1 Farhana Khurshid PhD scholar, King s College London
2 Aim of the study The main aim of the study is: To examine the online collaboration and selfregulation of learning among the students of Virtual University, utilizing wiki as online collaborative medium.
3 Rationale of the study In the Virtual University individualised and isolated work Students are provided with lesson notes/handouts, power point slides and lecture videos for individual understanding and comprehension. Lack of social interaction with class fellows Lecturing online or simply providing access to information is a complete misuse of asynchronous networks (Garrison 2003).
4 Rationale of the study There is a paradigm shift from teacher-centered to learner-centered classrooms (McLoughlin & Lee, 2010). The assumption is that this paradigm shift will not only enable the learner to become independent and autonomous but also learn to have a control over his/her learning (ibid).
5 Theoretical background This research is based on the theory of selfregulated learning(srl) and its conception of socially shared regulation (SSRL). According to the conception of socially shared regulation, construction and sharing of knowledge representations activate students' self-regulated learning (Järvelä, Volet, & Järvenoja, 2010; Jarvela & Jarvenoja, 2011).
6 Self-regulated learning(srl) Social cognitive theory of SRL The concept of self-regulation (SR) and self-regulated learning (SRL) has been influenced by the work of Albert Bandura (1970). Bandura has formulated the social cognitive theory based on his original social learning theory (Bandura, 1986, 1997; Schunk, 2001; Zimmerman, 1994). According to this theory much of the human learning occurs in a social environment (Bandura, 1986).
7 Self-regulated learning(srl) cont d Student can be described as self-regulated to the degree that they are metacognitively, motivationally and behaviorally active participants in their own learning process (Zimmerman, 1989, p.4). Different models of SRL
8 Pintrich s Model of SRL Definition of Pintrich an active, constructive process whereby learners set goals for their learning and then attempt to monitor, regulate, and control their cognition, motivation, and behavior, guided and constrained by their goals and the contextual features in the environment (Pintrich, 2000). He further establishes that effective practice of motivation also delivers effective practice of selfregulated learning strategies (Pintrich, 2000, 2003).
9 Pintrich s Model of SRL cont d He developed a general framework for Self-regulated learning. According to this, Self-regulated learning is composed of four phases: forethought monitoring control and Reaction and reflection
10 Phases and areas of SRL in Pintrich s model
11 Pintrich s Model of SRL cont d These phases and sub-processes do not occur as strict time ordered sequence. Self-regulated learners engage in these different types of sub-processes in a flexible and adaptive fashion. so that they can manage different aspects of their learning. These phases provide a structure and emphasize that SRL is dependent on students active engagement before, during, and after the completion of academic work
12 Emergence of the concept of social regulation Traditionally, research into self-regulation has focused on individual perspective Presently, there is an increasing interest in considering SRL processes at the social level with reference to concepts: Social regulation Co-regulation Shared regulation and (McCaslin, 2004; Hadwin & Oshige, 2006; Järvelä, Volet, & Järvenoja, 2010).
13 Socially Shared Regulation of Learning (SSRL) Regulation is categorized as social regulation when it is influenced by environmental context, appropriated through participation, or situated in social activity system (Volet et al, 2009). Socially shared regulation of learning The processes by which multiple individuals regulate their collective activity (Hadwin & Oshige, 2011). SSRL occurs in cooperative and collaborative tasks where goals and standards are co-constructed, and the desired product or outcome is socially shared cognition.
14 Socially shared regulation cont d It is collective regulation, where groups develop shared awareness of goals, progress, and tasks towards coconstructed regulatory processes, thereby sharing regulation processes as collective processes (Dillenbourge,1999; Roschelle & Teasley, 1995; Järvelä, Volet & Järvenoja, 2005).
15 Socially shared regulation cont d Research about shared regulation of learning focuses on what is shared or co-dependent in terms of: a. self-regulated learning knowledge, beliefs, and processes b. co-constructed planning, monitoring, evaluating and strategy regulation processes such as: shared task perceptions, shared goals, shared plans, shared monitoring and evaluation, and shared strategies.
16 Self-regulated learning in online learning environment SRL skills may be particularly important for students participating in online education (Bandura, 1997; Dillon & Greene, 2003; Hartley & Bendixen, 2001; Hill & Hannafin, 1997). Effective SRL strategies may be critical in distance learning situations due to the high degree of student autonomy resulting from the instructor s physical absence (Schunk and Zimmerman, 1998).
