis Overview Ratio Analysis: Measures of Liquidity Ratio Analysis: Measures of Solvency Ratio Analysis: Measures of Profitability Ratio Analysis: Measures of Investment Return Ratio Analysis: Measures of Productivity Analysis as an Outsider Quality of Earnings Potentially Hidden Liabilities Big, Bad, Sudden Surprises Conclusions About Usefulness And Oversight Summary Table of Financial Ratios and Measurements Quick Review and Vocabulary Practice Questions and Problems Solutions to Questions and Problems iii

4 Essentials of Financial Statement Analysis 1 Financial Statements Quick Review Balance Sheet Purpose The balance sheet is the most basic and essential financial statement. It is described by the basic accounting equation: A = L + OE, ( A means assets, L means liabilities, and OE means owner s equity.) The purpose of the balance sheet is to show the wealth of a business (assets) and the two possible claims on that wealth, which are the creditors claims (liabilities) and the owner s claim (called owner s equity, partners equity, or stockholders equity.) at a given point in time. There are two main sources of owner s equity: investments by the owner(s) and the business operations. Key Issues Two key issues concerning a balance sheet are: 1. How items are classified on the balance sheet. 2. How the assets and liabilities are valued, which is to say, how the dollar value is calculated. The dollar value is recorded initially at its original transaction value, which is usually called historical cost. As time passes, generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) may require valuation adjustments to the original value of some assets. Example The example below shows a balance sheet after the close of business on June 30, The assets and liabilities are classified by type and by current compared to long-term (longer than a year). This example shows total business assets with a value of \$410,120. Of that amount, creditors have a claim of \$173,850 and the residual amount of \$236,270 is claimed by the owner. If this were a partnership, owner s equity would be called partners equity and two or more owner s names would be shown. If this were a corporation, the equity would be called stockholders or shareholders equity. The equity would then be subdivided into sections showing the sources, such as paid-in capital from stock sold, and retained earnings from operations. continued

5 2 Essentials of Financial Statement Analysis Balance Sheet, continued Sioux City Enterprises Balance Sheet June 30, 2008 Assets Current Assets Cash \$ 41,300 Short-term investments 28,250 Accounts receivable 29,450 Merchandise inventory 69,650 Office supplies 920 Total current assets \$169,570 Property, Plant, and Equipment Office equipment 25,800 Less: Accumulated depreciation 6,850 18,950 Store equipment 314,500 Less: Accumulated depreciation 92, ,600 Total assets \$410,120 Liabilities and Owner s Equity Current liabilities: Wages payable \$ 3,200 Accounts payable 34,200 Interest payable 1,450 Current portion of long-term debt 3,200 Total current liabilities \$ 42,050 Long-term liabilities Notes payable 135,000 Less: current portion (above) 3,200 Total long-term liabilities 131,800 Total liabilities 173,850 Owner s equity: R. Chandra, capital 236,270 Total liabilities and Owner s Equity \$410,120

6 Essentials of Financial Statement Analysis 3 Income Statement Purpose The income statement is a change statement that shows the change in equity as a result of operating a business during a specific period of time. The income statement shows the change in owner s equity (or partners or stockholders equity) that results from the sales made to customers (revenues) minus the resources consumed to operate the business (expenses). When revenues exceed expenses (net income) assets increase and/or debt decreases. When expenses exceed revenues (net loss) assets decrease and/or debt increases. Key Issues The key issues concerning the income statement are the proper classification, correct amounts, and timing of revenues and expenses into the correct accounting periods. Example The example below shows an income statement. The income statement shows the revenues and expenses for the six months ended June 30, This business has a net income of \$40,150 for the period, which means that the owner s equity increased by that amount as a result of operating the business. Notice the importance of recording in the correct period. If some revenue or expense on this income statement were recorded in the prior or the next period, this would change the results on income statements for two periods and change the trend in the revenue or expense, and net income. This example contains a detailed listing of expenses. These are sometimes condensed into categories called operating expenses and other expenses. continued

7 4 Essentials of Financial Statement Analysis Income Statement, continued Sioux City Enterprises Income Statement For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2008 Revenues Net sales \$368,900 Rental Income 2,000 Total Revenue 370,900 Expenses Cost of goods sold \$266,000 Salaries and wages expense 45,200 Rent expense 4,000 Advertising expense 3,880 Utilities expense 3,200 Freight-out expense 2,960 Insurance expense 2,150 Depreciation expense 1,550 Interest expense 1,450 Total expenses 330,390 Net income \$ 40,510 Articulation The income statement and balance sheet are closely connected to each other. Revenues, expenses, and net income or loss on the income statement affect what is reported on the balance sheet. This is called articulation. Volume 1 of Basic Accounting Concepts, Principles, and Procedures provides detailed examples of articulation. Statement of Owner s Equity Purpose The statement of owner s equity (or partners equity, or stockholders equity) summarizes the changes to owner s equity for a specific period of time. This generally consists of: (1) the net income or net loss from the income statement, (2) the total of the owner(s) investments in the business, and (3) the total of the owner (s) withdrawal of assets from the business. In a proprietorship or partnership, these items are usually limited and relatively easy to follow. In a large corporation, they can become more involved and complex, and are reported in a statement of stockholders equity.

