# Power Electronic Circuits

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1 Power Electronic Circuits Assoc. Prof. Dr. H. İbrahim OKUMUŞ Karadeniz Technical University Engineering Faculty Department of Electrical And Electronics 1

2 DC to DC CONVERTER (CHOPPER) General Buck converter Boost converter Buck-Boost converter Switched-mode power supply Bridge converter Notes on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and solutions. 2

3 DEFINITION: Converting the unregulated DC input to a controlled DC output with a desired voltage level. 3

4 4

5 Switching Regulator 5

6 Buck (step-down) converter 6

7 Switch is turned on (closed) 7

8 Switch turned off (opened) 8

9 Analysis 9

11 Average, Maximum and Minimum Inductor Current 11

12 Continuous Current Mode (CCM) 12

13 13

14 Basic design procedures 14

15 Examples A buck converter is supplied from a 50V battery source. Given L=400uH, C=100uF, R=20 Ohm, f=20khz and D=0.4. Calculate: (a) output voltage (b) maximum and minimum inductor current, (c) output voltage ripple. A buck converter has an input voltage of 50V and output of 25V. The switching frequency is 10KHz. The power output is 125W. (a) Determine the duty cycle, (b) value of L to limit the peak inductor current to 6.25A, (c) value of capacitance to limit the output voltage ripple factor to 0.5%. Design a buck converter such that the output voltage is 28V when the input is 48V. The load is 8Ohm. Design the converter such that it will be in continuous current mode. The output voltage ripple must not be more than 0.5%. Specify the frequency and the values of each component. Suggest the power switch also. 15

16 Boost (step-up) converter 16

17 Boost analysis:switch closed 17

18 18

19 Boost converter produces output voltage that is greater or equal to the input voltage. Alternative explanation: when switch is closed, diode is reversed. Thus output is isolated. The input supplies energy to inductor. When switch is opened, the output stage receives energy from the input as well as from the inductor. Hence output is large. Output voltage is maintained constant by virtue of large C. 19

20 Average, Maximum, Minimum Inductor Current 20

21 21

22 Examples The boost converter has the following parameters: Vd=20V, D=0.6, R=12.5ohm, L=65uH, C=200uF, fs=40khz. Determine (a) output voltage, (b) average, maximum and minimum inductor current, (c) output voltage ripple. Design a boost converter to provide an output voltage of 36V from a 24V source. The load is 50W. The voltage ripple factor must be less than 0.5%. Specify the duty cycle ratio, switching frequency, inductor and capacitor size, and power device. 22

23 Buck-Boost converter 23

24 24

25 25

26 Average inductor current 26

27 27

28 Converters in CCM: Summary 28

29 Control of DC-DC converter: pulse width modulation (PWM) 29

30 Isolated DC-DC Converter Isolated DC-DC requires isolation transformer Two types: Linear and Switched-mode Advantages of switched mode over linear power supply -Efficient (70-95%) -Weight and size reduction Disadvantages -Complex design -EMI problems However above certain ratings, SMPS is the only feasible choice Types of SMPS -Flyback -forward -Push-pull -Bridge (half and full) 30

31 Linear and SMPS block diagram 31

32 High frequency transformer 32

33 Flyback Converter 33

34 Operation: switch closed 34

35 Switch opened 35

36 36

37 37

38 38

39 39

40 Full-bridge converter 40

41 Full bridge: basic operation 41

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