380V DC in Commercial Buildings and Offices

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1 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Bernd Wunder Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology (FhG-IISB) Schottkystrasse Erlangen Tel /761-0, Fax Seite 1

2 Institute of Integrated Systems and Device Technology Seite 2

3 Fraunhofer Legal status: Non-profit association (e.v.) Mission: Application-oriented R&D Staff: Institutes: 60 1) Budget: ca Mio. /a 1) with a certain technical or scientific focus each Seite 3

4 Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology Director: Prof. Lothar Frey R&D Fields Power Electronics Semiconductor Technologies Staff: 170 1) Budget: ca. 16 Mio. /a 20 25% public funding % project revenues Headquarters Erlangen 1) about 120 engineers and scientists Seite 4

5 Branch-Labs Center for Automotive Power Electronics and Mechatronics (ZKLM) in Nuremberg Technology Center Semiconductor Materials (THM) in Freiberg (Saxonia) Headquarters Erlangen Seite 5

6 Our R&D Focus How to get power electronics more cost efficient energy efficient robust compact system integrable Seite 7

7 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Definition of different voltage ranges IEC voltage range AC High voltage (supply system) > 1000 Vrms > 1500 V electrical arcing Low voltage (supply system) Vrms V electrical shock Extra-low voltage < 50 Vrms < 120 V (supply system) Seite 8

8 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices content History of electricity Impact of power electronics 380 V in buildings Projects (C+G and SEEDs) Seite 9

9 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices History of electricity Stabilisation of power supply Battery storage of the electric power station Straubing (1901) Battery storage of the electric power station Landshut Seite 10

10 market share of 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices History of electricity AC A slow changing process Dingolfing: change process from to AC finished completely not before February New York: electricity supplier Con Edison delivered until Source: Elektrizität in Ostbayern, Toni Siegert, Bergbau- und Industriemuseum Ostbayern; Band 9 Seite 11

11 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices History of electricity AC AC / Distributed gird structure many small sources, Grid stabilization with batteries High availability in huge central grid system. Small number of power stations Renewable energy sources Mixing all together a lot of small Generators and storage systems Information and Electronic Systems for stabilization are possible (Smart-Grid) Seite 12

12 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices content History of electricity Impact of power electronics 380 V in buildings Projects (C+G and SEEDs) Seite 13

13 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Impact of power electronics Oscar von Miller transformer Si power diode power electronic bipolar power transistor enables the processing of power like signal processing => changing voltage level or even frequency can be done without big transformer power modules IGBT power MOSFET Seite 14

14 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices content History of electricity Impact of power electronics 380 V in buildings Projects (C+G and SEEDs) Seite 15

15 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Zero-Energy Directive 2010/31/EU Seite 16

16 AC AC AC 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Why 380 V in Buildings Cooling Air Condition Lighting AC mains 230 / 400 V AC fixed installed L1 L2 L3 N PE L1 N PE Solar Power Other AC loads renewable energy sources: photovoltaic and wind generators have dc-current outputs or an dc link voltage + inverter to generate the necessary (50/60 Hz) frequency Storage systems: batteries always delivers an voltage output End devices: first approach of many end devices is a rectification to a link voltage Many electrical system in a building even have a link voltage inside! Seite 17

17 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Standard AC/ Power Supply notebook power supply Voltage Power Output Time 100 supply gaps every second require a cap of several µf with 400V for each end device! Responsible for losses, costs and size of power supply. flat screen tv power supply Seite 18

18 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices NO Power Factor Correction (PFC) in end devices necessary!? PFC Control -Link capacitor can be smaller, depends on application, cable length, load type no need for a extra Controller, µc no need for R Sense, R 1 -R 3 for current and voltage measurement some -Loads do not need a input filter removing PFC > unknown effects to filter characteristics Seite 19

