2 SAE Network classification Class A networks Low Speed (<10K bits/second) Convenience features: entertainment, audio, trip computer, etc. Class B networks Medium Speed (10K b/s to 125K b/s) General information transfer: instrument cluster, vehicle speed, legislated emissions data/diagnostics, etc. Class C networks High Speed (125K b/s to 1M b/s or greater) Real-time control: powertrain control, braking, vehicle dynamics, etc.
3 Costs and Speeds for Automotive Networks
4 Automotive Body Network
5 Typical LIN Applications Roof: (high amount of wiring) Rain Sensor, Light Sensor, Light Control, Sun Roof (Rain Sensor needs to be interrogated every 10-20ms) Climate: Many Small Motors Control Panel Steering Wheel: (very many controls are going to be positioned on the steering wheel) Cruise Control, Wiper, Turning Light, Optional: Climate Control, Radio, Telephone, etc. Seat: Many Seat Position Motors, Occupancy Sensor, Control Panel Door/window/seat: Mirror, Central ECU, Mirror, Switch, Window Lift, Seat Control Switch, Door Lock, etc.
6 Hierarchical Network Struc CAN based network CAN + LIN
7 LIN implementation
8 SubNets Necessary to reduce Busload on main Bus Solutions CAN Automotive Standard Bus Compatible with Main Bus Expensive (Die Size/ Dual Wire) Serial Sub Bus no standard Bus System not compatible with Main Bus inexpensive SCI-Based: Interface exists even on cheap devices Interface can easily be reconstructed by ASIC or CPLD
9 Sub-Network: LIN vs. CAN LIN Dual Wire CAN
10 Comparison of general features of LIN and CAN Features LIN CAN Medium access control single master multiple masters Typical bus speed 2.4, 9.6 and 19.2kbps 62,5 1000kbps Multicast message routing 6 bit identifier 11/29 bit identifier Typical size of network 2 16 nodes 4 20 nodes Data byte per frame Transmission time for 4 data bytes 6 ms at 20kbps 0.8 ms at 125kbps Error detection (data field) 8-bit checksum 15-bit CRC Physical layer single-wire, 12 V twisted-pair, 5 V Quarts/ceramic resonator master only Yes Relative cost per network connection x 0.5 x 1.0
11 LIN History LIN (Local Interconnect Network) is a cost-effective and deterministic communication system for connecting ECUs with smart sensors, actuators and controls. LIN1.0: LIN1.1: LIN1.2: LIN1.3: LIN2.0: LIN2.1: J2602: the Society of Automotive Engineers
12 Aim of LIN Open Standard Easy To Use Components available today Cheaper than CAN or J1850 A LIN bus length is limited to 40 meters and up to 16 ECUs could be connected.
13 Sub Bus Concept Basic Requirements: Satisfy Need for a Standard for Sub Busses Cost driven: The solution must be cheaper than CAN Reliability: Same Level as CAN expected Long Term Solution Logical Extension to CAN Scalable: Capability to extend Systems with additional nodes Lowering Cost of Satellite nodes: No Crystal or Resonator Easy implementation Simple State Machines Low Reaction Time (100 ms max) Predictable Worst Case Timing
14 LIN Concept Technical Solution Low cost single-wire implementation (enhanced ISO 9141) Speed up to 20Kbit/s (limited for EMI-reasons) Single Master / Multiple Slave Concept No arbitration necessary Low cost silicon implementation based on common UART/SCI interface hardware Almost any Microcontroller has necessary hardware on chip! Self synchronization without crystal or ceramics resonator in the slave nodes Significant cost reduction of hardware platform Guaranteed latency times for signal transmission (Predictability)
15 Master / Slave Protocol Master Task Determines order and priority of messages. Monitors Data and check byte and controls the error handler. Serves as a reference with its clock base (stable clock necessary) Receives Wake- Up Break from slave nodes Slave Task Is one of 2-16 members on the bus Receives or transmits data when an appropriate ID is sent by the master. The node serving as a master can be slave, too!
16 Master / Slave Protocol Master has control over the whole Bus and Protocol The master controls which message at what time is to be transferred over the bus. It also does the error handling. To accomplish this the master sends Sync Break sends Sync Byte sends ID-Field monitors Data Bytes and Check Byte, and evaluates them on consistance receives WakeUp Break from slave nodes when the bus is inactive and they request some action. serves as a reference with it s clock base (stable clock necessary)
17 Master/Slave Protocol Slave Is one of 2-16 Members on the Bus and receives or transmits Data when an appropriate ID is sent by the master. Slave snoops for ID. According to ID, slave determines what to do. either receive data or transmit data or do nothing. When transmitting the slave sends 1, 2, 4, or 8 Data Bytes sends Check-Byte The node serving as a master can be slave, too!
18 Schedule table The master task (in the master node) transmits frame headers based on a schedule table. The schedule table specifies the identifiers for each header and the interval between the start of a frame and the start of the following frame. The master application may use different schedule tables and select among them.