9 6 Essentials of Financial Statement Analysis Statement of Cash Flows, continued Superior Office Supply Company Statement of Cash Flows Years Ended December 31 Cash flows from operating activities Net income \$167,500 \$174,600 Add: Items increasing cash or not reducing cash Depreciation expense 58,200 35,100 Decreases in current operating assets 1,400 17,800 Increases in current operating liabilities 25,800 12,900 Less: Items reducing cash or not increasing cash Increases in current operating assets (67,400) (165,900) Decreases in current operating liabilities (29,800) (4,800) Increase in cash from operating activities \$ 155,700 \$ 69,700 Cash flows from investing activities Expenditures on plant and equipment (45,000) (5,000) Expenditures on intangible assets (10,000) Decrease in cash from investing activities \$ (55,000) \$ (5,000) Cash flows from financing activities Increase in non-trade short-term note payable 25,500 (Decrease) increase in long-term debt (30,200) 10,500 Owner cash withdrawals (55,000) (40,000) Decrease in cash from financing activities \$ (59,700) \$ (29,500) Net increase in cash \$ 41,000 \$ 35,200 Beginning cash balance 414, ,000 Ending cash balance \$455,200 \$ 414,200 TIP Don t be fooled. Depreciation is often incorrectly referred to as a source of cash because it is a well-known adjustment that is added back to net income as you see above. Depreciation is not literally a source of cash. It is simply a non-cash expense deduction that reduces net income but does not require the use of any cash. So, depreciation is added back to net income to cancel out the deduction for the purpose of calculating the cash flow. In fact, the same add-back adjustment is made for amortization and for every other non-cash expense (like using up supplies).

10 Essentials of Financial Statement Analysis 7 GAAP Review GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) What Is GAAP? In the United States, GAAP is a set of rules and standards that guide accountants as to when and how to properly record transactions and how to prepare proper financial statements. GAAP is not like unchanging laws of physics. GAAP is designed to meet the needs of society. GAAP is always evolving as the economic environment changes. Also, GAAP only refers to rules of accounting in the United States. Different countries have different rules for different purposes. Broad GAAP There are a few broad GAAP principles that provide general guidance and that apply to all types of transactions. These are fundamental accounting rules. These are like general traffic laws. Example: The historical cost principle requires that all transactions be recorded at original transaction value unless a specific GAAP rule creates an exception. Specific GAAP Specific GAAP rules offer specific direction for important kinds of specific situations. As you continue your study of accounting and learn how to record specific types of transactions, you will learn specific GAAP rules. Examples of some specific GAAP rules are: How uncollectible accounts receivable should be recorded Acceptable methods for calculating inventory cost Requirements for changing inventory values How interest should be calculated on certain kinds of debt GAAP Is Not Perfect Just as with other kinds of rules, GAAP is not perfect. GAAP is often subject to interpretation. Estimates are frequently required. The application of different methods is allowed, which can make comparability difficult to achieve. However, despite shortcomings, GAAP is essential to financial reporting. continued

11 8 Essentials of Financial Statement Analysis GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles), continued Where Does GAAP Come From? There is no single source or listing of GAAP! There are a number of different sources, some more important than others. Official Pronouncements: An official pronouncement is a formal and authoritative document issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), which is the standard-setting authority in the accounting profession. The FASB is an independent organization that derives its authority from the Federal Securities and Exchange Commission and the fact that state licensing boards for accountants accept the FASB pronouncements as highest authority. The pronouncements of the FASB are called Statements of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS). An SFAS prescribes how certain kinds of transactions must be recorded, and presented and explained on financial statements. FASB Technical Guides: The next authoritative level below an SFAS is a technical guide, usually dealing with narrow or very specific subject matter. Examples: FASB Technical Bulletins AICPA (American Institute of CPAs) Statements of Position and Practice Bulletins EITF (Emerging Issues Task Force) Positions and Recommendations Industry Practice: Industry practice is a source of GAAP. Historically, some industry practices have achieved wide acceptance over many years. Sometimes this has created conflict and a lack of consistency within GAAP because the practices serve the purposes of different groups. To a diminished degree, this process continues today. Other Accounting Literature: Research publications by educators, journal articles, textbooks, professional association publications, and AICPA technical practice aids are examples of this source of GAAP. These are the least authoritative GAAP sources. International Standards The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is an independent organization with the goal of developing a single set of comprehensive global accounting standards. The FASB currently has several major projects underway with the IASB working towards uniform standards.

