1 Introduction to Data Warehousing Ms Swapnil Shrivastava
2 Necessity is the mother of invention Why Data Warehouse?
3 Scenario 1 ABC Pvt Ltd is a company with branches at Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai and Banglore. The Sales Manager wants quarterly sales report. Each branch has a separate operational system.
4 Scenario 1 : ABC Pvt Ltd. Mumbai Delhi Chennai Sales per item type per branch for first quarter. Sales Manager Banglore
5 Solution 1:ABC Pvt Ltd. Extract sales information from each database. Store the information in a common repository at a single site.
6 Solution 1:ABC Pvt Ltd. Mumbai Report Delhi Data Warehouse Query & Analysis tools Sales Manager Chennai Banglore
7 Scenario 2 One Stop Shopping Super Market has huge operational database.whenever Executives wants some report the OLTP system becomes slow and data entry operators have to wait for some time.
8 Scenario 2 : One Stop Shopping Data Entry Operator Report Wait Operational Database Management Data Entry Operator
9 Solution 2 Extract data needed for analysis from operational database. Store it in warehouse. Refresh warehouse at regular interval so that it contains up to date information for analysis. Warehouse will contain data with historical perspective.
10 Solution 2 Data Entry Operator Report Transaction Operational database Extract data Data Warehouse Manager Data Entry Operator
11 Scenario 3 Cakes & Cookies is a small,new company.president of the company wants his company should grow.he needs information so that he can make correct decisions.
12 Solution 3 Improve the quality of data before loading it into the warehouse. Perform data cleaning and transformation before loading the data. Use query analysis tools to support adhoc queries.
13 Solution 3 Expansio n Data Warehouse Query and Analysis tool sales President time Improvemen t
14 What is Data Warehouse??
15 Inmons s definition A data warehouse is -subject-oriented, -integrated, -time-variant, -nonvolatile collection of data in support of management s decision making process.
16 Subject-oriented Data warehouse is organized around subjects such as sales,product,customer. It focuses on modeling and analysis of data for decision makers. Excludes data not useful in decision support process.
17 Integration Data Warehouse is constructed by integrating multiple heterogeneous sources. Data Preprocessing are applied to ensure consistency. RDBMS Legacy System Data Warehouse Flat File Data Processing Data Transformation
18 Integration In terms of data. encoding structures. Measurement of attributes. physical attribute. of data remarks naming conventions. Data type format
19 Time-variant Provides information from historical perspective e.g. past 5-10 years Every key structure contains either implicitly or explicitly an element of time
20 Nonvolatile Data once recorded cannot be updated. Data warehouse requires two operations in data accessing Initial loading of data Access of data load access
21 Operational v/s Information System Features Characteristics Orientation User Function Data View DB design Unit of work Access Current Operational Operational processing Transaction Clerk,DBA,database professional Day to day operation Detailed,flat relational Application oriented Short,simple transaction Read/write Informational processing Analysis Knowledge workers Decision support Historical Information Summarized, multidimensional Subject oriented Complex query Mostly read
22 Operational v/s Information System Features Focus Number of records accessed Number of users DB size Priority Metric Operational Data in tens thousands 100MB to GB High performance,high availability Transaction throughput Information Information out millions hundreds 100 GB to TB High flexibility,enduser autonomy Query througput
23 Data Warehousing Architecture Monitoring & Administration OLAP Servers Metadata Repository Reconciled data Analysis External Sources Operational Dbs Extract Transform Load Refresh Serve Query/Reporting Data Mining DATA SOURCES TOOLS DATA MARTS
24 Data Warehouse Architecture Data Warehouse server almost always a relational DBMS,rarely flat files OLAP servers to support and operate on multi-dimensional data structures Clients Query and reporting tools Analysis tools Data mining tools
25 Data Warehouse Schema Star Schema Fact Constellation Schema Snowflake Schema
26 Star Schema A single,large and central fact table and one table for each dimension. Every fact points to one tuple in each of the dimensions and has additional attributes. Does not capture hierarchies directly.
27 Benefits: Easy to understand, easy to define hierarchies, reduces no. of physical joins. (.. contd ) Star Schema Store Dimension Store Key Store Name City State Region Fact Table Store Key Product Key Period Key Units Price Time Dimension Period Key Year Quarter Month Product Key Product Desc Product Dimension
28 SnowFlake Schema Variant of star schema model. A single,large and central fact table and one or more tables for each dimension. Dimension tables are normalized i.e. split dimension table data into additional tables
29 (.. contd ) SnowFlake Schema Store Dimension Store Key Store Name City Key City Dimension Fact Table Store Key Product Key Period Key Units Price Time Dimension Period Key Year Quarter Month City Key Product Key City Product Desc State Region Product Dimension Drawbacks: Time consuming joins,report generation slow
30 Fact Constellation Multiple fact tables share dimension tables. This schema is viewed as collection of stars hence called galaxy schema or fact constellation. Sophisticated application requires such schema.
