Relational Database Concepts

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1 Relational Database Concepts IBM Information Management Cloud Computing Center of Competence IBM Canada Labs IBM Corporation

2 Agenda Overview Information and Data Models The relational model Entity-Relationship diagrams Types of relationships Mapping entities to tables Relational model concepts Relational model constraints Normalization IBM Corporation

3 Supporting reading material & videos Reading materials Database Fundamentals ebook Chapter 1: Databases and information models Chapter 2: The relational data model Chapter 3: The conceptual data model (optional) Chapter 4: Relational database design (optional) Videos db2university.com course AA001EN Lesson 1: Relational database concepts IBM Corporation

4 Agenda Overview Information and Data Models The relational model Entity-Relationship diagrams Types of relationships Mapping entities to tables Relational model concepts Relational model constraints Normalization IBM Corporation

5 Data vs. Information Data: Collection of letters, numbers or facts Information: Processed data that provides value IBM Corporation

6 Databases and DBMS Databases A repository of data DBMS (Database management system) Software system that manages databases The terms Database, DBMS, data server, database server often used interchangeably to refer to a DBMS Why a DBMS? Security Can handle many users with good performance Allows for concurrency while keeping data consistent Protects from disaster IBM Corporation

7 Agenda Overview Information and Data Models The relational model Entity-Relationship diagrams Types of relationships Mapping entities to tables Relational model concepts Relational model constraints Normalization IBM Corporation

8 Information and Data Models Relationship between an Information Model and a Data Model IBM Corporation

9 Data Models Network Hierarchical Relational Entity-Relationship Semantic Object-oriented Object-relational Semi-structured Extended relational IBM Corporation

10 Agenda Overview Information and Data Models The relational model Entity-Relationship diagrams Types of relationships Mapping entities to tables Relational model concepts Relational model constraints Normalization IBM Corporation

11 Relational Model IBM Corporation

12 Entity-Relationship Diagrams Building Blocks Entities Entity Attributes Attribute IBM Corporation

13 Entity and Attributes IBM Corporation

14 ER diagram Description Title Editon Aisle Book Year Pages ISBN Price IBM Corporation

15 Exercise: Identify entities and attributes House Phone # Social Security Number Computer Date Product Height Order # IBM Corporation

16 Did you get them right? House Phone # Social Security Number Computer Date Product Height Order # IBM Corporation

17 Agenda Overview Entity-relationship diagrams The relational model Entity-Relationship diagrams Types of relationships Mapping entities to tables Relational model concepts Relational model constraints Normalization IBM Corporation

18 Relationships Building Blocks Entity sets Relationship sets Crows Foot notations IBM Corporation

19 ERD of Book Description Title Editon Aisle Book Year Pages ISBN Price IBM Corporation

20 ERD of Author Author_Id Lastname Country Author Firstname City IBM Corporation

21 Example IBM Corporation

22 Example IBM Corporation

23 Types of Relationships Book Authored By Author One-to-one Relationship IBM Corporation

24 Types of Relationships (Continued) Book Authored By Author One-to-many Relationships IBM Corporation

25 Types of Relationships (Continued) Book Authored By Author Many-to-many Relationships IBM Corporation

26 Agenda Overview Entity-relationship diagrams The relational model Entity-Relationship diagrams Types of relationships Mapping entities to tables Relational model concepts Relational model constraints Normalization IBM Corporation

27 ERD revisited Description Title Editon Aisle Book Year Pages ISBN Price IBM Corporation

28 Mapping entity to a table Entity Description Title Editon Book Aisle Attributes Year Table Pages ISBN Price Columns IBM Corporation

29 Mapping entity to a table (Continued) Table: Book Title Edition Year Price ISBN Pages Aisle Description Database Fundamentals DB- A02 Teaches you the fundamentals of databases Getting started with DB2 Express-C DB- A01 Teaches you the essentials of DB2 using DB2 Express- C, the free version of DB IBM Corporation

30 Mapping entity to a table (Continued) Table: Author Author_ID Lastname Firstname City Country A1 Chong Raul Toronto CA A2 Ahuja Rav Toronto CA A3 Hakes Ian Toronto CA A4 Sharma Neeraj Chennai IN A5 Perniu Liviu Transilva nia RO IBM Corporation

31 Agenda Overview Entity-relationship diagrams The relational model Entity-Relationship diagrams Types of relationships Mapping entities to tables Relational model concepts Relational model constraints Normalization IBM Corporation

32 Relational Model Concepts Dr. E.F. Codd of IBM in 1970: A Relational Model for Large Shared Data Banks Building Blocks Relation Sets IBM Corporation

33 A Relational Database Relational Database Relation Relation Schema Relation Instance IBM Corporation

34 A Relation AUTHOR(Author_ID: char, lastname: varchar, firstname: varchar, varchar, city: varchar, country: char) Relation Instance ATTRIBUTES Relation Schema DEGREE=6 CARDINALITY=5 Author_ ID Lastname Firstna me City Country A1 Chong Raul Toronto CA TUPLES A2 Ahuja Rav Toronto CA A3 Hakes Ian Toronto CA A4 Sharma Neeraj Chennai IN A5 Perniu Liviu Transilvania RO A DOMAIN is the set of all possible values for a specific attribute IBM Corporation