17 Self-regulated learning in online learning environment cont d The necessity for self-regulation in online learning environments may be even more important than in the traditional environment because of the less active role of the teacher (Jonassen et al.,1995). Online courses entail a high degree of peer interaction and teamwork, which requires more proactive and self-directed involvement on the part of individual learners. Learners must access the course independently and structure the time, pace, and strategy of their own learning processes. King, Harner, and Brown (2000) also hypothesized that self-regulation of learning is more important in the distance education context than the traditional context.
18 This study Exploratory and intervention study It was investigated how we could utilize the online learning environment to support collaborative and self-regulated learning among the students of a Virtual University. 28 students (both male and female) of Master of Business Management (MBA) Program, enrolled in Marketing Research as a specialization course, were the participants. This study utilized mixed methods (both quantitative and qualitative methods).
19 Research Questions and data sets Research Questions Data sets Type of data To what extent students become able to self-regulate their learning by working collaboratively with peers using web 2.0 tool; Wiki, in online learning environment? What is the perception of students about their selfregulation of learning? What are the views of students about their experience of working collaboratively with peers using web 2.0 tool; Wiki in online learning environment? Score of pre and post administration of Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) Virtual Focus group (Audio recordings), Participants responses to open-ended questions Participant s personal records in e- diaries. Virtual Focus group (Audio recordings), Participants responses to open-ended questions Participant s personal records in e- diaries. Quantitative Qualitative Qualitative
20 Intervention The collaborative group project A 10 week group project was planned, which was divided into different activities This project was based on the concepts of Marketing Research course. While working online students were required to conduct a survey research, collect the data/information on the topic and create a group research report on wiki.
21 Intervention 10 Groups were formulated having 4-5 students each group PB wiki was utilised as online collaborating medium It was selected from Subcription of wiki a. The basic addition of Pbwiki was free but it was not possible to create separate folders for each group. b. Classroom edition of Pbwiki was subscribed.
22 Intervention The main features of PBwiki classroom edition It supports students projects and collaborative team work Provides 40GB of storage Allowed collaborative page editing, formatting and comments on each page adding pictures & videos linking complete history and audit trail for each page It facilitated to create folders and provided page and folder-level security.
23 Intervention cont d 10 folders were created in wiki Each student s account was created using his/her address Folder level security Only members had access to their respective group folder
24 The Wiki
25 Students groups in wiki
26 Group s main wiki page
27 Students introduction and photo on group s main page
28 Group s collaborative work on wiki
29 Quantitative data Motivated strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) MSLQ is a 7 point likert scale self-report questionnaire, and it is used to assess SRL skills of learners. Pre and post administration of MSLQ It measures changes in self-regulated learning skills including a value component, expectancy component, affective component, cognitive and metacognitive strategy, metacognitive self-regulation, and resource management strategies.
30 Components of MSLQ Motivation scale 1. Value Component a. Intrinsic Goal Orientation b. Extrinsic Goal Orientation c. Task value 2. Expectancy Component Scale/Component a. Control of Learning Beliefs b. Self Efficacy for Learning and Performance 3. Affective Component Description Assess students Intrinsic and Extrinsic goal orientation and perception of course material in terms of interest, importance and utility. Assess how much student believe that his/her success is in his/her hands and student s judgment about his/her abilities. Assess how much student is worried and anxious about exam. Test anxiety Learning Strategy Scale 4. Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies a. Rehearsal b. Elaboration c. Organization d. Critical thinking It assesses student s use of elaboration strategies, organization skills and ability to apply previous knowledge to new situation. 5. Metacognitive Self-Regulation Metacognitive Self-regulation scale is designed to assess students use of metacognitive 6. Resource Management Strategies a. Time and study environment b. Effort regulation c. Peer learning d. Help seeking control strategies (e.g., planning, setting goals, monitoring one s comprehension, and regulating performance). Assess student s ability to manage and regulate their time and study environment and ability to collaborate and seek assistance from peers in case of need.
31 The MSLQ
32 Quantitative data cont d The comparison of two MSLQ scores intends to answer the research question, To what extent students become able to self-regulate their learning by working collaboratively with peers using web 2.0 tool; Wiki, in online learning environment? The MSLQ is a likert scale, it yielded ordinal data Parametric test of significance would be applied if the data is normally distributed.