31 (.. contd ) Fact Constellation Store Key Product Key Period Key Units Price Sales Fact Table Product Dimension Product Key Product Desc Store Dimension Shipping Fact Table Shipper Key Store Key Product Key Period Key Units Price Store Key Store Name City State Region
32 Building Data Warehouse Data Selection Data Preprocessing Fill missing values Remove inconsistency Data Transformation & Integration Data Loading Data in warehouse is stored in form of fact tables and dimension tables.
33 Case Study Afco Foods & Beverages is a new company which produces dairy,bread and meat products with production unit located at Baroda. There products are sold in North,North West and Western region of India. They have sales units at Mumbai, Pune, Ahemdabad,Delhi and Baroda. The President of the company wants sales information.
34 Sales Information Report: The number of units sold. 113 Report: The number of units sold over time January February March April
35 Sales Information Report : The number of items sold for each product with time Jan Feb Mar Apr Wheat Bread 6 17 Cheese Time Swiss Rolls Product
36 Sales Information Report: The number of items sold in each City for each product with time Mumbai Wheat Bread Jan Feb Mar 3 Apr 10 City Cheese Swiss Rolls Time Pune Wheat Bread 3 7 Cheese 3 8 Product Swiss Rolls
37 Sales Information Report: The number of items sold and income in each region for each product with time. Jan Feb Mar Apr Rs U Rs U Rs U Rs U Mumbai Wheat Bread Cheese Swiss Rolls Pune Wheat Bread Cheese Swiss Rolls
39 Sales Data Warehouse Model Fact Table City Product Month Units Rupees Mumbai Wheat Bread January Mumbai Cheese January Pune Wheat Bread January Pune Cheese January Mumbai Swiss Rolls February
40 Sales Data Warehouse Model City_ID Prod_ID Month Units Rupees /1/ /1/ /1/ /1/ /1/
41 Sales Data Warehouse Model Product Dimension Tables Prod_ID Product_Name Wheat Bread Swiss Rolls Coconut Cookies Product_Category_ID Product_Category_Id 1 2 Product_Category Bread Cookies
42 Sales Data Warehouse Model Region Dimension Table City_ID City Region Country 1 Mumbai West India 2 Pune NorthWest India
43 Sales Data Warehouse Model Time Sales Fact Product Product Category Region
44 ( Processing(OLAP Online Analysis It enables analysts, managers and executives to gain insight into data through fast, consistent, interactive access to a wide variety of possible views of information that has been transformed from raw data to reflect the real dimensionality of the enterprise as understood by the user. Product Data Warehouse Region Time
45 OLAP Cube City Product Time Units Dollars All All All Mumbai All All Mumbai White Bread All Mumbai Wheat Bread All Mumbai Wheat Bread Qtr Mumbai Wheat Bread March
46 OLAP Operations Drill Down Product Category e.g Electrical Appliance Sub Category e.g Kitchen Region Product e.g Toaster Time
47 OLAP Operations Drill Up Product Category e.g Electrical Appliance Sub Category e.g Kitchen Region Product e.g Toaster Time
48 OLAP Operations Slice and Dice Product Product=Toaster Region Region Time Time
49 OLAP Operations Pivot Product Product Region Time Time Region
50 OLAP Server An OLAP Server is a high capacity,multi user data manipulation engine specifically designed to support and operate on multi-dimensional data structure. OLAP server available are MOLAP server ROLAP server HOLAP server
51 Presentation Product Region Time Reporting Tool Report
52 Data Warehousing includes Build Data Warehouse Online analysis processing(olap). Presentation. RDBMS Cleaning,Selection & Integration Presentation Flat File Warehouse & OLAP server Client
53 Need for Data Warehousing Industry has huge amount of operational data Knowledge worker wants to turn this data into useful information. This information is used by them to support strategic decision making.
54 (.. contd ) Need for Data Warehousing It is a platform for consolidated historical data for analysis. It stores data of good quality so that knowledge worker can make correct decisions.
55 (.. contd ) Need for Data Warehousing From business perspective -it is latest marketing weapon -helps to keep customers by learning more about their needs. -valuable tool in today s competitive fast evolving world.
56 Data Warehousing Tools Data Warehouse SQL Server 2000 DTS Oracle 8i Warehouse Builder OLAP tools SQL Server Analysis Services Oracle Express Server Reporting tools MS Excel Pivot Chart VB Applications
57 References Building Data Warehouse by Inmon Data Mining:Concepts and Techniques by Han,Kamber
Overview of Data Warehousing and OLAP Chapter 28 March 24, 2008 ADBS: DW 1 Chapter Outline What is a data warehouse (DW) Conceptual structure of DW Why separate DW Data modeling for DW Online Analytical
http://www.tutorialspoint.com/dwh/dwh_olap.htm DATA WAREHOUSING - OLAP Copyright tutorialspoint.com Online Analytical Processing Server OLAP is based on the multidimensional data model. It allows managers,
Slide 29-1 Chapter 29 Overview of Data Warehousing and OLAP Chapter 29 Outline Purpose of Data Warehousing Introduction, Definitions, and Terminology Comparison with Traditional Databases Characteristics
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