1 THE ROLE OF PROBATION IN TREATMENT OF CHILD OFFENDERS
2 Kenya s Youth: The facts 75% of the total Kenyan population is below 30 years Those between 15 and 30 years old account for 32% of the population Over 50% of all convicted criminals are young people p aged between 16 and 25 years.
3 PROBATION SERVICE IN KENYA Coverage Stations Personnel probation officers Qualification -University Graduates Social work, Criminology psychology, Sociology, Law, Counselling.
4 PROBATION DEPARTMENT In the office of the VP and ministry of Home Affairs and has been in existence since OBJECTIVES a)generation of social reports offences for the criminal justice system. b)supervision and rehabilitation of offenders within the community. c)reconciliation, resettlement and reintegration of offenders.
5 Operational Mandates 1P 1.Probation of foffenders Act tcap 64 Laws of Kenya. 2. Community Service Orders Act No.10 of 1998 of the Laws of Kenya.
6 Operational Mandates 3.Aftercare Programme. It deals with the supervision of offenders who are released from various penal institutions either on license or upon completion of their sentence for reintegration ti and resettlement. t
7 Operational Mandates Probation implements aftercare Programmes as per the: a) Borstal Institution Act Cap 92 Laws of Kenya (for youthful offenders). b) Prisons Act Cap 90 Laws of Kenya. c) Mental Health Act Cap 248 Laws of Kenya.
8 The Child in conflict with the law This is a child who commits an offence that is against the laws of Kenya. This child is above 8 years and below 18 years as prescribed in the Penal Code of the Laws of Kenya.
9 The Child in conflict with the law Under the Penal Code, section 14 Cap 64 Laws of Kenya, a person under 8 years is not responsible for any act or omission.
10 The Child in conflict with the law And a person under the age of 12 years is not criminally responsible for any act or omission unless it is proven that at the time of doing the act, he had the capacity to know that he ought not to have committed the act.
11 Children on probation orders Year Court No of Girls No of Boys Referrals on Probation on Probation
12 Children on Community Service Orders Year No of Court No of Boys No of Girls Referrals on CSO on CSO
13 OFFENCES COMMITTED BY CHILDREN Stealing farm produce. Pick pocketing. Assault. Arson. Defilement. Substance abuse. Possession of illicit brew.
14 OFFENCES COMMITTED BY CHILDREN - Smoking bhang. -Concealing birth. -Infanticide. - Touting. - Manslaughter etc.
15 PROBATION AS A SERVICE FOR CHILDREN As part of the juvenile justice system, the department is charged with the responsibility of generation of social reports to courts for effective and appropriate sentencing of offenders. It is also mandated to rehabilitate and reintegrate Child offenders who exit correction facilities back into the community
16 What makes children offend? 1.Family factors Poor parenting- permissive style, uninvolved, resistant parenting Dysfunctional families ( Alcoholism, marital tension, domestic violence, communication problems, family influence to crime etc) Parent-child conflicts
17 What makes children offend? 2. Stress & Trauma Factors Chronic Abuse- Exploitation, physical, sexual abuse, parental neglect. Some children move to the streets to escape the pain of the abuse and instead are initiated to a life of crime. Loss of parents which means the child becomes a child in need of special care and protection Child headed families
18 What makes children offend? 3.Environmental Factors Stress-Societal pressure to excel academically, developmental stress, the child hits back at society, by displacing their anger, stress, through antisocial behaviour like setting fire to schools, joining gangs. Lack of support systems in the society
19 What makes children offend? 3.Environmental Factors Poverty- the child steals to get money for food, engages in commercial sex for self support. Social learning- exposure to Community violence, drug abuse, commercial sex. Peer pressure- to join gangs, engage in commercial sex work, to abuse drugs, wear certain clothes etc
20 What makes children offend? Exploitation by adults- According to ILO adults influencing children to commit offences is the one of the worst forms of child labour. Children are used as accomplices, or look out for the adult, conduits for drug trafficking, and showing children the rewards of crime so as to attract them to this life.
