Thailand s Great Undeveloped Resource

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1 Thailand s Great Undeveloped Resource

2 INVESTMENT STRATEGY The primary goal of is to aggregate a significant land package targeting potash, at a very low cost of entry, 6 claims for a total of 96 sq. km. On the successful registration of a Prospecting license, Argus will move to define a economic potash resource move the project towards a production decision financing and construction operation of a potash mine. Sakon Nakhon Basin Khorat Basin Argus advantage in this process is a combination of: a strong local team, proven financing abilities Close links to Mining Plus engineering contractors Close links to Byrnecut International, - a world class contact mining company. 2

3 PROJECT AREA Southeast Asia. China Japan India Burma Laos Thailand Bangkok Cambodia Vietnam The Philippines Malaysia Indonesia 1,000 km 3

4 Potash in Thailand Potash, potassium chloride, is a fundamental ingredient of all man-made, plant fertilizers, accounting for approximately one third of the finished product. The greatest production of potash is in Canada and Russia/Belarus. The greatest demand is in Asia, particularly in China and India. The current Asian deficit of demand over production is 20 million tonnes per annum (Mtpa) and rising as the world population, particularly in the southern hemisphere, increases and the extent of arable land diminishes. The 56,000 km 2 of north east Thailand is underlain by one of the biggest potash deposits in the world. The Potash is found at shallower depths that other major deposits in places like Canada and Russia. It is also deposited in a form that is generally more concentrated that the mineralization in other deposits. Therefore Thai Potash is worth more while being cheaper to mine. Sakon Nakhon Basin Khorat Basin The Thailand potash deposits are found in two large evaporite basins described as the Khorat Evaporite Basin (36,000 km 2 ) and the Sakhon Nakhon Evaporite Basin (20,000 km 2 ). The two basins cover a total area about 60,000 square km. About 10% of the basin extends into Laos in the north (Vientiane basin) and east (Khamoune basin). Laos has created a thriving potash industry and is planning to produce up to 7 Mtpa in the near future. Thailand has lagged behind Laos in Potash production as they slowed the development process down to allow for local consultation. The Udon Potash mine is now entering production and provides a local road map and timeline for project definition, costs, time and potential value for investors. Thailand is also strategically located near areas of fertilizer demand; reducing shipping costs and increasing margins. 4

5 ABOUT POTASH Potash, also known as potassium chloride, is the common term for fertilizer forms of the element potassium (K). The term is widely applied to naturally occurring potassium salts deposited in evaporite basins, and the commercial products that are developed from them. The name derives from the collection of wood ash in metal pots when the beneficial fertilizer properties of this material were first recognized many centuries ago. Potash in Nature Potassium occurs abundantly in nature. It is the 7th most common element in the earth s crust. Large potash bearing rock deposits occur in many regions of the world deriving from the minerals in ancient seas which dried up millions of years ago. Potash for fertilizer is mainly derived from this potash rock, requiring only separation from the salt and other minerals and physical grading into a form suitable for fertilizer manufacture or farm spreading. Typical Economic Potassium Chloride Minerals Ore Mineral compound K 2 O % Sylvite KCl 63 Sylvinite KCl + NaCl 35 Carnallite KCl + MgCl 2 +6H 2 O 17 Kainite KCl + MgSO H 2 O 19 Langbeinit e K 2 SO 4 + 2MgSO 4 23 Polyhalite K 2 S 4 + MgSO 4 + 2CaSO 4 + H 2 O 16 Alunite K 2 SO 4 + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 4Al(OH) 3 11 The compound potassium oxide (K2O) is used as a quality metric, as it measures the concentration of potassium in rock deposits as well as in commercial potash products. 5

6 POTASH MINES WORDWIDE 6

7 MARKET FAST FACTS Asia Fertilizer Use Population 4.4 billion (combined) Account for approximately 22 million tonnes of world fertilizer consumption and only produces 5.3 million tonnes of fertilizer. Potash deposits in Asia are limited to Thailand and Laos China is a net exporter of nitrogen and phosphate but imports over half of its potash requirements Very poor nutrient balances in India s soils, insufficient potash applied relative to nitrogen, and more than 70 percent of soils have low to medium potassium content Production of rice, grain, palm oil and vegetables relies on fertilizer to sustain yields. 7

8 DEMAND DRIVERS Short-Term Demand Drivers Grain prices Grain inventories Weather Crop yields Crop mix Planting intentions Fertilizer inventories Shipping rates Exchange rates Current economic conditions Dumping Feedstock costs Availability of credit Mid-Term Demand Drivers New capacity announcements Plant shutdowns and mine closures Current economic conditions Changing tax regimes and government policies Energy price changes Shrinking agricultural land base Adoption of genetically modified seeds Irrigation improvements Political unrest Cash costs of swing producers Permanent capacity utilization rate changes Farmer income, subsidies, protection, and financing Long-Term Demand Drivers Global population growth could increase by 40%+ by 2050 Arable land per capita is shrinking fast Global meat consumption per capita is increasing One tonne of poultry requires feed corresponding to 2 tonnes of grain; One tonne of pork requires feed corresponding to 4 tonnes of grain; and One tonne of beef requires feed corresponding to 7 tonnes of grain. Global GDP growth should get back on track higher disposable incomes lead to a demand increase for higher-protein diets, including the consumption of more meat, and higher-quality fruits and vegetables Adoption and growth of biofuels markets 8

9 THE NEED FOR POTASH Potash fulfills many vital functions in a wide variety of processes in plants, animals and man. If the world s farmers stopped growing food today, there would only be enough grain inventories to feed the world s population for slightly less than two months. As a result, 95% of globally produced potash is applied as a fertilizer to help feed the world s growing population. Benefits of potash include: Slows growth of crop diseases Maintains cell resilience Reduces wilting Reduces water loss Increases the protein available to plants Assists in photosynthesis by activating more than 50 enzymes Improves drought resistance Builds cellulose Generally reduces the development of weak stocks, leading indirectly to increased crop yields Potash has no commercial substitute as a potassium fertilizer source. Potash is primarily applied to large yielding crops such as cereals, oilseeds, potatoes, sugar beets, pulses, and forage crops. Potash is also used as a feed supplement, as it contributes to both animal growth and milk production. Additionally, potash has several industrial purposes, including the production of glass, ceramics, and soaps. Visual Comparison of Impact of Potash Source: International Plant Nutrition Institute 9

10 POTASH DEPOSITS Potash is the key ingredient in plant fertilizers and global sales are expected to be between million tons in 2015, according to Potash Corp. of Saskatchewan, the world's largest producer. The USGS has projected a 3% increase in potash consumption per year through 2016, owing to world population growth and the associated need for food and biofuels. Deputy Prime Minister Pridiyathorn Devakula told a business conference on Jan. 29 that the government was focused on "launching new industries that will better utilize existing natural resources in Thailand." He added that Thailand has huge deposits of potash ore, estimated at about 400 billion tons. "This Government Evaporite has layer already (rock begun salt) to support potash mining, using the most advanced and clean potash mining technology," he declared. The right to mine the mineral is a long sought-after prize in Thailand, with major projects planned for large scale mining stretching back to the 1980s. February 20, :00 pm JST Thailand mining Government hopes potash will revive sector MICHAEL SAINSBURY, Contributing writer A potash/rock salt section at Bamnet Narong A potash/rock salt column at Udon Thani

11 MAJOR TRANSPORTATION ROUTES Sea Transportation Routes Train Service 11

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