1 John Tagg Conference on Teaching and Learning Oakland University May 14, 2014 THE LEARNING PARADIGM COLLEGE
2 WHAT DO YOU WANT TO ACHIEVE? What is the single most important experience that you hope every student in your college will have before graduating or completing the program?
3 WHAT WE WANT TO ACHIEVE IS A significant change in the student, A self-conscious change, That affects the student for the long term, not the short term, That increases the student s abilities to meet future challenges.
4 ORGANIZATIONAL THEORIES Chris Argyris (Harvard) and Donald Schön (MIT)
5 ORGANIZATIONAL THEORIES Espoused Theory: Espoused theories are those that an individual claims to follow. Theory-in-Use: Theories-in-use are those that can be inferred from action. Argyris, Putnam, and Smith
6 THEORIES-IN-USE GUIDE BEHAVIOR Although people [often] do not behave congruently with their espoused theories..., they do behave congruently with their theories-in-use, and they are unaware of this fact. Chris Argyris
7 ORGANIZATIONAL PARADIGMS An organizational paradigm is the governing theory-in-use, the global framework, the lens through which we see everything about the organization.
8 THE GOVERNING PARADIGM OF THE COLLEGE? Instruction Paradigm Learning Paradigm
9 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY LEARNING? Ference Marton and Roger Säljö Sought to distinguish qualitatively rather than quantitatively between student approaches to learning. A description of what the students learn is preferable to the description of how much they learn.
10 TWO APPROACHES TO LEARNING: Surface approach: focusing on the signs, the words of the essay, the numbers in the physics problem. Deep approach: focusing on the meaning, what the signs signify, the ideas the author is presenting, the concepts that the numbers represent
11 HOW DO APPROACHES AFFECT LEARNING? Deep approaches were related to grasping the author s message, and surface approaches were related to miscomprehending or missing the message altogether. --Ference Marton & Shirley Booth, Learning and Awareness, 1997
12 WHAT WOULD A SUCCESSFUL LEARNER LOOK LIKE? An expert: Experts have acquired extensive knowledge that affects what they notice and how they organize, represent, and interpret information in their environment. The study of expertise shows what the results of successful learning look like. Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, How People Learn (2000)
13 EXPERTS NOVICES Notice meaningful patterns in information Much content information, organized to reflect deep structure of subject Knowledge is contextualized, reflects contexts of applicability Flexibly retrieve knowledge with little effort Identify discrepancies that drive idea revision Participate in a second-order environment focused on the object of expertise Bransford, Brown, & Cocking Bereiter & Scardamalia Remember information piecemeal Organize content by surface structure Knowledge a collection of isolated facts Retrieve knowledge by association with learning experience. Fail to recognize when ideas need revision Work individually, without a community of collaborators How People Learn Surpassing Ourselves
14 SECOND-ORDER ENVIRONMENTS Second-order environments are ones in which the conditions to which people must adapt change progressively as a result of the successes of other people in the environment Berieter & Scardamalia, Surpassing Ourselves, 1993.
15 In sum, experts have a greater tendency to base the organization of their knowledge on meaning, whereas novices base their organization on the surface features of the information presented. Jean Bédard and Michelene T.H. Chi, Expertise, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1992
17 THE COGNITIVE ECONOMY One might call the cognitive economy of the typical classroom a cool rather than a hot cognitive economy one that does not motivate the energy needed for complex cognition but runs at an altogether lower level of cognitive demand. --David Perkins
18 THE COGNITIVE ECONOMY OF THE COLLEGE Goals Activity Information Time horizon Community Alignment
19 GOALS Cool Hot Promotes extrinsic goals. Promotes intrinsic goals.
20 META-ANALYSIS Careful consideration of reward effects reported in 128 experiments leads to the conclusion that tangible rewards tend to have a substantially negative effect on intrinsic motivation.... Even when tangible rewards are offered as indicators of good performance they typically decrease intrinsic motivation for interesting activities. --Edward Deci, Richard Koestner, & Richard Ryan. A Meta- Analytic review of Experiments Examining the Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation, Psychological Bulletin, 1999.
21 TO PROMOTE STUDENT AUTONOMY Choice Of assignments Of assessments Of objectives Of methods Control
24 TO PROMOTE PERFORMANCE Possible consequences in the real world. Effects or responses from people outside the classroom. Self-selection of criteria for success and level of support. Simulation of real world setting, information, or consequences or the real thing. Self-assessment.
25 INFORMATION Cool Hot Emphasizes evaluation. Emphasizes feedback.
26 META-META-ANALYSIS Feedback was among the most powerful influences on achievement. John Hattie, Synthesis of 1,287 studies addressing feedback involving 67,931 students. Visible Learning: A Synthesis of over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement, 2009
27 CONDITIONS FOR FEEDBACK A chance to repeat the task Actionable information on the performance Self-assessment
28 TO PROMOTE FEEDBACK Frequent response and reaction to work. Chance to repeat the performance. Multiple sources of response peer and outside as well as teacher or coach. Staged response: fast and medium and slow. Self-assessment. Evaluation subject to change.
29 TIME Cool Hot Creates a short time horizon. Creates a long time horizon.
30 TO PROMOTE A LONG TIME HORIZON Goals connected to larger goals. Criteria staged and linked to medium-term goals. Mistakes lead to progress.
31 COMMUNITY Cool Hot Students isolated and separated Students engaged in communities of practice
32 COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE Practice is, first and foremost, a process by which we can experience the world and our engagement with it as meaningful. Etienne Wenger, Communities of Practice, 1998.
33 TO PROMOTE COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE Create stable cohorts around learning goals. Use peer feedback with self-assessment. Create frequent opportunities for peer interaction around learning.
34 ALIGNMENT Cool Hot Experiences misaligned mixed messages All experiences aligned to support deep learning
35 TESTS OF ALIGNMENT Continuity Consistency Collaboration
36 TO PROMOTE ALIGNMENT Learning outcomes across the curriculum. Rubrics across courses and across disciplines. Ongoing self-assessment and choice: Learning Plan or Student Success Plan. A coherent curriculum group and sequence courses in developmental pattern. Electronic Portfolios.
37 WHAT ABOUT YOU? Goals Activities Information Time Horizon Community Alignment
38 ARE YOU THINKING LIKE AN EXPERT LEARNER: TEACHER, ADMINISTRATOR, EDUCATOR Notice meaningful patterns in information about students. Much content information, organized to reflect deep structure of subject: learning.( Pedagogical content information Lee Shulman) Knowledge is contextualized, reflects contexts of applicability to student learning. Flexibly retrieve knowledge with little effort about students and their learning process. Identify discrepancies that drive idea revision through scholarship, formal or informal, to test your teaching ideas. Build a second-order environment around promoting student learning. Bransford, Brown, & Cocking
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