21 What makes children offend? 4.Developmental Factors Developmental milestones- The child is pushed out of the school system because of failure to fit in. Children with ADHD etc Mental health- disorders
22 Child s Experience of the Justice System Has little or no idea of the juvenile justice process No one explains to the child about the role of different players/ court proceedings The child has to repeat their story to different strangers No privacy
23 Child s Experience of the Justice System Labelled and stigmatised, Anxious What will happen to me Confused Suspicious The JJ system makes the child feel helpless
24 Child s Experience of the Justice System Nervous Embarrassed Sad Shamed No Confidence Low Self worth Helpless Totally dependant on others to see him through the justice process
25 Child s Experience of the Justice Angry Sense of Guilt System Intimidated id t d by the system His privacy has been taken away by professionals out to help him/her Helpless- No control over his/her fate
26 The JJ Care pathway PRISON Diversion BORSTAL INSTITUTIONS (2 UNITS) K.Y.C.C. (1 UNIT) HEALTH CBOS NGOS COMMUNITY POLICE COURT PROBATION SERVICES STAKEHOLDERS ORPHANAGES REMAND HOMES CHILDREN DEPT. REHAB. SCHOOLS PROBATION HOSTELS 4 UNITS PROBATION DAY CARE CENTRE OTHER COMMUNITY BASED SUPERVISION
27 The Role of the Probation Officer The Probation officer is a social worker/ counsellor/friend. Entrusted with the responsibility of providing the court with detailed information about the child and their circumstances. Helps the court reach a most appropriate decision, which is in the best interests of the child
28 The Probation Officer s Report This information is contained in a court document known as the Probation Officers Report ( POR) and includes: The age of the child- To identify developmental crises involved and age appropriate treatment. The family background- To establish degree of dysfunction in the family as well as prepare the family to assist in the rehabilitation i of the child.
29 The Probation Officer s Report Parents character and their level of concern and the level of control they have over the offender. Assess effectiveness of the training and discipline the parents have given the offender. The offender s growth and development history, noting any social, economic and psychological impact they could have. The offender s relationship with his family.
30 The Probation Officer s Report The School related details- To establish the possibility of returning the child to the school or identify another school so as to protect the child from stigma. Child s known behavior- From significant others so as to draw up a behavior modification treatment plan.
31 The Probation Officer s Report The wishes of the child The wishes of the parent-guardian The best interest of the child The health of the minor including special needs. What made the child commit the offence The attitude of the child towards the offence Their moral/ cognitive stage. The child s ability to understand effect of their behaviour on self and others Degree of motivation to change
32 The Probation Officer s Report What is the most appropriate p way of dealing with the offender Is the offender a suitable person to be supervised and rehabilitated in the community. What measures/resources that can be employed to divert him from crime. Is the offenders family/community willing to assist assst the offender resettle. esette What sentencing options befits the offenders needs..
33 Treatment/Rehabilitation of child offenders Diversion Counselling School re-enrolment Supervision of Probation orders Community Service Commitment to correction facilities Vocational training/empowerment Referral to psychiatric care Job placements
34 Committal to institutions
36 Challenges Fragmented system with ineffective multi- agency approach Lack of appropriate training on child offenders among players Long delays in the court Community s punitive attitude Parents pushing children to the system
RESOURCE MATERIAL SERIES No.82 EFFECTIVE RESETTLEMENT OF OFFENDERS BY STRENGTHENING COMMUNITY REINTEGRATION FACTORS : KENYA S EXPERIENCE Christine Achieng Okoth Obondi* I. BACKGROUND Kenya recognizes the
Safer Streets Crime Action Plan Youth Justice Have Your Say 1 Foreword Through its Safer Streets Crime Action Plan, the Newman Government made a commitment to crack down on crime. As part of this plan,
Norma Hotaling is the founder and Executive Director of SAGE (Standing Against Global Exploitation), Inc., a nonprofit organization in San Francisco that helps former prostitutes live healthy lives. Before
Children Used by Adults to Commit Crime Guidelines for Role-players in the Criminal Justice System Children Used by Adults to Commit Crime: Guidelines for Role-players in the Criminal Justice System Prepared
THE EFFECTS OF FAMILY VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN Where Does It Hurt? Child Abuse Hurts Us All Every child has the right to be nurtured and to be safe. According to: Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile
A guide for the family and friends of adults in the criminal justice system vacro Established 1872 Understanding the Victorian criminal justice system Arrest When someone is arrested, and if they are required
A Holistic Approach to Family Violence Prevention Richard Hickson Principal Solicitor Family Violence Prevention Legal Service, Albany Holistic Characterized by the treatment of the whole person, taking
YEARLY UPDATE REPORT FOR ADDITIONAL SUPPORT TEAM, FORENSIC NURSE PRACTITONER 1 P a g e Introduction The purpose of this report is to discuss the period from April 2012 to Dec 2013 of the achievements and
switching seats in the classroom stealing money Take Action Against Bullying spreading rumors pushing & tripping U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
JOB DESCRIPTION MICHIGAN CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION JOB SPECIFICATION PAROLE/PROBATION OFFICER Employees in this job function as professional representatives of the Department of Corrections in the parole,
YOUTH CRIMINAL JUSTICE ACT POLICY PREAMBLE It is the policy of the Halifax Regional School Board that involvement with the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) be guided by the following principles: 1. Access
Lesson One INTRODUCTION TO CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY Aim To define crime and criminal psychology. Before we go on to consider the work of the criminal psychologist, let us first consider, what exactly is crime?