19 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Differences on nearly same volume Traco Power TMLM TMLM Series switching power supplies / Power Modules AC / Power Modules Input Voltage: 230 VAC Output Voltage: 12 V Isolation: Yes Max Power: 4-20 W Typ. Efficiency: % Power density: 5-10 W/in³ / Vicor BCM Bus Converter B384F120T30 20x Input Voltage: 380 V Output Voltage: 12 V Isolation: Yes Max Power: 300 W Typ. Efficiency: 95 % Power density: 1017 W/in³ (only chip) 200 W/in³ (with chiller and output devices) Seite 20

20 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices more typical office examples AC Adapter Model: Dell (PA-3E Family) AC Adapter Model: Fujitsu (ADP-230 CB) AC Adapter Model: Fujitsu (PJW1942NA) AC Adapter Model: HP (PPP009A) Input Voltage: 230 VAC Output (max): V Input Voltage: 230 VAC Output (max): V Input Voltage: 230 VAC Output (max): V Input Voltage: 230 VAC Output (max): V Power (max): 90 W Typ. Efficiency: % (Efficiency Level: V) Power (max): 210 W Typ. Efficiency: % (Efficiency Level: V) Power (max): 80 W Typ. Efficiency: % (Efficiency Level: V) Power (max): 65 W Typ. Efficiency: % (Efficiency Level: V) Dimensions: 14,6 x 7,0 x 1,6 cm Power density: Dimensions: 19,6 x 9,5 x 4,5 cm Power density: Dimensions: 14,0 x 5,6 x 2,9 cm Power density: Dimensions: 10,65 x 4,7 x 2,95 cm Power density: 9,0 W/in³ 4,1 W/in³ 5,8 W/in³ 7,3 W/in³ Seite 21

21 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Insulating / Converters for 12V Power Supply 2,5 kw Insulating /-Converter Input voltage range from 240 V to 400 V Output voltage range: 9 V to 16 V Output current: 180 A Volume: 250 cm³ (10 kw/liter // 160 W/in³) Efficiency up to 95 % Fully digital control EMI filter chokes based on polymer bonded soft magnetics 500 W Insulating /-Converter For 14 V supply of electric cars during charging Optimized for high efficiency up to 96% Input voltage range from 240 V to 400 V Volume: 50 cm³ Power density: 10 kw/liter // 160 W/in³ Project: Pelikan Seite 22

22 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Insulating / Converters for 14/24V Power Supply 5 kw Insulating /-Converter Wide input voltage range: 450 V to 800 V 5 kw continuous output power 24 V to 32 V output voltage Efficiency up to 94,8 % Volume: 1 Liter (5 kw/liter // (82 W/in³)) Fully digital control Cost effective full silicon power semiconductor design (no SiC or GaN) Seite 23

23 Efficiency [%] 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Comparison of / converter solutions using different PS 1) technologies Bipolar / Unipolar Si-IGBT / SiC-Diode (600 V) Output power: 100 kw (max.) Switching frequency: 100 khz Efficiency: 97,5% (max.) Topology: Multiphase Buck/Boost Power density: 25 kw/liter (410 W/in³) Buck mode: V HV = 450 V, V LV = 300 V with phase removal w/o phase removal 90 number of active phases Output Current I LV [A] 1) Power Semiconductor Seite 24

24 Efficiency [%] 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices 120 kw Buck/Boost Converter Six buck/boost channels (each 20 kw) Each channel can be configured as power source or load, current or voltage controlled Fully digital control, CAN interface Input/output voltage up to 450 V Water-cooled Volume: 3 liters Buck/Boost V LV = 333 V V HV = 400 V V HV = 450 V Output Power [kw] Switching frequency: 200 khz Efficiency: 98,75% (max.) Power density: 40 kw/liter (650 W/in³) Si MOSFET and SiC diodes Seite 25

25 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Volume gets more and more an issue 50 % of width is Power supply application often need an external power supply because of to many space inside the end device Thermal problems if included inside -> to many losses and to less space for heat pips / air flow Seite 26

26 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices more examples with external power supply Seite 27

27 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Integration of power supply into -Grid Integration into facility? But no standardization at the moment! Seite 28