33 Quantitative data analysis Normality of data was tested by applying Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Results showed reasonable normality
34 Quantitative data analysis cont d Paired sample t-test, a parametric test of significance, was calculated to explore whether there was a significant change in the level of selfregulated learning skills of participants after the online group collaborative experience. Scale Value component Expectancy Component Affective component Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies Metacognitive self- Regulation Resource Management Strategies Pre-test Mean(SD) Post-test Mean(SD) df t p 5.58 (.73) 5.71 (.72) (.65) 5.58(.79) (1.20) 3.86(1.54) (.85) 5.34(.87) (.83) 5.42(.69) (.86) 5.62(.47)
35 Quantitative data analysis cont d From the results presented in the Table above, it appeared that although there was an increase in mean values of all six components for pre and post administration of MSLQ, the difference is statistically not significant. However, Cohen et al (2011) argue Statistical significance is not the same as educational difference. The results which are statistically not significant, its close examination may reveal the difference (ibid). In this case, calculation of effect size is advised.
36 Effect size The effect size is an objective and standardized measure of the magnitude of the difference between two groups (Field, 2009; Cohen, et al, 2011). It is valuable for quantifying the effectiveness of a particular intervention in relation to making some comparison and it is assumed to be the true measure of the significance difference (ibid).
37 Effect size Scale Value component Expectancy Component Affective component Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies Metacognitive self-regulation Resource Management Strategies Pre-test Mean(SD) Post-test Mean(SD) df t p Effect size r Magnitude of difference 5.58 (.73) 5.71 (.72) Small 5.63(.65) 5.58(.79) none 3.00(1.20) 3.86(1.54) Medium 5.21(.85) 5.34(.87) Small 5.03(.83) 5.42(.69) Medium 4.73(.86) 5.62(.47) Large
38 Quantitative data analysis cont d In summary, the results of t-statistics indicated that either the online group collaborative experience (the intervention) worked or not in order to bring change in the level of self-regulated learning skills of participants. Whilst, the results of effect size explained how well did the intervention worked.
39 Summary of quantitative data analysis Overall the intervention (collaborative group project) affected the SRL skills of students. Particularly the metacognitive self-regulation and resource management strategies (time management, effort regulation, peer learning and help seeking)
40 Qualitative data collection Method of data collection Details of data sets Purpose Virtual Focus group (VFG) Five(5) VFG were conducted through Skype conference call Open-ended questions Five open-ended questions were added to the MSLQ when it was administered for the second time to the participants after they finished their group project. e-diaries records It was an online free diary available at the following link 5-6 students each group All VFG were audio recorded and transcribed. 28 students responded to openended questions 20 students maintained e-diaries over the whole project To get views and opinions of students in groups about their online collaborative group experience and self-regulated learning skills. To get student s individual opinion about their perception of selfregulated learning and experience of working collaboratively online on the group project. To keep the records of students communication with their group members through , phone calls and text messages etc, other than wiki.
41 Qualitative data analysis Inductive coding The main themes of data Task understanding Goal setting and planning Monitoring and control Reaction and reflection
42 Qualitative data analysis Planning and goal setting As the project was designed into different activities, this facilitated students in planning and setting the goals for each activity. Planning and goal setting helped the students to work on the project in a much focused and organized way. Monitoring and control The group leaders played an important role in monitoring their group s progress in each activity of the project.
43 Qualitative data analysis cont d In case of difficulty students sought help from other group members and they got motivation to work when they got support from other group members. Help seeking is a form of an important developmental skill and a form of social self-regulation employed by cognitively, behaviorally and emotionally engaged learners (Karabenick and Newman, 2009; Pintrich and Zusho, 2002). Through this they were able to solve their queries and learnt new things independent of teacher. This is how the collaborative work facilitated self-regulated learning process and helped them to become independent learners. (need to discuss)
44 Qualitative data analysis cont d Reaction and reflection/evaluation The students liked this project because they got familiar and connected to their class fellows, the quality of their work improved as compared to individual work, this online connectivity and remote access enabled a student to continue his group work even when he moved to another country for his job. In sum, early indications are that the online collaborative group experience helped them to become independent learners by self-regulating their learning in a socially shared manner.
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