1 PAMUKKALE Üİ VERSİ TESİ MÜHEDİ SLİ K FAKÜLTESİ YIL PAMUKKALE UIVERSITY EGIEERIG OLLEGE İLT MÜHEDİ SLİ K B İ L İ MLERİ DERGİ S İ SAYI JOURAL OF EGIEERIG SIEES SAYFA : 1998 : 4 : 3 : A OVEL THREE PHASE UITY POWER FATOR OVERTER Bekir Sami SAZAK Pamukkale University, Technical Education Faculty, Department of Electric, Denizli ABSTRAT The proposed unity power factor converter system which is able to operate from a 150V three-phase supply whilst delivering the required 00V D voltage has been built and tested. This circuit functions as a high power factor low harmonic rectifier based on the concept that the peak capacitor voltages are proportional to the line input currents. Hence the low frequency components of the capacitor voltages are also approximately proportional to the line input currents. The system can be designed to achieve nearly sinusoidal supply input currents, when operated with discontinuous resonant capacitor voltages Output power control is achieved by variations of the IGBTs switching frequency. The converter is therefore able to compensate for any changes in the load resistance. The proposed topology offers advantages, including: a relatively simple power, control and protection circuits, high power capability, and high converter efficiencies. Key Words : Buck converter, Power factor correction, Zero current switching YEİ BİR ÜÇ FAZLI YÜKSEK GÜÇ KATSAYILI GÜÇ DÖÜŞTÜRÜÜ ÖZET Sunulan 3 faz 150 V sistemden beslenen ve 00 V D çıkışı olan yüksek güç katsayılı güç dönüştürücü sistem pratik olarak gerçekleştirildi ve test edildi. Devre yüksek güç katsayılı, düşük harmonik distorsiyonlu doğrultucu gibi çalışır ve temeli maksimum kondansatör gerilimlerinin kaynak giriş akımlarını izlemesidir. Bu nedenle kondansatör voltajının düşük frekanslı bileşenleri de kaynak giriş akımlarını izler. Sistem kesikli rezonans kondansatör voltajları ile çalıştığında hemen hemen sinüsoidal kaynak giriş akımları gerçekleştirilebilir. Çıkış gücü kapısı izole edilmiş Transistorlerin (IGBT) tetikleme frekansları değiştirilerek ayarlanabilir. Bu nedenle güç dönüştürücü yük direncinde oluşabilecek her türlü değişmeyi karşılayabilir. Sunulan metodun avantajlarından bazıları; Kendisine alternatif sistemlerle kıyaslandığında güç, kontrol ve koruma devrelerinin yapımının basitliği, yüksek çıkış gücü verme kapasitesi ve veriminin daha yüksek olmasıdır. Anahtar Kelimeler : Düşürücü tip güç dönüştürücü, Güç katsayısı düzeltme, Sıfır akımla anahtarlama 1. ITRODUTIO As a result of the increase in the use of power electronic converters, concern over low power factors, high harmonic currents and accurate control strategies for switching devices has increased considerably (Jayne and Luk, 1988). One of the major problems with present day converter systems, is that the power drawn from the mains supply is often of low power factor and the current of high harmonic distortion (uns et al., 1993). This is particularly important because of the present day regulation imposed by supply authorities ationally and Internationally (Marshman, 199). Operating a system at low power factor results in additional voltage drops throughout the power supply system yielding a lower system voltage on the plant bus lines. Low system voltage increases the overall plant operating cost. Low power factor (PF < 0.90) can 75
2 A ovel Three Phase Unity Power Factor onverter, B. S. Sazak also result in additional cost in the form of penalties from the electric-utility company. onventional switching power supplies operate by rectifying the input A line voltage and filtering it with very large input electrolytic capacitors. This process involves both nonlinear and storage elements which have some very undesirable side effects such as the generation of distorted input current waveform with rich harmonic content that reduce the power factor. During recent years, however, much research has been carried out to obtain a stabilized D output voltage from an A supply whilst drawing unity power factor input current (Pforr and Hobson, 199), (Ghanem et al., 1996). Active power factor control methods include many alternatives, such as constant-frequency peak current control (albant and Klein, 1989), clamped-current control (Maximovic, 1995), and operation at the boundary between the continuous and discontinuous conduction mode (Lai and hen, 1993). Although the requirement of a large number of switching devices and drivers leads to a very expensive system, three phase boost rectifiers are operated with unity power factor and sinusoidal A input current (Bialoskrski and Koczara, 1993). The proposed topology is operated in the Discontinuous onduction Mode (DM) When a converter is operated at fixed frequency and fixed duty ratio in the DM, the low frequency component of the input current is approximately proportional to the input voltage, so that the power factor is automatically close to one (Hobson and Pforr, 199). One of the main feature of the proposed topology is its ability to provide high input power factor with a reduced number of components. In all three phases, the need to actively control of line currents is avoided by the use of a quasi-resonant switched mode circuit which naturally emulates a resistive input characteristic.. PRIIPLES