28 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Energy Star requirements Power Factor Correction Issues good power factor correction only at high power (100%)? How much time is a real application there? What happens at low power? Source: Energy Star (http://www.energystar.gov/) Seite 29

29 power in W power factor 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Real application profile and measurement AC Adapter (Fujitsu PJW1942NA) average power factor 0,6 workstation ID 0; measure Date: Seite 30

30 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Real application profile and measurement PFC Test case in Energy Star AC Adapter (Fujitsu PJW1942NA) Topology: flyback with passive PFC AVG used area in example case Not used in example case Seite 31

31 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Extra Low Voltage Grid (24 V ) example: IISB 24 V work station plug-integrated POLs as solution until standardization of laptop voltages is done Not necessary after standardization 24 V monitor and notebook station User view of AC and power supply Seite 32

32 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Extra Low Voltage Grid (24 V ) * with Insulation AC HV generator to device: 94 % 95%* %% AC + cable losses (1 % ) AC complete efficiency: 85 % 55 W NO NEED for / IEC 62700: Power supply for notebook computer 99 % 95 %* %% 19,5 V generator to device: 94 % 380 V 24 V + cable losses (0,5 %) complete efficiency: 90 % + cable losses (0,5 %) 19 V 20 V 12 V 55 W Seite 33

33 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Solar Power Example cable and inverter losses 9 % Losses in Rectifier Cables Solar inverter Source: Ulrich Boeke - Efficiency Advantages of ±380 V Grids in Comparison with 230 V/400 V AC Grids, Seite 34

34 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Solar Power Example cable and converter losses 4 % Losses in 2 % Losses in Cables Solar converter Source: Ulrich Boeke - Efficiency Advantages of ±380 V Grids in Comparison with 230 V/400 V AC Grids, Seite 35

35 Primary Coils 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Inductive charging example ~ 98 % 99 % AC 1. Step: / Converter and Inverter To simplify this example only equal values are used: AC/ <-> 98 % / <-> 99 % AC Battery Pick-up AC Seite 36

36 Primary Coils 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Inductive charging example AC ~ 98 % 99 % AC 2. Step: Rectifier and Charger Battery Pick-up AC Seite 37

37 Primary Coils 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Inductive charging example AC 3. Step: Inverter to grid AC 95 % ~ 98 % 99 % Battery Pick-up AC Seite 38

38 Primary Coils 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Inductive charging example AC AC Battery ~ 98 % Pick-up AC 4. Step: Rectifier, PFC for Link of charging system Seite 39

39 Primary Coils 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Inductive charging example AC AC Battery AC Pick-up ~ 90 % 5. Step: charging system Seite 40

40 Primary Coils 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Inductive charging example 1. Step: grid AC 99 % AC 95 % Battery Pick-up AC 5. Step: charging system Seite 41

41 Primary Coils 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Inductive charging example AC AC 99 % 95 % 2. Step: battery 99 % Battery Pick-up AC 5. Step: charging system Seite 42

42 Primary Coils 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Inductive charging example AC AC AC 3. Step: grid Pick-up ~ 90 % Battery 5. Step: charging system Seite 43

43 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Inductive charging example all,ac/ = 0,98 4 0,99 3 0,95 0,90 = 76 % ~ 76 % 83 % all, = 0,99 3 0,95 0,90 = 83 % Seite 44

44 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Inductive charging example all,ac/ = 0,98 4 all, = 0,92 all, all,ac/ = 0,98 4 0,99 3 0,95 0,90 = 76 % ~ 76 % 83 % all, = 0,99 3 0,95 0,90 = 83 % Seite 45

45 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Inductive charging example X all,ac/ = 0,98 4 all, = 0,92 all, all,ac/ = 0,98 4 0,99 3 0,95 0,90 = 85 % ~ 85 % X 92 % X all, = 0,99 3 0,95 0,90 = 92 % charging faster with less footprint Seite 46

