# Motivation and Self-Regulation in Online Courses: A Comparative Analysis of Undergraduate and Graduate Students

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4 Group Comparisons: Logistic Regression Logistic regression was used to investigate the unique contribution of these differences in predicting students group membership (undergraduate = 0, graduate student = 1). Using a hierarchical method, the independent variables were grouped into four construct sets and entered into the equation as follows: Step 1, experiential variables (online technologies and online learning experience); Step 2, motivational beliefs (task value and self-efficacy); Step 3, SRL strategies (elaboration and critical thinking); and Step 4, motivational engagement (procrastination and choice). Table 2 provides a summary of the hierarchical logistic regression. As indicated, model fit statistics improved with the addition of each construct set. In the final model, 93.9% of students were correctly classified (-2 log likelihood = 21.00; χ 2 (8) = 92.48, p <.001), and the likelihood ratio R-square (i.e., the proportional reduction in deviance produced by final model when compared to the null model; Menard, 2000) was large (.81). Additionally, four variables were statistically significant predictors of group membership: online technologies experience (b = , p <.05), online learning experience (b = -1.99, p <.05), procrastination (b = -1.59, p <.05), and choice (b = , p <.05). The critical thinking variable approached statistical significance (b = 2.81, p =.058). Table 2 Model Summaries for the Hierarchical Logistic Regression Predicting Group Membership (undergraduate = 0; graduate = 1) Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Variables b SE OR b SE OR b SE OR b SE OR Experience Online Tech. Experience No. Completed Online Courses Motivational Beliefs -1.34** ** ** * *** *** *** * Task Value Self-Efficacy 1.67** SRL Strategies Elaboration Critical Thinking 1.63* a Motivational Engagement Procrastination -1.59* Choice -1.24* Fit Statistics -2 Log Likelihood Model Likelihood 2 Ratio χ 52.81*** 65.66*** 76.44*** 92.48*** Block Likelihood 2 Ratio χ 52.81*** 12.85** 10.78** 16.04*** Model Likelihood 2 Ratio R % Correctly Classified Note. b = unstandardized regression coefficient; OR = odds ratio. a Wald χ 2 test for the critical thinking variable approached statistical significance (p =.058). *p <.05. **p <.01. ***p <.001.

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11 3. I treat the course material as a starting point and try to develop my own ideas about it. 4. Whenever I read an assertion or conclusion in this class, I think about possible alternatives. 5. I try to play around with ideas of my own related to what I am learning in this course. Motivational Engagement (adapted from Wolters, 2003, 2004) Procrastination Students level of academic disengagement or tendency to put off getting started on the work required for their online course. 1. I often find excuses for not starting the work for this course. 2. I delay studying for this course, even when it is important. 3. I postpone doing the work for this class until the last minute. 4. I promise myself I will do something for this course, then put it off anyway. 5. I frequently put off getting started on the readings and assignments for this course. Choice Students intentions to enroll in future online courses. 1. I look forward to taking more online courses in the future. 2. I won t take another online class unless it is required. (reverse coded) 3. I plan to avoid taking any class that involves online learning. (reverse coded) 4. If I had a choice, I would take an online course rather than a traditional face-to-face course.

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