OF OPERATIO In order to achieve sinusoidal input currents from the three phase mains supply as required, a new type of three phase rectifier-converter topology concept has been identified. It is based on a three phase inductive/capacitive network, a high frequency full bridge rectifier and a D/D converter arrangement. The system can be designed to achieve high quality sinusoidal input supply currents, when operated Figure 1. Principal circuit diagram of the overall three phase unity power factor converter and quasiresonant D converter with discontinuous resonant capacitor voltages. As seen in Figure 1 the Three-Phase Unity Power Factor converter consists of two main stages: the passive input stage consisting of the three phase diode rectifier with the inductor/capacitor input filter L F1, L F, L F3 and R1, R, R3 connected to the input of each phase; and the active output stage consisting of the Quasi-Resonant Push-Pull Buck onverter, including the active switches S 1, S, the diodes D 7, D 8, the resonant inductance L R1, L R and the output filter capacitance FO, F1 and F. The active switching devices S 1, S operate in quasi- resonant mode of operation and are switched alternately. Quasi-resonant mode of operation is obtained by allowing the switch current to resonate between the input capacitors R1, R, R3 and the resonant inductors L R1, L R. Alternate operation of the switches S 1, S has been chosen, because it does not change the overall converter operation in comparison to simultaneous switching, but it provides the advantage of reduced voltage stress across the three-phase rectifier diodes D 1 - D 6. At switch turn O, resonant capacitors are discharged by the resonating switch current and the discharging current of the input capacitors is therefore sinusoidally shaped. As soon as the capacitor voltages are reduced to zero, the diodes D 7, D 8 start conducting. The magnitude of the switch current falls rapidly down to a level equal to the sum of the phase input currents. The sum of the switch current plus the diode current linearly decreases with a slope determined by the inductances L R1, L R and the output voltage. When the switch current is fully decreased to zero, the active switches are turned off and the input capacitors R1, R, R3 are charged linearly by Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (3) 76 Journal of Engineering Sciences (3)
3 A ovel Three Phase Unity Power Factor onverter, B. S. Sazak their respective phase currents I 1, I, I 3 until the active switch is turned on again. There are several important conditions which provide the unity power factor property of the three phase rectifier stage. To draw sinusoidal input currents from the supply, the three-phase rectifier stage must draw input currents averaged over each converter switching cycle which is proportional to the phase voltages (Sazak 1997). Assuming steady state operation, the average phase input voltages over each switching cycle must be equal to the appropriate average input capacitor voltages R1, R, R3 during the switch OFF-time plus the average input capacitor voltages during the switch O-time. The average input capacitor voltages during the OFF-time have been shown to be proportional to the phase input currents (Pforr, 199). High quality, unity power factor input currents are achieved by keeping the discharging time of the capacitors short compared with the charging time. Therefore, the discharging currents of the input capacitors R1, R, R3 must be kept large in comparison to their charging currents. This increases the switch current crest factor and the rectifier should be optimized by this parameter. 3. DESIG PROEDURE The design procedure of the QR Push-Pull Buck onverter with three phase input is carried out by using a single-phase model as shown in Figure. converter has been carried out to achieve the converter specification given in Table 1. Table 1. Design Target Specification of the onverter Based on the Three Phase Push-Pull Buck Rectifier Stage and the Quasi Resonant Buck onverter Three Phase Unity Power Factor onverter Parameters Prototype Output Power P 500 W Output Voltage V 0 00 V Input Voltage-Three Phase Mains V LI 150 V Supply Frequency 50 Hz Maximum output resistance R 0 60 Ω Minimum Input Power Factor PF 0.95 onverter Switching Frequency f sw 0-40 khz Typical design procedure steps for the Three Phase Buck Rectifier Stage and Quasi-Resonant Push-Pull Buck onverter may be outlined as follows: The design values of the resonant components of Three-Phase Quasi-Resonant Push-Pull Buck onverter could be obtained from the relationship of the single-phase model and the three-phase converter. It can be seen that the input capacitor values R1, R, R3 are twice as large and inductors L R1, L R are twice as small as those calculated for the single phase model. The required output voltage of the three-phase rectifier stage determines the Minimum Voltage onversion Ratio V B. A possible converter operating point, which provides the required output voltage could be obtained from the voltage conversion ratio characteristic shown in Figure 3. Figure. Single phase converter model of the three-phase QR push-pull buck converter This model is obtained from the three phase converter by assuming that one phase voltage operates exactly at its cross over point. The supply voltage of one phase is therefore zero and the circuit is simplified. The model also assumes, that both active switches S 1, S have been replaced by a single active switch. The design procedure of the Figure 3. Voltage conversion ratio characteristic of the three-phase quasi-resonant push-pull buck converter (Sazak, 1997) Minimum Voltage onversion Ratio V B In a Buck type converter average converter output voltage V 0, is less than the input voltage V I. Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (3) 77 Journal of Engineering Sciences (3)