Social and Emotional Wellbeing A Guide for Children s Services Educators Social and emotional wellbeing may also be called mental health, which is different from mental illness. Mental health is our capacity
Development of Forensic Nursing in Australia: Associate Professor Linda Saunders 4 th December 2008 Working with Offenders Country Total Criminal Population Population Australia 20,090,437 22,458 Canada
Sue R (Chartered Clinical & Forensic Psychologist) B.Sc. (Hons.), M.Sc., D. Clin. Psychol. AFBPSs. PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATIONS & EXPERTISE Professional Qualification British Psychological Society Chartered
January 2004 Alcohol and Re-offending Who Cares? This briefing paper focuses on the high level of alcohol misuse and dependence within the prison population. In recent years a great deal of time and money
CHAPTER 7 REHABILITATION OF OFFENDERS I. PROBATION AND PAROLE A. Overview Both probation and parole are forms of community-based treatment of offenders and juvenile delinquents. Probation is a court-imposed
Probation in England and Wales Systems for Delivering Effective Practice Workshop on Adult Intervention Programmes in Probation Services Antakya 17-18 th May 2011 Agenda Introduction: The National Offender
Legislating for Violence against Children With a focus on the juvenile justice system Juvenile Justice is multi sectoral One of the challenges to juvenile justice is that it is multi-sectoral This means
MALAWI FACT SHEET JUSTICE FOR CHILDREN BACKGROUND The Bill was developed by the Malawi Law Commission following two submissions: 1. from the Parliamentary Caucus on Women and Children that wished to see
DIPLOMA IN CRIME MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION COURSES DESCRIPTION ASC 075 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY Defining Sociology and Anthropology, Emergence of Sociology, subject matter and subdisciplines.
INTRODUCTION TO THE CANADIAN JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM Robert D. Hoge* I. INTRODUCTION This paper presents a description of some features of the Canadian youth justice system, including the principles underlying
New South Wales Compulsory Drug Treatment Correctional Centre Act 2004 No 42 Contents Page 1 Name of Act 2 2 Commencement 2 3 Amendment of Drug Court Act 1998 No 150 2 4 Amendment of Crimes (Sentencing
Guidelines for Information Sharing related to the Youth Criminal Justice Act (2003) For School Division and Young Offender Programs Personnel April 2011 Prepared by the Ministries of Education and Corrections,
A GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING THE CHILD PROTECTION REGISTRY Think of the Child First Over the years many changes have been made to the laws regarding child abuse and neglect within the State of Delaware. Most
Key Considerations in Psychological Interventions for Offenders with Substance Abuse Problems Lu Chan Ching-chuen Senior Clinical Psychologist Charles Pau Wai-ho Clinical Psychologist Correctional Services
Young London Matters April 2009 Government Office For London Riverwalk House 157-161 Millbank London SW1P 4RR For further information about Young London Matters contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
GUIDANCE Implementing Section 176 of the Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014: Lowvalue shoplifting Guidance for police in England and Wales First publication: June 2014 1 Introduction 1.