19 LIN protocol offers message timing predictability Time Triggered Approach Message Length is known Number of transmitted data bytes is known Minimum length can be calculated Each Message has length budget of 140% of it s minimum length maximum allowed length is known distance between beginning of two messages
20 LIN protocol offers message timing predictability Message sequence is known Master uses scheduling table Use of different scheduling tables is possible Provides Flexibility
21 Data Transmission
22 LIN Standard - Overview
23 LIN (Local Interconnect Network) Low speed serial network designed for body control in automotive applications Physical layer based on ISO 9141 (the K-line). Single wire plus ground Voltage level signaling Dominant/recessive bit levels Max 40 m wire length 1-20 kbit/s Data Link Media Access Control: Master/slave Serial asynchronous byte oriented communication UART compatible 64 uniquely identified messages Transport layer for diagnostic support Includes application layer development framework
24 Single Wire ISO 9141 Compliant LIN Physical Layer
25 Technical overview a single master and up to 16 slaves no arbitration deterministic traffic behavior and guarantees the latency times single wire Maximum data rate 20kbit byte-encoded according to the UART-protocol
26 LIN frame Synchronization break, Synchronization byte, Identifier byte, Data bytes, Ckecksum byte.
27 LIN frame A frame consists of a header (provided by the master task) and a response (provided by a slave task).
28 LIN message frame LIN message frame consists of a header and a response part. header: the SYNC-break, SYNC-field and the identifier- (ID) field
29 Synchronization break Marks the Beginning of a Message Frame consists of at least 13 bits of zeroes. the slaves are allowed to have a baud rate that differs with 15% to the masters Slave: to detect that a message is transmitted on the bus. For the master node, implemented in a microcontroller, the procedure of sending a SYNC-break involves some tampering with the UART-protocol.
30 Synchronization field Specific Pattern for Determination of Time Base master send a header, slaves synchronize their clocks every time a new message is received. Master: accurate resonator as a time reference. Slaves: synchronizes its clock from the falling edge of the start bit to the bit 7 of the SYNC-byte and divides it by 8.
31 Identifier field The slave nodes on the network are addressed by the ID- field. Message Identifier: Incorporates Information about the sender, the receiver(s), the purpose, and the Data field length. 2 Parity Bits protect the highly sensitive ID-Field. Length 6 Bits, 64 Message Identifiers are possible. 4 classes of 1/2/4/8 Data Bytes. The length coding is in the 2 LSB of the ID-Field. Each class has 16 Identifiers. ID range x00-0x1F x20-0x2F x30-0x3F Frame Length
32 Identifier The identifier field is sent by the master node to all LIN nodes This identifier normally contains one of 64 different values and includes 2 parity bits in the 8 bit data The identifier is normally associated with a collection of signals that are subsequently transmitted on the LIN bus In a specific case this can initiate SLEEP mode in the LIN slave nodes in this case no further data is transmitted on the LIN bus
33 LIN Message Frame
34 response The response contains one to eight data bytes and one checksum byte. The slave task is connected to the identifier and receives the response, verifies the checksum and uses the data transport. Messages are created when the master node sends a frame containing a header. The slave node(s) then fills the frame with data depending on the header sent from the master.
35 Data byte The data length is defined by ID5 and ID6 from the identifier field. It can be 2, 4 or 8bytes.
36 Cheksum byte The checksum (CRC) is computed only on the data field. All other fields are not included.
37 LIN Communication Data from Master to Slave(s) a command frame (CMD frame). master sends a complete message frame for one ore more slaves
38 LIN Communication Data from Slave to Master request frames (REQ frame). master requests a response from a specific slave (polling)
39 LIN Communication Data from Slave to Slave information sent between sensor and actuator. one slave sends its response to one or more slaves
40 Frame Synchronisation - UART Initial conditions: +/- 4% baud rate accuracy relative the transmitting source A standard transmission of data will require matched send and receiver baud rates
41 Frame Synchronisation - LIN Initial conditions: +/- 15% baud rate accuracy relative the the LIN master transmitting the synchronisation frame A synch break must be at least 13 bit periods in duration to allow for
42 Bit-Synchronisation A start bit transition to a low logic level (dominant) indicates a start of a byte, least significiant first and completing with a logic high level (resessive) bit to indicate the STOP bit
43 Bit Sampling Within a UART, clocked high speed sampling is used to aquire bit state
44 Bit-Synchronisation After recognition of a Low level in the start bit, the data is sampled at a rate 16 times the bit rate expected. The middle 3 samples must all agree for an error free reception of the data. A stop bit is expected after 1 start bit and 8 data bits in a typical message
45 LIN Physical Interface Note: The LIN specification refers to the ECU connector voltages!
46 Network Configuration LIN Concept includes configuration interface: LIN description file describes complete LIN network and also contains all information necessary to monitor the network. LIN Configuration Language Description is part of the LIN Specification and gives tools the possibility to configure the network and the nodes, diagnose the traffic, and/or simulate missing nodes.
47 The Work-flow Data Input Definition of objects Definition of relations between the objects Data Processing Logical Signal Mapping Signal Packing (Frame Editor/Frame Compiler) Timing Analysis Data Output Configuration file generation Various optional customer-defined post-operations
48 Standard API Application Programmers simplifies design of Application Code opens up the market for competition. Interface
49 LIN Database Manager (LDM) The LDM is a standalone offline tool, providing a user-friendly Windows interface for logically describing and configuring LIN systems at a high abstraction level. LIN Configuration Tool (lcfg) and LIN Application Programmer s Interface (API) The LIN API provides the embedded SW developer an abstraction from details of information transfer. Together with the LIN Configuration Tool and an optimized embedded SW package the user gets correctness and quality together with efficiency and reconfiguration flexibility. LINspector a highly flexible tool for testing and verifying communication for compliance with the LIN standard. LIN Tools by VCT
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