4 A ovel Three Phase Unity Power Factor onverter, B. S. Sazak The voltage conversion ratio V B, which is depending on the applied input voltage V I and the required output D link value V 0, can be found as follows: Vo V B = (1) V I Because the output voltage is always less then the input voltage, the voltage conversion ratio has a value between 0 < V B < 1. Voltage conversion ratio V for the proposed converter is found as follows; B From Eq.1 V 0 = 00 V. V L I =150 V. V0 V0 V B = = = 0.9 V V where ; I L I V 0 - output D link voltage. V - three-phase A mains supply voltage. L I 3.. ormalised Switching Frequency Ratio F B From Figure 4 it can be seen that a horizontal line of specified voltage conversion ratio will cross several curves which all provide the required voltage conversion ratio. The curves determine the normalized switching frequency ratio F B of the converter. The normalized switching frequency ratio F B, which depends on the switching frequency F SW and the normalized resonance frequency F of the converter, is equal to; FSW F B = () F Switching frequency F SW is obtained from Table 1 as 0 khz < F SW < 40 khz. This is the switching frequency band of the proposed Three-Phase Buck onverter. ormalized resonance frequency F is determined by the resonant components of the converter ormalized Load Resistance Ratio R B A vertical line of the selected normalized switching frequency ratio curve (G) estimates the normalized load resistance ratio R B as seen in Figure 4. This vertical line determines the final converter design point. The normalized load resistance ratio R B is given by; R O R B = (3) Z where; Z -ormalized impedance. R -Output resistance of the converter 0 The normalized load resistance ratio determined from Figure 3 to be R B is Resonant omponents and L of The Single Phase Model Figure 3, 4 shows that several curves are available which all provide a voltage conversion ratio V B = 0.9 (curves named A, B,, D, F, G, and H). The curve G, which provides a normalized switching frequency ratio F B = 0.4, is chosen because it leads to a design with smaller resonant components. The normalized switching frequency ratio F B is used to determine the component values of the resonant inductor L and resonant capacitor. ormalized resonant frequency F and normalized impedance Z of the resonant circuit are given by (Pforr, 199): F 1 = (4) π L L Z = (5) From the equations (Eq.4 and Eq.5) describing the normalized resonant frequency F and normalized impedance Z, the component values of the resonant capacitor and the resonant inductor L are calculated. The calculation of the resonant capacitor is as follows : Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (3) 78 Journal of Engineering Sciences (3)
5 A ovel Three Phase Unity Power Factor onverter, B. S. Sazak Rearranging Eq. 4, which describes normalized resonant frequency F, gives: 1 = (6) ( πf ) L Rearranging Eq. 5 gives; L = Z (7) ombining equations Eq.6 and Eq.7 rearranging and collecting terms: 1 = (8) πf Z The normalized resistance R B and normalized switching frequency F B found from Figure 3 are given by : R = R / Z = 5.3 B B O SW F = F / F = 0.4 ombining Eq., Eq.3 and Eq.8 gives; 1 FB R B = (9) π F R SW O capacitors for the three-phase converter can be found as follows ; R1 = R = R3 = = 80nF Resonant inductor value for the single phase model has been obtained from Eq.10 as L = 17µH. onsequently, the inductance value of the resonant inductors of the three-phase converter is; L R1 = L R L = = 8.5µH 4. EXPERIMETAL RESULTS To verify the simulated and theoretical results a 00 V, 500 W prototype converter has been built and tested. The active switching devices employed in this prototype are xigbts (IRGP40U). The prototype is supplied by a three-phase 150 V supply. The measured voltages across the three input resonant capacitors V R1, V R, are shown in Figure 4. It can be noted that the initial voltages across each input resonant capacitor, V R1 and V R are zero at the beginning of the each switching cycle. The solution of Eq.9 gives the component values of the resonant capacitor as follows; = π =140 nf The equation, which determines the component values of the resonant inductor L, is obtained by combining and rearranging Eq.3 and Eq.7 as follows: L R O = (10) R B = 17 µh for the single phase model. omponent value of resonant capacitor for the single-phase model has been found from Eq.9 as = 140 nf. apacitance value of the resonant Figure 4. Measured voltage across the input resonant capacitors R1, R, (H1 : 50 V, H : 50 V, T : 0 µs) Figure 5 shows the voltage across and current through the IGBTs. It is seen that the turn-on and turn off of the switching device take place at zero current. The zero current switching technique allows the operation of IGBTs at a higher switching frequency and provides lower switching losses. Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (3) 79 Journal of Engineering Sciences (3)