46 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Inductive charging example without battery storage X all,ac/ = 0,98 2 all, = 0,96 all, all,ac/ = 0,98 2 0,99 0,95 = 95 % ~ 95 % X 99 % X all, = 0,99 3 0,95 = 99 % charging only if sun is shining, no battery storage, no inverter, no rectifier in facility necessary charging faster with less footprint Seite 47

47 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Fraunhofer IISB Building charging station for electric vehicles with our innovative Fraunhofer IISB fast-charging-technology HV Netz Controller AC HV Netz (380 V) LV Controller HV loads distributed PV 24 V LV loads Multiport / with battery system charging station for standard electric vehicles lokale PV Seite 48

48 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Advantages of power distribution Many consumer loads need. Regenerative generators (PV/Wind) and Batteries delivers : Less conversion losses especially for grid systems with many sources No reactive power! Better Efficiency benefit in power electronics You can deliver more power or get a higher efficiency over the same cable (copper cross-section) No supply gap every 10 ms (50 Hz AC power supply), less dc-link caps Less volume, devices and material Design benefit, smaller devices Most discussed disadvantage Switching and Cutting plugs under load can cause an arc and in a system there is no zerocrossing of current and voltage -> more stress for mechanical relays An easy solution is: fix installation for voltages above 48V and plugs only on low voltages use arc detection systems to detect cable faults Seite 49

49 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices content History of electricity Impact of power electronics 380 V in buildings Projects (C+G and SEEDs) Seite 50

50 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Seite 51

51 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices C+G Global Target C+G supports European targets A reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions of at least 20% below 1990 levels 20% of EU energy consumption to come from renewable resources A 20% reduction in primary energy use compared with projected levels, to be achieved by improving energy efficiency. The primary market target is the reduction of energy consumption in commercial and industrial buildings and so reduce the cost of ownership. For the USA alone, 4.9 million commercial buildings consumed >5000 Terawatts of primary energy in 2003 a 69% increase over 1980 levels[1]. [1] US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (2009) 2009 Building Energy Data Book. Seite 52

52 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices C+G Consortium Seite 53

53 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices C+G Project Re-consider AC-grids in the light of Renewable energies Switch mode power supplies Demonstration 5% less power consumption 7% cost reduction for solar power FHG Building is one of 2 Test beds Other is a retail test bed Source: Ulrich Boeke - Efficiency Advantages of ±380 V Grids in Comparison with 230 V/400 V AC Grids, Seite 54

54 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices -Grid Components used for Building Fuse Solar Generator with MPPT Cable Lamps Micro CHP System Grid Connection Module Switch Circuit Breaker Energy Monitor Input AVAC Device Input Heat Pump Decentral Generation Interconnect Loads Source: Roland Weis et al, Energy efficient direct current distribution in commercially used buildings with smart power link to the AC distribution grid, Seite 55

55 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Some -Grid Components developed in C+G Seite 56

56 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Office Building Demonstration Seite 57

57 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Safety and Grounding Concepts IT-System (we have at the moment) Power Supply Cable End Device TN-S-System Power Supply Cable End Device AC L+ AC L+ L- L- PE a) or b) PE Batterie (optional) System Ground Local Ground Battery (optional) System Ground fault causes in an immediately shutdown more practical approach in huge area facilities Combination with AC Grid Seite 58

58 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices SEEDs Overview of the research and demonstration platform Seite 59 Gefördert durch: Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Wirtschaft, Infrastruktur, Verkehr und Technologie

59 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices SEEDs Overview of the research and demonstration platform Demonstration of the implementation of sustainable energy creation, energy storage, and energy supply for systems in the range of industrial facilities Sustainable energy management under industrial boundary conditions like: peak power, reactive power, secondary energy (cold, heat, process gases), availability Emphasis on highest efficiency, cost effectiveness as well as high level of supply and stability autarky Challenge is combination of the single techniques into a optimized overall system in an industrial range As research and demonstration platform serves the institute building of the Fraunhofer IISB with its both extensions as well as the cleanroom Seite 60