35 Agenda Overview Entity-relationship diagrams The relational model Entity-Relationship diagrams Types of relationships Mapping entities to tables Relational model concepts Relational model constraints Normalization IBM Corporation

36 Relational Model Constraints Business Rules Book Authored By Author Referencing Data Integrity IBM Corporation

37 ERD representation of a Relational Data Model Primary Key Parent Table Dependant Table Foreign Key IBM Corporation

38 Constraints Entity Integrity Constraint Referential Integrity Constraint Semantic Integrity Constraint Domain Constraint Null Constraint Check Constraint IBM Corporation

39 Entity Integrity Constraint AUTHOR Author_ID [PK] Lastname Firstname City Country A1 Chong Raul Toronto CA A2 Ahuja Rav Toronto CA A3 Hakes Ian Toronto CA A4 Sharma Neeraj Chennai IN A5 Perniu Liviu Transilvania RO IBM Corporation

40 Entity Integrity Constraint AUTHOR Author_ID [PK] Lastname Firstname City Country A1 Chong Raul Toronto CA A2 Ahuja Rav Toronto CA A3 Hakes Ian Toronto CA A4 Sharma Neeraj Chennai IN A5 Perniu Liviu Transilvania RO IBM Corporation

41 Entity Integrity Constraint AUTHOR Author_ID [PK] Lastname Firstname City Country A1 NULL Chong Raul Toronto CA A2 Ahuja Rav Toronto CA A3 Hakes Ian Toronto CA A4 Sharma Neeraj Chennai IN A5 Perniu Liviu Transilvania RO IBM Corporation

42 Entity Integrity Constraint AUTHOR Author_ID [PK] Lastname Firstname City Country A1 NULL Chong Raul Toronto CA A2 Ahuja Rav Toronto CA A3 Hakes Ian Toronto CA A4 NULL Sharma Neeraj Chennai IN A5 Perniu Liviu Transilvania RO IBM Corporation

43 Referential Integrity Constraint Book Authored By Author Referencing IBM Corporation

44 Semantic Integrity Constraint AUTHOR Author_ID [PK] Lastname Firstname City Country A1 Chong Raul Toronto CA A2 Ahuja Rav Toronto CA A3 Hakes Ian Toronto CA A4 Sharma Neeraj Chennai IN A5 Perniu Liviu Transilvania RO IBM Corporation

45 Semantic Integrity Constraint AUTHOR Author_ID [PK] Lastname Firstname City Country A1 Chong Raul Toronto CA 12(*)&^23 A2 Ahuja Rav Toronto CA A3 Hakes Ian Toronto CA A4 Sharma Neeraj Chennai IN A5 Perniu Liviu Transilvania RO IBM Corporation

46 Domain Constraint AUTHOR Author_ID Lastname Firstname City Country A1 Chong Raul Toronto CA A2 Ahuja Rav Toronto CA A3 Hakes Ian Toronto CA A4 Sharma Neeraj Chennai IN A5 Perniu Liviu Transilvania RO IBM Corporation

47 Domain Constraint AUTHOR Author_ID Lastname Firstname City Country A1 Chong Raul Toronto CA A2 Ahuja Rav Toronto CA A3 Hakes Ian Toronto CA A4 Sharma Neeraj Chennai IN A5 Perniu Liviu Transilvania RO IBM Corporation

48 NULL Constraint AUTHOR Author_ID Lastname Firstname City Country A1 Chong Raul Toronto CA A2 Ahuja Rav Toronto CA A3 Hakes Ian Toronto CA A4 Sharma Neeraj Chennai IN A5 Perniu Liviu Transilvania RO IBM Corporation

49 NULL Constraint AUTHOR Author_ID Lastname Firstname City Country A1 Chong Raul Toronto CA NULL A2 Ahuja Rav Toronto CA A3 Hakes Ian Toronto CA NULL A4 Sharma Neeraj Chennai IN A5 Perniu Liviu Transilvania RO IBM Corporation

50 Check Constraint BOOK Title Edition Year Price ISBN Pages Aisle Description Database Fundamentals DB- A02 Teaches you the fundamentals of databases Getting started with DB2 Express-C DB- A01 Teaches you the essentials of DB2 using DB2 Express- C, the free version of DB IBM Corporation

51 Check Constraint BOOK Title Edition Year Price ISBN Pages Aisle Description Database Fundamentals DB- A02 Teaches you the fundamentals of databases Getting started with DB2 Express-C DB- A01 Teaches you the essentials of DB2 using DB2 Express- C, the free version of DB IBM Corporation

52 Agenda Overview Entity-relationship diagrams The relational model Entity-Relationship diagrams Types of relationships Mapping entities to tables Relational model concepts Relational model constraints Normalization IBM Corporation

53 Normalization Process in database design to remove redundancies Example: Consider the following table listing all the tasks of an employee: Problem: If John moves to a new city, all entries related to John must be updated IBM Corporation

54 Normalization (continued) No redundancy, no anomalies, no loss of information IBM Corporation

55 Thank you! IBM Corporation

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