6 A ovel Three Phase Unity Power Factor onverter, B. S. Sazak As predicted the waveforms of the converter input currents are nearly sinusoidal with an input power factor approaching unity as seen in Figure 8. Figure 5. Measured switch voltage v S1 and switch current i S1 power [H1 : 50 V, H : 0 A, T : 0 µs] Practical output voltage and current waveforms of the converter, which is given in Figure 6, show that the delivered energy to the output is nearly constant during the whole switching cycle. Output voltage of the Quasi-Resonant Push-Pull Buck onverter stage is kept constant for a whole switching cycle by output filter components. Figure 6. Output D line voltage and current of the QRW Push-Pull Buck onverter [H1 : 100 V, H : 1A, T : 0 µs] Figure 8. Variation of the input power factor with output power Variation of the converter output voltage between V 0 = 100V and V 0 = 00V is achieved by varying the switching frequency within a bandwidth between F SW = 0 khz and F SW = 40 khz. The variation of the output voltage with input voltage at different switching frequencies is shown in Figure 9. It can be seen that the relationship between output voltage and input voltage is approximately linear, as expected, because the energy transferred to the output during each switching cycle is mainly determined by the energy stored in the three input capacitors R1, R, R3. Figure 7 shows the voltage and current of one phase of the three-phase supply. As a result of the symmetrical converter structure and alternate mode of operation, it is clear that the quality of the phase input currents of phase two and phase three resembles that of phase one. Figure 9. Variation of the output voltage of the Quasi-Resonant Push-Pull Buck onverter system with input voltage at different switching frequency levels Figure 7. Supply voltage and current of one phase of the three-phase supply at maximum output power [H1 : 40 V, H : 3A, T : 10 ms] Figure 10 shows the converter output power versus the input voltage at different values of switch frequency. Variation of output power is achieved by changing the switching frequency, whilst the input voltage is maintained constant. Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (3) 730 Journal of Engineering Sciences (3)
7 A ovel Three Phase Unity Power Factor onverter, B. S. Sazak June., Ghanem, M.., Haddad, K., Roy, G A ew ontrol Strategy to Achieve Sinusoidal Line urrent in a ascade Buck-Boost onverter, IEEE Tr. On Industrial Electronics, 43 (3), Hobson, L. Pforr, J A Three-Phase Pre-onverter for Induction Heating MOSFET Bridge Inverter, Proc. of the PIM 9, Figure 10. Output power of the induction heating system at different input voltage levels 5. OLUSIOS The advantage of this topology is that it provides a high output power capability and requires a simple and cheap control system. The system can be designed to achieve nearly sinusoidal supply input currents, when operated with discontinuous resonant capacitor voltages and provide output power control in a quasi-resonant mode. The converter also achieves unity power factor for the wide range of output power. The alternate switching operation mode of the IGBTs reduces voltage stress across the input rectifier diodes. The proposed system requires reduced number of components compared with the existing systems. The active switching device operate under zero current switching condition, resulting in higher efficiency and low EMI emission and reduces size and cost of snubber components. Additionally this technique allows semiconductor devices to be operated at much higher frequencies and with reduced control requirements compared with conventional switch mode operation. 6. REFEREES Bialoskrski P., Koczara, W Unity Power Factor Three Phase Rectifier, PES 93, 0-4 Jayne, M. G., Luk,. P The Use of Transputer for Pulse-Width Modulated (PWM) Inverter, UPE 88, Lai, J. S., hen, D Design onsideration for Power Factor orrection Boost onverter Operating at the Boundary of ontinuous and Discontinuous onduction Mode, APE 93, Marshman, The Guide To The EM Directive 89/336/EE, EPA Press. Maximovic, D Design of the lamped- urrent High-Power-Factor Boost Rectifier, IEEE Tr. On Industrial Applications, 31 (5), albant, M. K., Klein, J Design of a 1 KW Power Factor orrection ircuit, Proc. Power onversion, Oct, uns, J. Foch, H., Metz M., Yang, X Radiated and onducted Interferences in Induction Heating Equipment: haracteristics and Remedies, The European Power Electronics Association, pp Pforr, J., Hobson, L A ovel Power Factor orrected Single Ended Resonant onverter with Three-Phase Supply, Proc PES IEEE Toledo Spain, June, Sazak, B. S A ew Unity Power Factor Quasi-Resonant Induction Heater, Doktora Tezi, University of Glamorgan, U. K. Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (3) 731 Journal of Engineering Sciences (3)
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