60 heat storage cold storage 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices SEEDs Overview of the research and demonstration platform power local AC grid local 400 V grid local power generation absorption chiller cold local storage power generatio n Methane Natural gas combined heat and power plant power mobile storage heat pump heat waste heat local 24 V grid server test facilities compressors process exhaust Seite 61

61 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Seite 62

62 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Electric power consumption distribution Heating SENSUS M-Bus Boiler room Input Building A Janitza UMG 96S Heating Lertes RmCU Gateway Boiler room Sub-distributions Janitza UMG 103 Sub-distribution 2. OG Janitza UMG 604 Gateway Others District heating Electric power - generation Compressed air & vacuum SIEMENS PAC 3200 Electric power input Solar power 1 Main building SMA Sunny Web Box SENTRON Powermanager Version 3 Cooling Cooling 6/12 and 12/17 SIEMENS PAC 3200 Input rough and fine power supply SIEMENS PAC 4200 Building management system (BMS) Anybus X-.Gateway (Multimaster) Device cooling Cooling 12/17 Endress & Hauser RH33 Seite 63

63 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices»-Grid Manager«Local Power Supply Public Power Supply Static Energy Storage MPP Tracking -Grid Manager AC Bidirectional connection to AC Grid Loads Ligthing Mobile Energy Storage Prosumer fast charging Seite 64

64 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices»-Grid Manager«Local Power Supply Public Power Supply (0) 400 V 0 20 kw -Grid Manager kw, 230/400 V AC Static Energy Storage kw kw AC kw, 380 V kw Loads Ligthing Mobile Energy Storage P i = 0 Prosumer i V 380 V Seite 65

65 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices»-Grid Manager«Characteristics V HV I,i Free configurable -channels (current-/voltage controlled source/loads) High control dynamic even in fault conditions AC-Grid I,1 V,1 I,2 V,2 V,i Each channel is independent: fast and only local fault condition Individual current characteristic for each channel (short circuit characteristics) complex control functions (MPP- Tracking, charging for Batteries, etc.) Switching of Arcs typical data V HV = 430 V V,i = (0) V I,i = +/- 50 A Efficiency up to 99 % High efficiency over a wide range Seite 66

66 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices -Grid Software System - Power Electronic Control Power Device IGBTs oder MOSFETs Passive Device Gate Driver Safty and protection functions (Temp, VCEsat ) Current Voltage N-mal Isolation Isolation Control board with FPGA and µc CAN -Grid Software CAN Seite 67

67 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices -Grid Software System - Power Electronic Control Power Device IGBTs oder MOSFETs Passive Device Gate Driver Safty and protection functions (Temp, VCEsat ) Current Voltage N-mal Isolation Isolation Control board with FPGA and µc CAN -Grid Software CAN Seite 68

68 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices -Grid Software System - Time Requirements Power Device 1 Power Device 2 Power Device 3 Hard Real Time ns - µs Bus Communication (CAN, Modbus, EtherCat, ProfiBus) Building Control Building Bus (KNX, LON, ) Control Logic with safety requirements Bus Communication (Network / Internet Interface) LOW LEVEL Interface HIGH LEVEL Interface Request for status change or Information exchange Medium Real Time µs - ms NO Real Time ms - s Energy Management System -Grid Software Safety barrier Control Logic without safety requirements Seite 69

69 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Simulation of -Grids Simulation from device level until complex building structures Thermal characteristic of power electronics System evaluation with battery models, fuel cells, solar and wind generators Including cable and distribution models Simulation and evolution of best Topology for the application Time-domain as well as frequency domain simulations Total Power of IISB Seite 70

70 380V in Commercial Buildings and Offices Summary Reasons for the success of AC technology in the past and for a combination with in the future Advantages of Grids in commercial buildings All necessary components for Grid are available Examples of a Grid Overview the goals of C+G and Seeds Seite 71

71 Thank you for your attention Fraunhofer IISB: - Power Electronics - E-Mobility - Efficiency Seite 72

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