United Nations Study on Violence against Children Response to the questionnaire received from the Government of the Republic of GUYANA 1 MINISTRY OF LABOUR, HUMAN SERVICES & SOCIAL SECURITY RESPONSE TO
OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC PROSECUTIONS GUIDELINE FOR FEDERAL PROSECUTORS November 8, 2012 DRUG TREATMENT COURTS Purpose  The purpose of this guideline is to advise federal Crown counsel of the
JOB DESCRIPTION MICHIGAN CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION JOB SPECIFICATION CORRECTIONS OFFICER Employees in this job oversee and participate in the custody, security, and treatment of prisoners or detainees in
HANDOUT 1: Purpose and Principles of Sentencing in Canada Principles of Sentencing The Criminal Code of Canada outlines the principles and purpose of sentencing in s. 718. These principles are placed in
The Many Facets of Social Work The scope of social work practice is remarkably wide. Social workers practice not only in the traditional social service agency, but also in elementary schools; in the military;
Prison and Probation Service in Sweden Presentation ti of Staff training i Agen, France 2009 Swedish Prison and Probation Service Transport Service Head Office National Parole Board 30 Probation Enforcement
Sexual Assault & The Juvenile Court Process A Guide for Victims/Survivors & Their Families A publication of Connecticut Sexual Assault Crisis Services, Inc. 96 Pitkin Street v East Hartford, CT v 06108
TAUONDI COLLEGE Code of Conduct Web: www.tauondi.sa.edu.au Email: email@example.com Responsibility for Policy: Executive Director Next review date: June 2012 Reviewed: November 2011 Associated
Outpatient Substance Abuse Recovery (OSARP) Dual Diagnosis Behavioral Health Services for Adults Capacity Eligibility Description of Services Funding Dosage 35 at any Adults with Phase I 33 hours point
CHAPTER 5 Rules and Regulations for Substance Abuse Standards Special Populations for Substance Abuse Services Section 1. Authority. These rules are promulgated by the Wyoming Department of Health pursuant
Steven K. Bordin, Chief Probation Officer Probation Department Summary Mission Statement The mission of the Probation Department is prevention, intervention, education, and suppression service delivery
SPECIAL OPTIONS SERVICES PROGRAM UNITED STATES PRETRIAL SERVICES AGENCY EASTERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK February 4, 2013 1 I. Introduction The Special Options Services (SOS) Program was established in the
CATALOG 2010-2011 Undergraduate Information College of Arts and Sciences Criminal Justice Course Descriptions CCJ2002: Crime in America This course is an introduction to the study of criminology/criminal
National Offender Management Service NOMS Reducing Re-offending: Drug and Alcohol Treatment Strategy Danny Clark, Head of Substance Misuse interventions Reducing Re-offending Policy Group Directorate of
Offender Services and Dual Diagnosis By Dan Crowther Offender Coordinator Crime Reduction Initiative & Ben Spink Probation Officer West Yorkshire Probation Mabgate Mills - the Leeds Offender Management
Questionnaire: Domestic (Gender and Family) Violence Interventions STRENGTHENING TRANSNATIONAL APPROACHES TO REDUCING REOFFENDING (STARR) On behalf of The Institute of Criminology STRENGTHENING TRANSNATIONAL
I. DIVIDEND VOLUNTEER CRIMINAL BACKGROUND SCREENING GUIDELINES & PROCEDURES A. Criminal Background Screening Requirements 1. General Information (a) F.S. 1012.01 (5) SCHOOL VOLUNTEER. A K-12 school volunteer
By Winnie Lichuma KNCHR Presented at the 17 th Pre-Summit Consultative Meeting on Gender Mainstreaming in the AU 1 To share the Kenyan s experience in legislating on Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV).The
CRC/C/Q/FIN/3 Original: ENGLISH COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD Fortieth Session Pre-sessional Working Group 12 30 September 2005 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD List of
What s Going On to safeguard children and young people from sexual exploitation? : A data monitoring Tool Introduction In 2009 the government published guidance on Safeguarding children and young people
The Case for Evidence-Based Reform Best Practices in Juvenile Justice Reform Over the past decade, researchers have identified intervention strategies and program models that reduce delinquency and promote
Rekindling House Dual Diagnosis Specialist Tel: 01582 456 556 APPLICATION FOR TREATMENT Application Form / Comprehensive Assessment Form Please provide as much detail as you can it will help us process
Steven K. Bordin, Chief Probation Officer Probation Department Summary Mission Statement The mission of the Probation Department is prevention, intervention, education, and suppression service delivery
Working together to improve outcomes for children and families Needs, thresholds and pathways Guidance for Camden s children s workforce Universal, and Specialist Services: responding to the needs of Camden
THERASCRIBE INFORMATION TheraScribe is a professional counseling software program, designed by therapists to assist in the dayto-day recordkeeping and paperwork necessary to operate a private practice,
2016 OPIOID TREATMENT PROGRAM PROGRAM DESCRIPTIONS Contents Opioid Treatment Program Core Program Standards... 2 Court Treatment (CT)... 2 Detoxification... 2 Day Treatment... 3 Health Home (HH)... 3 Integrated
Queensland DRUG REHABILITATION (COURT DIVERSION) ACT 2000 Act No. 3 of 2000 Queensland DRUG REHABILITATION (COURT DIVERSION) ACT 2000 Section TABLE OF PROVISIONS PART 1 PRELIMINARY Page 1 Short title.....................................................