12 Essentials of Financial Statement Analysis 9 Trend Analysis Using a Reference Base Overview Introduction: Your New Business We begin our discussion by assuming that you have just recently taken over the management of your (imaginary) family business. The business is a wholesale office supply store that primarily sells office supplies and office equipment on account to retail merchants. One of the first things that you need to do is to analyze the financial statements of the business to judge its condition and to decide if you need to make any changes in the operations and management. A Reference Base A reference base is simply a selected amount that is used to compare to other numbers. The comparison is usually done by calculating the other numbers as a percentage of the reference base amount. Example Suppose that you are given the following sales amounts: Sales \$75,000 \$48,000 \$55,000 \$50,000 Comparing totals: If you want to compare the total sales for each year to the year 2005, then the 2005 sales of \$50,000 is your reference base amount. Divide each year s sales by the base amount Sales 150% 96% 110% 100% Example: The 2006 sales compared to 2005 is: \$55,000/\$50,000 = 110%. Comparing changes: If you want to compare the change for each year to the base amount, calculate the difference and divide by the base amount Sales 50% (4%) 10% Example: The 2006 percent change is: (\$55,000 \$50,000)/\$50,000 = 10%.

13 10 Essentials of Financial Statement Analysis Horizontal Analysis Overview Horizontal analysis is a comparison of financial statement information over a period of time. Both dollar amounts and percentage amounts are evaluated to identify changes and trends from the base year. Watching trends over an extended time period is an extremely valuable analytical procedure. Balance Sheet Example The example below shows a two-year horizontal analysis of comparative balance sheets for your business, with 2007 as the base year. Superior Office Supply Company Condensed Balance Sheet December 31 Increase or (decrease) Amount Percent Assets Current assets Cash and cash equivalents \$ 455,200 \$ 414,200 \$ 41, % Short-term investments 35,500 36,900 (1,400) (3.8%) Accounts receivable, net 286, ,800 30, % Inventory 492, ,900 35, % Prepaid expenses 52,300 50,500 1, % Total current assets \$1,321,300 \$1,214,300 \$107, % Property, plant, and equipment \$ 990,500 \$ 945,500 \$ 45, % Less: Accumulated depreciation 365, ,800 58, % Net property, plant, and equip. \$ 625,500 \$ 638,700 \$ (13,200) (2.1%) Intangible assets 110, ,000 10, % Total assets \$2,056,800 \$1,953,000 \$103, % Liabilities and Owner s Equity Current liabilities Accounts payable \$ 414,700 \$ 388,900 \$ 25, % Short-term notes payable 50,000 24,500 25, % Other current liabilities 185, ,400 (29,800) (13.8%) Total current liabilities \$ 650,300 \$ 628,800 \$ 21, % Long-term debt 551, ,600 (30,200) (5.2%) Total liabilities \$1,201,700 \$1,210,400 \$ (8,700) (0.7%) Your Name, capital \$ 855,100 \$ 742,600 \$112, % Total liabilities and owner s equity \$2,056,800 \$1,953,000 \$103, %

14 18 Essentials of Financial Statement Analysis Measures of Liquidity Overview Liquidity means the ability to obtain cash needed to pay current liabilities as they come due and to pay unexpected short-term obligations. If a business cannot pay these immediate obligations, it will cease to operate. Owners, managers, suppliers, and lenders are very concerned with liquidity. We will examine the following ratios to evaluate liquidity condition: (1) current ratio, (2) quick ratio, (3) receivables turnover ratio, and (4) inventory turnover ratio. Current Ratio The current ratio is a comparison of the amount of current assets to the amount of current liabilities. Current assets are called liquid assets because they provide cash to pay current liabilities or represent prepayments. The current ratio is: total current assets total current liabilities Example for Superior Office Supply Company Industry Average \$1,321,300 \$1,214, = = \$650,300 \$628,800 Interpretation The current ratio has improved somewhat. At the end of 2008, about \$2.03 of current assets were available for every dollar of current liabilities. The ratio exceeds the industry average benchmark. Quick Ratio (Acid-Test Ratio) The quick ratio is a measure of how well a business could pay current liabilities if they all came due quickly. This ratio uses only highly liquid assets (called quick assets) compared to current liabilities. The assets used are cash, short-term investments, and all current receivables net of allowances. The quick ratio is: cash + short term investments + current receivables (net) total current liabilities Example for Superior Office Supply Company Industry Average \$455,200 + \$35,500 \$414,200 + \$36, \$286,200 + \$255, = = 1.12 \$650,300 \$628,800

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