Handout: Risk The more risk factors to which a child is exposed the greater their vulnerability to mental health problems. Risk does not cause mental health problems but it is cumulative and does predispose
Addiction Treatment Program for the purposes of subsection (2) of section 720 of the Criminal Code WHEREAS: The justice system may help prevent criminal activity linked to addiction, through the use of
I. CRIMINAL BACKGROUND SCREENING GUIDELINES & PROCEDURES A. Criminal Background Screening Requirements 1. General Rule (a) Pursuant to F.S. 1012.32, 1012.315 &/or F.S. 1012.465 an applicant for employment
MSc Criminal Justice Studies LM520 1. Introduction The current social condition of the country is such that law and order is becoming a real social issue. Therefore, there is a definite need to understand
LOB #190: LONG-TERM RESIDENTIAL CARE Purpose The Long-Term Residential Care (LTRC) Line of Business incorporates three programs: Boys Probation House (BPH) Foundations Transitional Living Program (TLP)
MIDDLESBROUGH Safeguarding Children Board Teeswide Child Sexual Exploitation Risk Assessment Tool This risk assessment tool should be used by all professionals working with the children and young people
Dear Students of Social Work, Social work in the criminal justice system and in particular in aftercare is crucial work although it takes place in a secondary setting. What has been the trend in the other
PARTICIPANTS PAPERS THE MALDIVES CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR PUNISHMENT Haleem Mohamed* I. INTRODUCTION The Maldives legal system is based on the principles of shariah and other legislation,
1 What Should be Done to Youth Offenders? While the main purpose of the adult criminal justice system is to punish the criminal according to the level of his or crime, the aim of the juvenile justice system
Open Residential Firesetting and Sexual Behavior Treatment Program ABRAXAS Open Residential Firesetting and Sexual Behavior Treatment Program Since 2006, the Abraxas Open Residential Firesetting and Sexual
www.coe.int/oneinfive 28 April 2012 Council of Europe campaign to stop sexual violence against children 1. Getting the picture: Sexual violence is a complex, sensitive and alarmingly widespread problem
FACT SHEET: A summary of the rights under the Convention on the Rights of the Child Article 1 (Definition of the child): The Convention defines a 'child' as a person below the age of 18, unless the laws
SECTION ONE: OVERVIEW A. Program Goals And Objectives The Nova Scotia Restorative Justice Program has four goals. The Program aims to: 1. Reduce recidivism 2. Increase victim satisfaction 3. Strengthen
SUMMARY INFORMATION ON PROBATION IN ENGLAND AND WALES General Information Number of inhabitants: 54.98 million at December 2009. 1 Prison population rate per 100,000 inhabitants: 153. Link to Probation
PROBATION OFFICER PREAMBLE This is a three level series that covers the working level positions involved in all aspects of offender management and supervision in the community with the goals of protecting
VENTURA COUNTY ALCOHOL & DRUG PROGRAMS women s services Helping women recover (805) 981-9200 1911 Williams Drive, Oxnard, CA 93036 www.venturacountylimits.org recovery VCBH ALCOHOL & DRUG PROGRAMS WOMEN
Devon Safeguarding Children s Board Child Sexual Exploitation Risk Assessment Tool v. 12/11/15 What is Child Sexual Exploitation? See Barnados Puppet on a String for more guidance http://www.barnardos.org.uk/ctf_puppetonastring_report_final.pdf
Hamilton County Municipal and Common Pleas Court Guide Updated July 2015 PREVENTION ASSESSMENT TREATMENT REINTEGRATION MUNICIPAL & COMMON PLEAS COURT GUIDE Table of Contents Table of Contents... 2 Municipal
Diploma In Child Protection Studies Block Two 1 Neglect 2 Neglect Is. any act or omission that results in impaired physical functioning, injury, and/or development of a child or young person Types Of Neglect
Southeastern Community College P. O. Box 151 Whiteville, NC 28472 (910) 642-7141 COURSE SYLLABUS CJC 113 Juvenile Justice 3 0 0 3 Course Prefix/ Number Course Title Class Hrs Lab Hrs Clin/ Intern Hours
Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, British Columbia The Mission Be innovative and problem-solving Improve offender accountability Address the underlying causes of criminal behavior Operate an efficient, cost-effective
Child abuse and alcohol related violence interventions in Poland Joanna Cielecka-Kuszyk, M.D Mederi Foundation Child Health Center Warsaw Poland Child Health Center, Warsaw Poland www.czd.pl Mederi Foundation